Special Issue "Physical Activity for Health"

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Lindsay Bottoms
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9EU, UK
Interests: physical activity for health; nutritional supplementation for health and performance; strength and conditioning
Mr. Jon Brazier
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychology and Sports Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9EU, UK
Interests: strength and conditioning; genetic characteristics of elite performance and injury risk
Dr. Daniel Muniz Pumares
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychology and Sports Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9EU, UK
Interests: adaptations to exercise training; limits of exercise tolerance; fatigue; supplements for health and performance
Dr. Michael Price
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty Research Centre for Sport, Exercise and Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK
Interests: thermoregulation; upper body exercise; high-intensity exercise; sodium bicarbonate ingestion; exercise and spinal cord injury
Dr. Jonathan Sinclair
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE, UK
Interests: biomechanics; clinical and health nutrition; strength & conditioning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are becoming an epidemic across the world as physical inactivity is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Physical activity can be implemented to improve many health benefits and improve quality of life in many populations. It only takes a small amount of regular physical activity to improve health, especially for those who are least active. Therefore, moving more and sitting less helps to promote health.  The ACSM guidelines have recently been updated, showing that a small amount of physical activity can improve health, although to gain the most health benefits 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes of vigorous activity a week is prescribed. In recent years the importance of physical activity for different health conditions has been emerging, but much more research is needed to be able to prescribe the duration and intensity of activity for these different populations. Papers addressing these topics are invited for this Special Issue, especially those combining a high academic standard coupled with a practical focus on promoting physical activity to improve health and well-being.

Dr. Lindsay Bottoms
Dr. Jonathan Sinclair
Dr. Daniel Muniz Pumares
Mr. Jon Brazier
Dr. Michael Price
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • health
  • inactivity
  • sedentary
  • exercise training
  • chronic health conditions
  • health and well-being
  • behavior change

