Special Issue "Research in Physical, Social and Intellectual Development in Childhood and Adolescence"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Children's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Desirée Valera-Gran
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Patología y Cirugía, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Ctra. Alicante-Valencia, 03550 San Juan de Alicante, Spain
Interests: clinical epidemiology; epidemiology; community health; neuropsychology; nutritional epidemiology; public health; occupational therapy; psychometrics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Eva Maria Navarrete-Munoz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Public Health, History of Science and Gynecology, University Miguel Hernández, 03202 Elche, Alicante, Spain
Interests: child and adolescent health; neuropsychology development; comunnity health; sensory profile; obesity; psycohometrics; occupational therapy; environmental factors; daily activity living; nutritional epidemiology; social factors
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Physical, social, and intellectual development during childhood and adolescence is a relevant public health issue due to the possible serious consequences for health as well as the long-term effects on adult life. Consequently, a detailed description of health problems related to the physical, social, and intellectual development of children and adolescents is essential to achieve a comprehensive understanding of this important stage of growth. Moreover, the identification of environmental factors associated with delays in growth, alterations in neuropsychological development, metabolic problems, and neurodevelopmental disorders, among others, has crucial relevance to provide strong evidence for the health of children and adolescents.

This Special Issue will focus on the description of the magnitude of alterations in child and adolescent development such as obesity, adiposity, cardiometabolic risk, sensory processing difficulties, coordination disorders, emotional and behavioral problems, mental and psychomotor problems, and problems affecting their well-being. In addition, we would like to bring together papers dealing with the effect of environmental factors on physical, mental, or social health outcomes. We welcome different types of manuscript submissions, including original research articles and up-to-date reviews (systematic reviews and meta-analyses).

Dr. Desirée Valera-Gran
Dr. Eva Maria Navarrete-Munoz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • daily living activities
  • sensory processing profile
  • dating violence
  • neuropsychological development
  • obesity
  • blood pressure
  • adiposity
  • autism
  • developmental disorders
  • social factors
  • environmental factors
  • nutritional factors
  • cardiometabolic risk
  • parental factors
  • emotional and behavioral problems
  • well-being

