Special Issue "Physical Activity Related Disorders"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Exercise and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Olga Scudiero
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Via S. Pansini 5, 80121 Naples, Italy
Interests: physical activity; immune system; nutrition; diabetes; cardiovascular disorders; muscle injuries; infection; laboratory medicine; vitamins; athletic performance and defensins
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Giulia Frisso
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy
Interests: sport; health; cardiovascular and metabolic hereditary disorders; genetic tests

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The beneficial effects of physical activity are well known. However, there is a considerable heterogeneity in the response to regular physical activity, which varies according to both the subject’s physical condition and the type of physical activity applied, in terms of duration and intensity. In fact, regular physical activity is a powerful tool for improving health, and helps to prevent many disorders, including cardiovascular risk factors, obesity, depression, anxiety, musculoskeletal problems, and stress. Numerous epidemiological studies have shown an association between moderate aerobic exercise and decreased risk of coronary heart disease, reduced risk of ventricular fibrillation in patients affected by a first myocardial infarction, as well as a reduction of overall death and cardiovascular mortality in cardiac patients subjected to adequate training programs. Furthermore, the use of biochemical and haematological tests to evaluate risk factors in athlete is of relevance and interest at the amateur, competitive and elite levels.

In fact, physical activity can be responsible for syncopes, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, acute cardiovascular events and acute heart failure, increasing the risk of sudden death. Furthermore, intense physical activity can also be associated with other conditions, such as increased risk of thrombotic events, muscle injuries and increased sensitivity to infections.

This Special Issue aims to highlight the impact of physical activity on the onset of disorders that can endanger the health of individuals practising it. Identifying the mechanisms that underlie this relationship and defining new intervention strategies could represent a new useful tool to guarantee the performance of physical activity in conditions of maximum safety. New research papers, reviews and case reports addressing these topics are invited for this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Olga Scudiero
Prof. Dr. Frisso Giulia
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sport
  • health
  • cardiovascular disease
  • thrombosis
  • infections
  • muscle injuries

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Capillaroscopic Evidence of Microvascular Damage in Volleyball Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10601; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182010601 - 10 Oct 2021
Viewed by 275
Abstract
Volleyball players experience repetitive stress that involves their hands and, in particular, their fingers. Literature reports that repetitive trauma can lead to local vascular abnormalities, such as reduced capillarization and lower resting blood flow. These anomalies could be related to the presence of [...] Read more.
Volleyball players experience repetitive stress that involves their hands and, in particular, their fingers. Literature reports that repetitive trauma can lead to local vascular abnormalities, such as reduced capillarization and lower resting blood flow. These anomalies could be related to the presence of dysfunctional endothelium. The aim of this study is to correlate the capillaroscopic findings by nailfold video capillaroscopy (NVC) to volleyball practice in order to early detect possible anomalies and perform an adequate follow-up to avoid damages that could negatively affect sport practice and the players’ health status. In this study, 38 subjects were enrolled, 19 volleyball players and 19 healthy non-players as a comparison group. In almost all the players, we found capillaroscopic alterations of the “aspecific pattern” type without substantial gender differences. We may assume that the repeated traumas involving players’ fingers can negatively modify their microcirculation. Based on these observations, it could be a desirable clinical practice to screen professional volleyball players with NVC in order to implement preventive strategies aimed at protecting the health of athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity Related Disorders)
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Article
Observational Study on the Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence in Female Athletes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5591; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115591 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
Purpose: To study the prevalence of UI in female athletes, the category of sports with the highest number of cases, the most incident risk factors and the bio-psycho-social consequences. Methods: Preparation of a survey, based on two validated questionnaires answered by 63 participants, [...] Read more.
Purpose: To study the prevalence of UI in female athletes, the category of sports with the highest number of cases, the most incident risk factors and the bio-psycho-social consequences. Methods: Preparation of a survey, based on two validated questionnaires answered by 63 participants, to carry out an analytical, transversal and observational study. All participants were European, adult, female athletes (mean age 30.78 years, standard deviation 12.16 years). Results: UI has a high prevalence (44.4%) in female athletes (compared to 10% in non-athletes), being more frequent in those who practice long-distance running. As age and years of sport practice increase, the incidence of this pathology increases. Absorbent pads are used by more than half of women with incontinence, while the rest wet their underwear. Menopause, childbirth and surgery in the region are risk factors for UI, while the presence of urinary tract infections or candidiasis is not. The results state that urine loss does not cause anxiety or depression, but it does affect sporting life. Conclusions: The prevalence of UI in this study is very high and more common in female athletes and the incidence increases with age and other risk factors. The salient consequence of this study is that urine loss affects their sporting environment, but does not induce depression or anxiety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity Related Disorders)