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Physical Activity, Sleep, and Sedentary Behavior among Successful Long-Term Weight Loss Maintainers: Findings from a U.S. National Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5557; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115557 - 22 May 2021
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Despite adults’ desire to reduce body mass (weight) for numerous health benefits, few are able to successfully lose at least 5% of their starting weight. There is evidence on the independent associations of physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep with weight loss; however, [...] Read more.
Despite adults’ desire to reduce body mass (weight) for numerous health benefits, few are able to successfully lose at least 5% of their starting weight. There is evidence on the independent associations of physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep with weight loss; however, this study provided insight on the combined effects of these behaviors on long-term body weight loss success. Hence, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the joint relations of sleep, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors with successful long-term weight loss. Data are from the 2005–2006 wave of the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES). Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured with an accelerometer, whereas sleep time was self-reported. Physical activity and sleep were dichotomized into meeting guidelines (active/not active, ideal sleep/short sleep), and sedentary time was categorized into prolonged sedentary time (4th quartile) compared to low sedentary time (1st–3rd quartiles). The dichotomized behaviors were combined to form 12 unique behavioral combinations. Two-step multivariable regression models were used to determine the associations between the behavioral combinations with (1) long-term weight loss success (≥5% body mass reduction for ≥12-months) and (2) the amount of body mass reduction among those who were successful. After adjustment for relevant factors, there were no significant associations between any of the independent body weight loss behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep) and successful long-term weight loss. However, after combining the behaviors, those who were active (≥150 min MVPA weekly), regardless of their sedentary time, were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to have long-term weight loss success compared to the inactive and sedentary referent group. These results should be confirmed in longitudinal analyses, including investigation of characteristics of waking (type, domain, and context) and sleep (quality metrics) behaviors for their association with long-term weight loss success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity for Health)
Article
“Moving for My Baby!” Motivators and Perceived Barriers to Facilitate Readiness for Physical Activity during Pregnancy among Obese and Overweight Women of Urban Areas in Northern Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5275; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105275 - 15 May 2021
Viewed by 592
Abstract
Low levels of physical activity (PA) are of a health concern among high body mass index (BMI) women living a sedentary lifestyle and being overweight or obese during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of maternal and fetal health complications. Obstetricians often provide [...] Read more.
Low levels of physical activity (PA) are of a health concern among high body mass index (BMI) women living a sedentary lifestyle and being overweight or obese during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of maternal and fetal health complications. Obstetricians often provide advice regarding recommended PA levels, yet this has not been easily achieved in this group to prevent adverse birth-related outcomes. The purpose of this study is to explore motivators/enablers and perceived barriers through in-depth qualitative inquiry, guided by a behavioral change model, for understanding of pregnant women’s decisions to engage, or refrain from PA practice. Thirteen overweight and obese pregnant women aged 28 to 45 years with an inactive, sedentary lifestyle in urban areas of northern Taiwan were recruited to participate in six focus group sessions for their intent and readiness for PA engagement in pregnancy. A thematic content analysis was performed with a constant comparison method to categorize interview data and generate themes. The findings illustrate the extent to which obese and overweight pregnant women’s readiness for PA is affected by multiple factors, including personal beliefs, perceived societal norms, peer support, and the competing priorities in the environment. PA interventions are to be effective by focusing on overcoming barriers, increasing motivations, and enhancing self-management. Strategies shared by participants shed lights for program developers to design preferable behavioral interventions for this group of women who are low self-esteem with low self-efficacy to increase PA and meet recommended levels. There is considerable potential for health care providers to provide accessible information, facilitate PA, and promote an active lifestyle during and after pregnancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity for Health)
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Article
Physical Activity in Adolescents with and without Type 1 Diabetes during the New Zealand COVID-19 Pandemic Lockdown of 2020
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4475; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094475 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 749
Abstract
Physical activity (PA) is an important part of lifestyle management for adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Opportunities for PA were reduced by COVID-19 restrictions. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare PA among adolescents with and without T1D during [...] Read more.
Physical activity (PA) is an important part of lifestyle management for adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Opportunities for PA were reduced by COVID-19 restrictions. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare PA among adolescents with and without T1D during the first New Zealand (NZ) COVID-19 lockdown. PA levels of adolescents aged 11–18 years with T1D (n = 33) and healthy controls (n = 34) were assessed through self-reported and parent proxy-reported questionnaires. Overall, PA levels during lockdown were below recommended levels. PA levels did not differ between T1D and control participants (p = 0.212) nor between genders (p = 0.149). Younger adolescents tended to be more active than older adolescents (p = 0.079). PA level was negatively associated with BMI z-score (r = −0.29, p = 0.026) but was not associated with socioeconomic status (SES) or T1D-related parameters. In the T1D group, higher HbA1c was associated with lower school decile (r = −0.58, p < 0.001) and higher BMI z-score (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). Overall, young people were insufficiently active during lockdown, and some sub-groups were more affected than others by the restrictions. Pandemics are likely to be part of our future, and further studies are needed to understand their impact on the health and wellbeing of adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity for Health)
Article
Effects of Reallocating Time Spent Engaging in Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity on Mortality in Older Adults: ELSIA Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4336; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084336 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 613
Abstract
Background: The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of reallocating time spent engaging in sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity on the risk of mortality. Methods: In all, 332 older adult low-income and low-education populations participated in the study. At [...] Read more.
Background: The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of reallocating time spent engaging in sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity on the risk of mortality. Methods: In all, 332 older adult low-income and low-education populations participated in the study. At the end of the study, 273 of the participants were alive and 59 had died. Time spent undertaking moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB was assessed using the international physical activity questionnaire. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used. Results: The replacement of time spent engaging in SB with MVPA reduced the risk of mortality from all causes in the older adults, resulting in reductions in mortality risk of between 10% and 46%. Conclusion: A reduction in the risk of mortality in older adults was observed when time spent in SB was replaced with the same amount of time in MVPA for all times tested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity for Health)
Article
Physical and Sedentary Activities in Association with Reproductive Outcomes among Couples Seeking Infertility Treatment: A Prospective Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2718; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18052718 - 08 Mar 2021
Viewed by 680
Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of physical activity (PA) with assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and pregnancy outcomes among couples seeking infertility treatment. Methods: This prospective cohort study was carried out among 128 infertile individuals (64 couples), [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of physical activity (PA) with assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and pregnancy outcomes among couples seeking infertility treatment. Methods: This prospective cohort study was carried out among 128 infertile individuals (64 couples), entering the infertility clinic for ART procedures. Baseline PA (before entering any treatment) was assessed using accelerometry for both women and men. For every couple the infertility treatment outcomes were recorded. Results: The couples that required invasive ART procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) spent less time in vigorous PA (−73 min/week per couple, woman + man) than those couples who became spontaneously pregnant after entering the study (p = 0.001). We observed no significant associations between the time spent in physical activities and positive pregnancy test or live birth. Conclusions: Our results do not support a positive nor negative relation between the time the couples spent in physical activities and the chances of getting pregnant or having a baby among patients seeking infertility treatment. However, couples undergoing invasive ART procedures did less vigorous PA than couples that became spontaneously pregnant, suggesting that PA may interfere with their reproductive health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity for Health)
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Article
Influences of Recreational Tennis-Playing Exercise Time on Cardiometabolic Health Parameters in Healthy Elderly: The ExAMIN AGE Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1255; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18031255 - 30 Jan 2021
Viewed by 869
Abstract
Background: Aging and chronic degeneration are the primary threats to cardiometabolic health in elderly populations. Regular appropriate exercise would benefit the advanced aging population. Purpose: This study investigates whether the degree of weekly tennis participation exhibits differences in primary cardiometabolic parameters, including arterial [...] Read more.
Background: Aging and chronic degeneration are the primary threats to cardiometabolic health in elderly populations. Regular appropriate exercise would benefit the advanced aging population. Purpose: This study investigates whether the degree of weekly tennis participation exhibits differences in primary cardiometabolic parameters, including arterial stiffness, inflammation, and metabolic biomarkers in elderly tennis players. Methods: One hundred thirty-five long-term participants in elder tennis (>50 years old) were initially screened. Twenty-six eligible and voluntary subjects were divided into high tennis time group (HT) (14 ± 1.3 h/week) and low tennis time group (LT) (4.5 ± 0.7 h/week) by stratification analysis based on the amount of tennis playing activity time. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), blood pressure, ankle-brachial index (ABI), blood metabolic biomarkers, and insulin resistance were measured to compare the difference between HT and LT groups. Results: The baPWV was significantly lower in the HT group than that in the LT group (1283.92 ± 37.01 vs. 1403.69 ± 53.71 cm/s, p < 0.05). We also found that the HT insulin-resistant homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was significantly lower than that of LT (1.41 ± 0.11 vs. 2.27 ± 0.48 μIU/mL, p < 0.05). However, the blood lipid biomarkers (glucose, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride) were not statistical different between HT and LT groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: We demonstrated that under the condition of similar daily physical activity level, elderly with a higher time of tennis-playing (HT group) exhibited relatively lower arterial stiffness (lower PWV) and lower insulin resistance compared to those with lower time tennis-playing (LT). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity for Health)
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Article
Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in Regard to Activities of Daily Living and Motivation for Rehabilitation among Stroke Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2755; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082755 - 16 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1856
Abstract
Background: Stroke patients urgently need rehabilitation to enhance activities of daily living. This study aims to determine whether motivational interviewing (MI) improves the performance of activities of daily living and enhances motivation for rehabilitation among first-stroke patients. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used [...] Read more.
Background: Stroke patients urgently need rehabilitation to enhance activities of daily living. This study aims to determine whether motivational interviewing (MI) improves the performance of activities of daily living and enhances motivation for rehabilitation among first-stroke patients. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used in this study. The study recruited 65 patients between March and October 2016. Before the intervention, all patients received routine care. The experimental group (n = 33) received weekly sessions of MI for 6 weeks, whereas the control group (n = 32) received individual attention from a research nurse weekly for 6 weeks. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data, including demographic data, activities of daily living data (Barthel index {BI} and instrumental activities of daily living {IADLs} scale), and rehabilitation motivation data. Results: The BI and IADLs scores significantly improved with time in both the experimental and control groups. The generalized estimating equation approach showed that at 6 weeks and 3 months after the intervention, the rehabilitation motivation scores in the experimental group were respectively 3.10 and 2.54 points higher than those in the control group, with significant differences. Conclusions: MI could effectively enhance motivation for rehabilitation among stroke patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity for Health)
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Review