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Article
Influence of Ideational Praxis on the Development of Play and Adaptive Behavior of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Comparative Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5704; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115704 - 26 May 2021
Viewed by 1825
Abstract
Background: Traditionally, assessment of praxis skills in children with ASD has focused on the evaluation of aspects related to the planning and execution of actions. This study aimed to evaluate the ideational abilities of children with ASD and analyze possible relationships with the [...] Read more.
Background: Traditionally, assessment of praxis skills in children with ASD has focused on the evaluation of aspects related to the planning and execution of actions. This study aimed to evaluate the ideational abilities of children with ASD and analyze possible relationships with the development of play and adaptive behaviors. Methods: 40 children between 4 to 6 years (TD = 20; ASD = 20) were evaluated with the Test of Ideational Praxis, the Revised Knox Preschool Play Scale, and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System II. Results: Statistically significant relationships were obtained between ideational praxis and play skills development (r = 0.649; p = 0.01), adaptive leisure behavior (r = 0.338; p = 0.04) and social adaptive behavior (r = 0.319; p = 0.04). Results of multiple linear regression models found a linear relationship between ideational praxis and play development (p = 0.005) and adaptive leisure skills (p = 0.004), but not with social interaction skills (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Objective evaluation with a specific ideational praxis assessment facilitates understanding of the ideational abilities and widens understanding of praxis skills and their impact on play and adaptive behaviors in children with ASD. Full article
Article
Stability of Executive Functioning of Moderately-Late Preterm and Full-Term Born Children at Ages 11 and 19: The TRAILS Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4161; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084161 - 14 Apr 2021
Viewed by 671
Abstract
Moderately-late preterm-born children (MLPs, 32–36 weeks gestational age, GA) have poorer executive functioning (EF) at primary school age than full-term children (FTs). Evidence is lacking on their EF in adolescence, but for early preterm-born children, this has been shown to be much poorer. [...] Read more.
Moderately-late preterm-born children (MLPs, 32–36 weeks gestational age, GA) have poorer executive functioning (EF) at primary school age than full-term children (FTs). Evidence is lacking on their EF in adolescence, but for early preterm-born children, this has been shown to be much poorer. We, therefore, compared EF of MLPs and FTs at ages 11 and 19 and assessed development between these ages. We obtained data from TRAILS, a community-based prospective cohort study in the northern Netherlands, on 98 MLPs and 1832 FTs. We assessed EF by the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT) at ages 11 and 19 years and computed gender-specific z-scores on reaction time and accuracy. We compared baseline speed, pattern search, working memory, sustained attention, inhibition, and attentional flexibility of MLPs and FTs crude, and adjusted for small-for-GA status, socioeconomic status, and estimated intelligence. MLPs and FTs performed similarly on all EF components at ages 11 and 19, except for the speed, but not the accuracy measure of attentional flexibility. This was slightly poorer for MLPs than FTs at age 19 (adjusted B 0.25; 95% confidence interval: 0.00 to 0.50; p = 0.047), but not at age 11 (adjusted B −0.02; −0.19 to 0.22; p = 0.87). Differences in EF between MLPs and FTs did not change significantly from age 11 to 19. MLPs had comparable EF on most components as FTs, with only attentional flexibility at age 19 developing slightly poorer for MLPs than for FTs. These findings suggest the effects of MLP birth on long-term EF to be small. Full article
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Article
Association between Physical Activity and Respiratory Diseases in Adolescents: An Age- and Gender-Matched Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1397; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041397 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to examine the impacts of allergic respiratory diseases on physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors (SB), and body mass index (BMI) by matching age and gender with those adolescents without allergic respiratory diseases. This present study [...] Read more.
The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to examine the impacts of allergic respiratory diseases on physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors (SB), and body mass index (BMI) by matching age and gender with those adolescents without allergic respiratory diseases. This present study analyzed data from the 2019 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS). Among 57,303 Korean adolescents who responded to the survey, the study divided adolescents into three different groups (i.e., general, asthma, and allergic rhinitis group). Asthma and allergic rhinitis groups included adolescents who checked on asthma- or allergic rhinitis-related questions as ‘yes’ (n = 259, n = 259), but the general group responded to any diseases-related question as ‘no’ (n = 259). The age and gender of participants among the three groups were matched. The results showed weight and BMI were significantly higher in asthma and allergic rhinitis groups compared to the general group (p < 0.001, p < 0.001). Furthermore, age, asthma, and allergic rhinitis were observed to be strong risk factors for predicting obesity in adolescents (BMI, >25.0 kg/m2). In addition, this study found allergic respiratory diseases strong impacts on BMI levels because adolescents with ongoing asthma, or allergic rhinitis symptoms were more likely to have the inevitability of further weight gain compared to the general adolescents. Therefore, not only national interest in adolescents with allergic respiratory disease is essential, but PA should be encouraged to prevent and alleviate these diseases due to obesity. Full article
