Special Issue "Physical Exercise/Physical Activity and Metabolic Diseases in Children and Adolescents"

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Anelise Reis Gaya
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Dance, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Project Sport Brazil, Porto Alegre 90040-060, Brazil
Interests: physical activity; exercise; children; obesity; cardiometabolic risk factors; health; sedentary behaviors; physical fitness
Prof. Dr. Cézane Reuter
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Graduate Program in Health Promotion, Department of Health Sciences, University of Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul 96815-900, Brazil
Interests: exercise; obesity; cardiometabolic disease; children; adolescents; metabolic disease
Prof. Dr. Jorge Mota
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Center for Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portuga
Interests: physical activity; exercise; pediatrics; obesity; physical fitness; cardiometabolic risk factors
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue entitled “Physical Exercise/Physical Activity and Metabolic Diseases in Children and Adolescents” will discuss the role of physical exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of different metabolic disorders in childhood and adolescence. This topic is of great concern because of the increasing number of overweight and obese children and adolescents as well as of youngsters who do not engage in daily physical activity as recommended by health guidelines. Insufficient physical activity seems to be crucial for the early development of an inflammatory profile, insulin resistance, and cardiometabolic diseases. Though some indicators and determinants of metabolic diseases have been identified, we still have to understand what causes the genetic unmasking of these diseases, increasing their prevalence and incidence in the youth population.

In particular, lifestyle factors of the mothers as well as of their children during the first years of life appear to be involved and need to be studied through descriptive, analytical, and longitudinal studies. It is also essential to examine individual factors that may influence children’s and adolescents' responses to different types of physical activity interventions, considering their risk of cardiometabolic disorders.

The aim of this Special Issue is to present high-quality, quantitative and qualitative original research studies to improve our knowledge of the role of physical exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of cardiometabolic disease in children and adolescents, also in relation to behavioral and genetic indicators and determinants.

Dr. Anelise Reis Gaya
Prof. Dr. Cézane Reuter
Prof. Dr. Jorge Mota
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cardiometabolic disease
  • inflammatory markers
  • children
  • adolescents
  • intervention
  • exercise
  • physical activity
  • parents
  • obesity
  • genetic determinants
  • sleep
  • tv time
  • health
  • diabetes
  • metabolic syndrome