Review

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Review
Effects of Combined Resistance and Aerobic Training on Arterial Stiffness in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9450; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18189450 - 07 Sep 2021
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Abstract
The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of combined resistance and aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. Two databases, PubMed and Google Scholar were searched to identify relevant studies. The methodological quality was assessed with the Physiotherapy [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of combined resistance and aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. Two databases, PubMed and Google Scholar were searched to identify relevant studies. The methodological quality was assessed with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Only seven studies met the eligibility criteria, and their outcomes were presented. Four studies demonstrated the effects of combined resistance and aerobic training, while three showed the effectiveness of exercise with both training components, aerobic and resistance. In all studies, arterial stiffness was measured by brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Participants were middle-aged or older postmenopausal women of various health statuses (hypertensive, with comorbidities or healthy). The results unequivocally show that combined training reduces arterial stiffness. The most important finding of this review paper is that the applied type of exercise decreased baPWV in the range of 0.6–2.1 m/s. Moreover, combined resistance and aerobic exercise for 12 weeks, performed three times a week for about 60 min per training session, at a moderate intensity (40–60% HRR or HRmax), may be clinically meaningful to the cardiovascular system. In conclusion, we can say that combined resistance and aerobic training, or exercise with resistance and aerobic components, have important health implications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and the maintenance or improvement of health in middle-aged and older postmenopausal women with different health conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity Related Disorders)
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Review
Exercise, Immune System, Nutrition, Respiratory and Cardiovascular Diseases during COVID-19: A Complex Combination
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 904; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18030904 - 21 Jan 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3245
Abstract
Coronaviruses (CoVs) represent a large family of RNA viruses that can infect different living species, posing a global threat to human health. CoVs can evade the immune response, replicate within the host, and cause a rapid immune compromise culminating in severe acute respiratory [...] Read more.
Coronaviruses (CoVs) represent a large family of RNA viruses that can infect different living species, posing a global threat to human health. CoVs can evade the immune response, replicate within the host, and cause a rapid immune compromise culminating in severe acute respiratory syndrome. In humans, the immune system functions are influenced by physical activity, nutrition, and the absence of respiratory or cardiovascular diseases. This review provides an in-depth study between the interactions of the immune system and coronaviruses in the host to defend against CoVs disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity Related Disorders)
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Review
Dietary Thiols: A Potential Supporting Strategy against Oxidative Stress in Heart Failure and Muscular Damage during Sports Activity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9424; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17249424 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
Moderate exercise combined with proper nutrition are considered protective factors against cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal disorders. However, physical activity is known not only to have positive effects. In fact, the achievement of a good performance requires a very high oxygen consumption, which leads [...] Read more.
Moderate exercise combined with proper nutrition are considered protective factors against cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal disorders. However, physical activity is known not only to have positive effects. In fact, the achievement of a good performance requires a very high oxygen consumption, which leads to the formation of oxygen free radicals, responsible for premature cell aging and diseases such as heart failure and muscle injury. In this scenario, a primary role is played by antioxidants, in particular by natural antioxidants that can be taken through the diet. Natural antioxidants are molecules capable of counteracting oxygen free radicals without causing cellular cytotoxicity. In recent years, therefore, research has conducted numerous studies on the identification of natural micronutrients, in order to prevent or mitigate oxidative stress induced by physical activity by helping to support conventional drug therapies against heart failure and muscle damage. The aim of this review is to have an overview of how controlled physical activity and a diet rich in antioxidants can represent a “natural cure” to prevent imbalances caused by free oxygen radicals in diseases such as heart failure and muscle damage. In particular, we will focus on sulfur-containing compounds that have the ability to protect the body from oxidative stress. We will mainly focus on six natural antioxidants: glutathione, taurine, lipoic acid, sulforaphane, garlic and methylsulfonylmethane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity Related Disorders)
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