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Article
Nutrient Composition of Foods Marketed to Children or Adolescents Sold in the Spanish Market: Are They Any Better?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7699; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17207699 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
Healthy eating is essential for the growth and development of children and adolescents. Eating habits established in childhood continue into adulthood. In Spain, the frequent promotion of foods with low nutritional value is already considered a threat to the health of the population, [...] Read more.
Healthy eating is essential for the growth and development of children and adolescents. Eating habits established in childhood continue into adulthood. In Spain, the frequent promotion of foods with low nutritional value is already considered a threat to the health of the population, particularly to children and adolescents. In this work, we analyse 3209 foods from the Food Database, BADALI. Foods were classified as marketed to children or adolescents according to the advertising on the packaging, television or internet. We found that 17.5% of foods in the database were marketed to this population and 97% of those were considered unhealthy following the Pan American Health Organization Nutrient Profile Model (PAHO-NPM). In the total of foods for children or adolescents, 61.5% were high in fat, 58.5% in free-sugar, 45.4% in saturated fat and 45% in sodium. Foods marketed to them presented higher amounts of carbohydrates and sugar, while lower protein and fibre content than the rest. There was also considerable variability in levels of the other nutrients found in these products, which depended largely on the food group. According to our findings, there is a tendency for products marketed to children or adolescents to be unhealthy and of a poorer nutritional quality than those not targeted at them. Full article
Article
Sensory Processing, Functional Performance and Quality of Life in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Children: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7116; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17197116 - 28 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1790
Abstract
Background: The study of children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP) has traditionally focused on motor aspects. The extent to which sensory processing disorders can affect their functional performance and quality of life (QoL) is uncertain. This study aimed to explore the differences in [...] Read more.
Background: The study of children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP) has traditionally focused on motor aspects. The extent to which sensory processing disorders can affect their functional performance and quality of life (QoL) is uncertain. This study aimed to explore the differences in sensory processing between UCP and typical development (TD) children and to analyze the relationship of sensory processing with functional performance and QoL. Methods: Fifty-three children aged from 6 to 15 years (TD = 24; UCP = 29) were recruited. The Child Sensory Profile 2, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory—Computer Adaptive Test and Kidscreen were used to evaluate sensory processing, functional performance and QoL. Results: UCP children showed sensory processing difficulties (avoidance: p = 0.02; registration: p = 0.00; body position: p = 0.00; oral: p = 0.02; social-emotional: p = 0.01), and scored lower in functional performance (daily activities: p = 0.00; mobility: p = 0.00; social/cognitive: p = 0.04) and in physical well-being (p = 0.00). The highest correlations in UCP group were found between proprioceptive processing and daily activities and mobility (r = −0.39); auditory, visual and tactile information and school environment (r = −0.63; r = −0.51; r = −0.46); behavioral and social-emotional responses and psychological well-being (r = −0.64; r = −0.49). Conclusions: UCP children have greater difficulty in sensory processing than TD children. Difficulties in proprioceptive processing contribute to poorer functional performance. Auditory, visual and tactile processing is associated with participation in the school environment and behavioral and social-emotional responses related to sensory processing are associated with the psychological well-being. Full article
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Article
Association of Lifestyle Factors and Neuropsychological Development of 4-Year-Old Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5668; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17165668 - 05 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1283
Abstract
Background: We aimed to assess how lifestyle factors such as diet, sleep, screen viewing, and physical activity, individually, as well as in a combined score, were associated with neuropsychological development in pre-school age children. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 1650 children [...] Read more.
Background: We aimed to assess how lifestyle factors such as diet, sleep, screen viewing, and physical activity, individually, as well as in a combined score, were associated with neuropsychological development in pre-school age children. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 1650 children of 4 years of age, from the Environment and Childhood Project (INMA) population-based birth cohorts in four regions of Spain. Children were classified per a childhood healthy lifestyle score (CHLS) with a range of 0 to 4 that included eating in concordance with the Mediterranean diet (1 point); reaching recommended sleep time (1 point); watching a maximum recommended screen time (1 point); and being physically active (1 point). The McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities (MSCA) were used to test neuropsychological development. Multi-adjusted linear regression models were created to assess the association with the lifestyle factors individually and as a combined score. Results: CHLS was not associated with MSCA general cognitive score (1-point increment = −0.5, 95% CI: −1.2, 0.2). Analyzed by separate lifestyle factors, physical activity had a significant negative association with MSCA score and less TV/screen time had a negative association with MSCA score. Conclusion: In this cross-sectional study, a combined score of lifestyle factors is not related to neuropsychological development at pre-school age. Full article