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Effects and Responsiveness of a Multicomponent Intervention on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Leptin in Overweight/Obese Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7267; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147267 - 07 Jul 2021
Viewed by 448
Abstract
Physical exercise reduces the biochemical markers of obesity, but the effects of multicomponent interventions on these markers should be explored. The present study aimed to elucidate how overweight/obese adolescents respond to a multicomponent program approach on body composition, physical fitness, and inflammatory markers, [...] Read more.
Physical exercise reduces the biochemical markers of obesity, but the effects of multicomponent interventions on these markers should be explored. The present study aimed to elucidate how overweight/obese adolescents respond to a multicomponent program approach on body composition, physical fitness, and inflammatory markers, using a quasi-experimental study with 33 overweight/obesity adolescents (control group (CG) = 16; intervention group (IG) = 17). The intervention consisted of 24 weeks with physical exercises and nutritional and psychological guidance. Both groups were evaluated at the pre/post-intervention moments on body mass index (BMI); body fat (%Fat); waist circumference (WC); waist/hip ratio (WHR); waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF); abdominal strength, flexibility; leptin; interleukin 6; interleukin 10; and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Mixed-analysis of variance and generalized estimation equations were used for statistical analysis. There was an interaction effect between groups and time on %Fat (p = 0.002), WC (p = 0.023), WHR (p < 0.001), WHtR (p = 0.035), CRF (p = 0.050), and leptin (p = 0.026). Adolescents were classified as 82.4% responders for %Fat, 70.6% for WC, 88.2% for WHR, and 70.6% for CRF. Further, there was an association between changes in %Fat (p = 0.033), WC (p = 0.032), and WHR (p = 0.033) between responders and non-responders with CRF in the IG. There was a positive effect on body composition, physical fitness, and leptin. In addition, reductions in body composition parameters were explained by CRF improvements. Full article
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Article
Physical Activity and Social Network Use of Adolescents in Overweight and Obesity Treatment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6938; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18136938 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 406
Abstract
Tackling obesity among adolescents requires the optimization of existing obesity treatment strategies. For this purpose, social and personal circumstances, individual needs and behavior of therapy participants need to be analyzed to tailor aims, content and methods of therapy interventions to the target groups. [...] Read more.
Tackling obesity among adolescents requires the optimization of existing obesity treatment strategies. For this purpose, social and personal circumstances, individual needs and behavior of therapy participants need to be analyzed to tailor aims, content and methods of therapy interventions to the target groups. A total of 432 obesity therapy participants between 11 and 17 years completed a written survey in a national multi-center study conducted in 2015. The data collection on behavior, in terms of physical activity, media use and sociodemographic variables, was based on questionnaires from the KiGGS, HBSC and JIM studies. The results show that participants were found to be physically active together with friends (75.5%), alone (41.4%) and in sports clubs (34.9%). Girls (OR 1.55) were less likely to participate in sports clubs. Social networks, especially YouTube, WhatsApp, Instagram and Facebook, were widely used. However, differences emerged among sociodemographic groups (e.g., boys vs. girls) regarding the use of social network features. A third of participants reported that smartphone apps regularly encouraged them to exercise. The findings imply that obesity therapy approaches need to be adapted and more differentiated according to the specific needs of the target groups. Full article
Article
Segmented School Physical Activity and Weight Status in Children: Application of Compositional Data Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3243; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18063243 - 21 Mar 2021
Viewed by 661
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to apply compositional data analysis (CoDA) for the analysis of segmented school step counts and associate the school step count composition to body mass index (BMI) z-scores in a sample of children. Participants were 855 (51.8% female) [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to apply compositional data analysis (CoDA) for the analysis of segmented school step counts and associate the school step count composition to body mass index (BMI) z-scores in a sample of children. Participants were 855 (51.8% female) children recruited from the fourth and fifth grades from four schools following a 7-h school schedule. Using piezoelectric pedometers, step count data were collected during physical education, recess, lunch, and during academic class time. A multi-level mixed effects model associated the step count composition with BMI z-scores. Compositional isotemporal substitution determined changes in BMI z-scores per reallocation of steps between pairs of school segments. A higher percentage of steps accrued during physical education (b = −0.34, 95%CI: −0.65–−0.03, p = 0.036) and recess (b = −0.47, 95%CI: −0.83–−0.11, p = 0.012), relative to other segments, was associated with lower BMI z-scores. Specifically, a 5% to 15% reallocation of steps accrued during lunchtime to either physical education or recess was associated with lower BMI z-scores, ranging from −0.07 to −0.25 standard deviation units. Focusing school-based promotion of physical activity during physical education and recess may have greater relative importance if targeted outcomes are weight-related. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Segmented school physical activity and weight status in children: application of compositional data analysis
Authors: Ryan Donald Burns; Timothy A. Brusseau; Yang Bai; Wonwoo Byun
Affiliation: Department of Health & Kinesiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to apply compositional data analysis (CoDA) for the analysis of segmented school step counts and associate the school step count composition to body mass index (BMI) z-scores in a sample of children. Participants were 855 (51.8% female) children recruited from the fourth and fifth grades from four schools following a 7-h school schedule. Using piezoelectric pedometers, step count data were collected during physical education, recess, lunch, and during academic class time. A multi-level mixed effects model associated the step count composition with BMI z-scores. Compositional isotemporal substitution determined changes in BMI z-scores per reallocation of steps between pairs of school segments. A higher percentage of steps accrued during physical education (b=-0.34, 95%CI: -0.65 – -0.03, p=0.036) and recess (b=-0.47, 95%CI: -0.83 – -0.11, p=0.012), relative to other segments, associated with lower BMI z-scores. Specifically, a 5% to 15% reallocation of steps accrued during lunchtime to either physical education or recess associated with lower BMI z-scores ranging from -0.07 to -0.25 standard deviation units. Focusing the school-based promotion of physical activity during physical education and recess may have greater relative importance if targeted outcomes are weight related.

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