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Review
Effect of Tai Chi on Markers of Oxidative Stress: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3458; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18073458 - 26 Mar 2021
Viewed by 914
Abstract
Background: This study aimed to synthesize the evidence of the effect of practicing Tai Chi on oxidative stress markers (OxSM). Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducting using the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Epistemonikos, Lilacs, and Ovid databases to identify randomized [...] Read more.
Background: This study aimed to synthesize the evidence of the effect of practicing Tai Chi on oxidative stress markers (OxSM). Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducting using the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Epistemonikos, Lilacs, and Ovid databases to identify randomized (RCT) and non-randomized (NRCT) clinical trials that evaluated the Tai Chi effect on OxSM compared to sedentary behavior, walking or yoga. Pooled mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using the inverse variance method to determine the effect of Tai Chi on OxSM. PROSPERO register: CRD42019138362. Results: Five RCT and five NRCT were included. Compared to sedentary behavior, regular Tai Chi practice increases the levels of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (MD = 34.97 U/mL, (95%CI, 9.45 to 60.48), 344 participants) and catalase (MD = 15.63 U/mL, (95%CI, 4.05 to 27.22), 110 participants), as well as reducing the levels of lipoperoxides (MD = −0.02 µmol/L, (95%CI, −0.04 to −0.00), 234 participants). For comparisons with walking or yoga, only one study per activity was identified comparing the effect on OxSM. Conclusions: Regular Tai Chi practice increases the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase, as well as reducing the levels of lipoperoxides. More studies are necessary to determine the effect of Tai Chi on OxSM when compared to other physical activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity for Health)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Potential Benefits of Tai Chi Exercise as Complementary Therapy for COVID-19 Rehabilitation

Authors: Michael F. Rowe

Affiliation: Dillard University, School of STEM-Biology Division, New Orleans, LA 70122, USA

Title: “Moving for my baby!” Motivations and Perceived Barriers to Increase Physical Activity Among Obese and Overweight Pregnant Women of Urban Areas in Northern Taiwan

Authors: Yvonne Hsiung et al.

Affiliation: Department of Nursing, MacKay Medical College, New Taipei City, Taiwan

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