Article
Differential Effect of Growth on Development between AGA and SGA Preterm Infants
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3022; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17093022 - 27 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Predicting developmental outcomes with growth measurement would be beneficial for primary healthcare or in developing countries with low medical resources. This study aimed to identify physical growth measures that indicate neurodevelopment in very preterm infants. Preterm infants, born at <32 weeks’ gestation or [...] Read more.
Predicting developmental outcomes with growth measurement would be beneficial for primary healthcare or in developing countries with low medical resources. This study aimed to identify physical growth measures that indicate neurodevelopment in very preterm infants. Preterm infants, born at <32 weeks’ gestation or weighing <1500 g, were included. We calculated the changes in z-score of weight, length, and head circumference (HC) at different time points: birth, postmenstrual age (PMA) 35 weeks, and 4 and 18 months corrected age (CA). We examined the relationship between growth and Bayley-III scores using linear regression. Among 122 infants, HC at 4 months CA and HC growth between PMA 35 weeks and 4 months CA showed a positive correlation with Bayley-III scores in appropriate-for-gestational-age infants (AGAs). Weight and length increases between birth and 18 months CA were also associated with AGAs’ development. In small-for-gestational-age infants (SGAs), only birthweight’s z-score was associated with improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. HC at 4 months CA was an important indicator of favorable neurodevelopmental outcomes, and head growth spurt between PMA 35 weeks and 4 months CA contributed to this benefit in preterm AGAs. The period and indices should be monitored differently for SGAs and AGAs. Full article
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Article
A New Assessment for Activities of Daily Living in Spanish Schoolchildren: A Preliminary Study of its Psychometric Properties
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2673; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17082673 - 13 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2252
Abstract
Background: Activities of daily living (ADL), which are divided into basic (BADL) and instrumental (IADL), allows us to survive and to live in the society. Cognitive skills are a key aspect in BADL outcomes. After reviewing existing BADL tools for Spanish schoolchildren, issues [...] Read more.
Background: Activities of daily living (ADL), which are divided into basic (BADL) and instrumental (IADL), allows us to survive and to live in the society. Cognitive skills are a key aspect in BADL outcomes. After reviewing existing BADL tools for Spanish schoolchildren, issues such as not covering the full age range or not having a BADL-centred vision were found. We aim to develop a new tool for BADL assessment in Spanish schoolchildren. Methods: The new tool was administered to 375 participants (47.2% boys and 52.8% girls) from 6 to 12 years of age. Analyses were carried out to find out the structure (semiconfirmatory factor analysis) and internal consistency (ordinal alpha) of BADL. Results: Four scales formed the instrument (Eating, Personal Hygiene, Getting Dressed, and General Functioning) with an interpretable solution of 12 factors (Manual Dexterity, Proprioception, Oral Sensitivity, Good Manners, Hygiene and Grooming, Toileting Needs Communication, Bladder and Bowel Control, Showering, Independent Dressing Tasks, Full Dressing, Executive Functions, and Self-Regulation) with 84 items + 6 qualitative items for girls. The reliability values obtained were acceptable (.70–.88). Conclusions: The tool seems to be a practical and reliable instrument to assess BADL and cognitive skills during BADL in Spanish schoolchildren. Full article
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Article
Identifying Types of Dating Violence and Protective Factors among Adolescents in Spain: A Qualitative Analysis of Lights4Violence Materials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2443; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072443 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Introduction: The Lights4Violence project was created to promote healthy relationships among adolescents using a school intervention in which participants developed video-capsules where they highlighted skills to resolve situations of dating violence. This study aims to assess the results of the Lights4Violence training program [...] Read more.
Introduction: The Lights4Violence project was created to promote healthy relationships among adolescents using a school intervention in which participants developed video-capsules where they highlighted skills to resolve situations of dating violence. This study aims to assess the results of the Lights4Violence training program by identifying different types of violence and positive development assets that Spanish adolescents use in their video-capsule scripts. Methods: A thematic analysis of the Lights4Violence video capsules was carried out. Open coding was used to identify violence patterns. A deductive analysis was used to identify student assets using the “Positive Youth Development Model”. Findings: Adolescents describe different patterns of violence, such as psychological violence, sexist violence or verbal violence that is present on the scripts. However, they showed themselves capable of resolving these situations using language and personal empowerment skills as resources. Family, friends and community were identified in adolescents’ scenarios as the most frequent assets to address situations of conflict. Conclusion: Adolescents can promote healthy relationships using protective factors against violence. Interventions that use this approach can potentially be useful in preventing violence. Full article
Article
Tactile Discrimination, Praxis and Cognitive Impulsivity in ADHD Children: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1897; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17061897 - 14 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
Background: The study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has traditionally focused on deficit of inhibitory control and cognitive impulsivity. However, the pathophysiology of ADHD has also been associated with the somatosensory cortex. The aim of this study was to explore if there [...] Read more.
Background: The study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has traditionally focused on deficit of inhibitory control and cognitive impulsivity. However, the pathophysiology of ADHD has also been associated with the somatosensory cortex. The aim of this study was to explore if there were differences in tactile discrimination and praxis between neurotypical and ADHD children and whether these differences could be explained by cognitive impulsivity. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample comprised 74 children aged 7 to 11 years divided in two groups: 43 with neurotypical development, 31 with ADHD. To assess tactile discrimination, the finger localization and the graphestesia tests were used. Praxis was assessed with the Kaufman Assesment Battery for Children (K-ABC) hand movement subtest, the action program and the Zoo Map subtests of the Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome, and the complex figure of Rey–Osterrieth test (ROCF). Cognitive impulsivity was assessed using the Magallanes Computerized Impulsivity Scale test (EMIC). Results: Children with ADHD showed greater cognitive impulsivity (p = 0.038) and scored lower in Zoo Map (p = 0.023) and hand-movement subtests (p = 0.002), and in ROCF test (p = 0.004). Differences in praxis skills still remained after controlling by gender and cognitive impulsivity. Conclusion: Praxis deficit might have repercussions not only on the characterization of ADHD but also on its treatment. Full article
Article
Interrelation of Individual, Country and Activity Constraints in Motor Activities of Daily Living among Typically Developing Children: A Cross-sectional Comparison of Spanish and Dutch Populations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1705; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17051705 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Motor performance is influenced by individual, environmental, and task constraints. Children perform differently according to individual (i.e., sex), environmental (i.e., country), and task (i.e., type of activity) factors. However, little is known about the effect of the interaction between sex and country factors [...] Read more.
Motor performance is influenced by individual, environmental, and task constraints. Children perform differently according to individual (i.e., sex), environmental (i.e., country), and task (i.e., type of activity) factors. However, little is known about the effect of the interaction between sex and country factors across different activities of daily living (ADL) learning, participation, and performance. The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sex, country, and type of activity in motor-based ADL learning, participation, and performance in five-to-eight-year-old, typically developing children. Additionally, we aimed to compare the prevalence of probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) across sex and country. The DCDDaily-Q was used to assess ADL learning, participation, and performance in 300 age and sex-matched children from Spain and The Netherlands. The prevalence of probable DCD was determined based on the total ADL performance score. Results showed that differences in ADL learning, participation and performance differed across sex and country (p < 0.05). Prevalence of probable DCD was statistically similar in both countries. These findings show that daily participation and performance in typically developing children may be influenced by individual, country, and task constraints, and that country and sex may have different influences on particular tasks. Full article
Article
Identifying Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder via Parental Questionnaires. Spanish Reference Norms for the DCDDaily-Q-ES and Correlation with the DCDQ-ES
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 555; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17020555 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2137
Abstract
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in school-aged children, with major consequences in psychosocial and physical health. Adequate identification of this disorder is necessary to prompt effective interventions. The aims of this study were to develop the [...] Read more.
Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in school-aged children, with major consequences in psychosocial and physical health. Adequate identification of this disorder is necessary to prompt effective interventions. The aims of this study were to develop the Spanish adjusted reference norms for the DCDDaily-Q and to test the correlation and agreement between the Spanish versions of the DCDDaily-Q (DCDDaily-Q-ES) and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ-ES), two reliable instruments to assess motor performance and DCD. Clinically relevant percentiles were calculated for the DCDDaily-Q-ES using a representative sample of Spanish children aged 5 to 10 years (n = 356; M = 7.3 years, SD = 1.8; boys = 50%). Pearson’s correlation coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to determine correlation and agreement between questionnaires, respectively. A moderate and significant correlation and agreement between DCDDaily-Q-ES and DCDQ-ES was found (r = 0.406; ICC = 0.381; p < 0.001). Differences in daily participation and performance were found between age groups, but not between boys and girls. Spanish age-adjusted percentiles and cutoff scores for DCDDaily-Q-ES are provided. This study offers further validation and relevant information regarding assessment of DCD and has practical implications for clinical practice and research. Full article

Review

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Review
Oral Manifestations of Rett Syndrome—A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1162; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18031162 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1470
Abstract
Rett Syndrome is an x linked developmental disorder which becomes apparent in females after 6 to 18 months of age. It leads to severe impairments including loss of speech, loss of hand movements/manual dexterity, characteristic hand movements such as hang wringing and intellectual [...] Read more.
Rett Syndrome is an x linked developmental disorder which becomes apparent in females after 6 to 18 months of age. It leads to severe impairments including loss of speech, loss of hand movements/manual dexterity, characteristic hand movements such as hang wringing and intellectual disability/learning problems. This systematic review was carried out to identify the dental manifestation of Rett syndrome and to shed light on treatment options available for oral health problems associated with Rett syndrome. A systematic literature search was conducted on the PubMed, Scopus, Biomed, Web of Science, Embase, Google Scholars, Cochrane and CINAHL using the following entries: Rett syndrome (n = 3790), Oral health and Rett syndrome (n = 17), dental health of Rett syndrome patients (n = 13), and the MeSH terms listed below: Rett syndrome and Oral Health (n = 17), Rett syndrome and dentistry (n = 29). The final review included 22 search articles. The most common oral findings was bruxism. Masseteric hypertrophy was also reported. Anterior open bite and non-physiological tooth wear was observed. Other oral manifestations of Rett syndrome included mouth breathing, tongue thrusting, digit/thumb sucking, high arch palate. Increased awareness and dental education amongst dentists and assistants regarding the dental manifestations of Rett syndrome and similar neurodevelopmental disorders is required to improve the level of care and empathy they can provide to these differently able patients. Research on dental aspects of Rett is scarce and this remains a neglected topic. Full article
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Review
Bibliometric Analysis of Research on Telomere Length in Children: A Review of Scientific Literature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4593; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17124593 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1211
Abstract
Telomere length in early life has been recently associated with biological aging and development of negative consequences in later adult life. A relevant area of research has emerged to understand the factors that impact telomere length in children. We conducted a bibliometric analysis [...] Read more.
Telomere length in early life has been recently associated with biological aging and development of negative consequences in later adult life. A relevant area of research has emerged to understand the factors that impact telomere length in children. We conducted a bibliometric analysis to track research output and identify global trends and gaps in the knowledge of telomere length in children. Bibliographic data were retrieved from the Web of Science database and then analyzed by using Bibliometrix R package. A total of 840 publications were yielded from 1991 to 2019. The references were prominently published in journals, with 20 high ranked journals contributing to 30% of literature on telomere length in children. The USA was the most productive country (35.7%), followed by Europe (12.1%), and Asia (11.9%). A knowledge map of telomere length in children through keyword analyses revealed that there were two potential main lines of research based on two different approaches: genomic research and epidemiological research. This study shows that telomere length in children is a topic of research that has gained significant relevance in the last decade. This bibliometric study may be helpful in identifying research trends and finding research hot spots and gaps in this research field. Full article
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Other

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Protocol
Mirror Therapy and Action Observation Therapy to Increase the Affected Upper Limb Functionality in Children with Hemiplegia: A Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1051; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18031051 - 25 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1422
Abstract
The movements of the affected upper limb in infantile hemiplegia are slower and clumsy. This leads to a decrease in the use of the affected hand. The visual effect obtained using the mirror box and the observation of actions in another individual can [...] Read more.
The movements of the affected upper limb in infantile hemiplegia are slower and clumsy. This leads to a decrease in the use of the affected hand. The visual effect obtained using the mirror box and the observation of actions in another individual can activate the same structural neuronal cells responsible for the execution of these actions. This research will study the affected upper limb functionality in hemiplegia infantile from 6 to 12 years old after the application of two intervention protocols: observation action therapy and mirror therapy combined with observation action therapy. Children with a diagnose of congenital infantile hemiplegia will be recruited to participate in a randomized controlled trial with two intervention protocols during four weeks (1 h per/day; 5 sessions per/week): Mirror Therapy Action Observation (MTAO) or Action Observation Therapy (AOT). The study variables will be: spontaneous use, measured with the Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA); manual ability measured with the Jebsen Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT); surface electromyography of the flexors and extensors muscles of the wrist and grasp strength through a grip dynamometer. Four assessments will be performed: At baseline situation, at the end of treatment, 3 and 6 months after treatment (follow-up assessments). This study will study the effects of these therapies on the use of the affected upper limb in children with hemiplegia. Full article
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Protocol
Self-Regulation in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders “SR-MRehab: Un Colegio Emocionante”: A Protocol Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4198; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17124198 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
Self-regulation refers to the ability to control and modulate behavior, and it can include both emotional and cognitive modulation. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders may show difficulties in self-regulation. The main objective of this study is to improve self-regulation skills in children between 6 [...] Read more.
Self-regulation refers to the ability to control and modulate behavior, and it can include both emotional and cognitive modulation. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders may show difficulties in self-regulation. The main objective of this study is to improve self-regulation skills in children between 6 and 11 years of age with neurodevelopmental disorders. Methodology: A randomized controlled trial will be conducted with the use of “SR-MRehab: Un colegio emocionante”, based on a non-immersive virtual reality system where virtual objects can be managed by children in a natural way using their hands. Children will be recruited from several schools of Granada (Spain) and they will be randomly allocated to two groups. An assessment will be conducted before and after the intervention and 24 weeks after the end of the intervention process. The experimental group will receive the intervention using virtual reality. The control group will receive a standard self-regulation program. Both interventions will be performed once a week for a total of 10 sessions. Changes in self-regulation, as well as the acceptability of technology with the use of SR-MRehab, will be evaluated. The results will be published and will provide evidence regarding the use of this type of intervention in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Trial registration: Registered with code NCT04418921. Full article
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Figure 1

Protocol
The Infancia y Procesamiento Sensorial (InProS—Childhood and Sensory Processing) Project: Study Protocol for a Cross-Sectional Analysis of Parental and Children’s Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Features and Children’s Sensory Processing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1447; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17041447 - 24 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1557
Abstract
Sensory processing difficulties may have potential detrimental consequences on the physical, social and intellectual development of children. It includes serious disturbances affecting emotional regulation, motor performance, social behavior and daily life functioning, among others factors. Since these symptoms are more frequent among children [...] Read more.
Sensory processing difficulties may have potential detrimental consequences on the physical, social and intellectual development of children. It includes serious disturbances affecting emotional regulation, motor performance, social behavior and daily life functioning, among others factors. Since these symptoms are more frequent among children with disabilities, most research has been carried out in clinical populations. However, recent studies have suggested that sensory problems may be prevalent in around 20% of children without clinical conditions. To date, epidemiological research on sensory dysfunctions in normally developing children is lacking; therefore, it is unknown whether or not sensory processing difficulties are significant factors that affect child’s development. Hence, this study has a double general purpose: (1) to determine the sensory profile of school-aged children; (2) to examine the associations between atypical sensory processing patterns and socio-demographic, health and lifestyle features of these children and their parents. The Infancia y Procesamiento Sensorial (InProS, Childhood and Sensory Processing in English) project is a population-based cross-sectional study of Spanish children aged 3–7 years. Data were gathered from different ad hoc questionnaires and several standardized tests. We propose an objective and reliable methodology using statistical and research procedures to describe and determine associations with sensory processing outcomes. We believe that this project will contribute to filling the gap in epidemiological research on sensory issues by providing more convincing evidence. Nevertheless, the potential results should be corroborated in other larger samples. Full article

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Ideational praxis and playfulness in children with autistic spectrum disorder.

Authors: Marta Pérez de Heredia Torres et al

Affiliation: Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain

 

Title: Assessing the spatial relationship between children’s playgrounds and unhealthy food outlets in a major capital city. A health policy options proposal.

Authors: Julia Diez et al

Affiliation: Department of Surgery, Medical and Social Sciences, University of Alcalá, Madrid, Spain

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