Special Issue "New Advances in Sports Performance and Health across the Lifespan"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Sport and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Caio Victor Sousa
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Guest Editor
Bouve College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, USA
Interests: Dr. Caio Victor Sousa has been working using non-traditional exercise methods (i.e., exergames) to induce moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and metabolic health in children and young adults. He also has experience and publications working with master athletes investigating the biomolecular mechanisms of cellular aging and how lifestyle can change that. He has experience working with physical assessments and exercise training in people with type-2 diabetes, hypertension, HIV, and advanced age. He enjoys performance data analysis of endurance sports for elite and amateur athletes and has a significant interest in new methods and technologies that could increase people's adherence to exercise.
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Samuel da Silva Aguiar
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Guest Editor
UDF University Center, Brasilia, Brazil
Interests: Dr. Samuel da Silva Aguiar has been working with master athletes investigating the biomolecular mechanisms of cellular ageing (sirtuins, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and telomere length) and how lifestyle can change that. He is experienced with physical assessments and exercise training in people with type-2 diabetes, hypertension, and advanced age. He is especially interested in acute and chronic physical training in health and performance.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Exercise and sports science have a deep impact across the lifespan, affecting health and sports performance. This Special Issue is interested in the potential effects of aging on health and physical performance and also how physical exercise can affect age-related variables. We are inviting high-quality articles involving exercise testing, physical training prescription, physiological profile of athletes of different age-groups, performance analysis, novel exercise testing methods, and age-related cohorts for this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.

Dr. Caio Victor Sousa
Dr. Samuel da Silva Aguiar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • exercise
  • performance
  • aging
  • lifespan
  • age
  • sport
  • physiology
  • exercise testing
  • physical training
  • resistance training
  • aerobic training

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Article
Muscle-Skeletal Abnormalities and Muscle Oxygenation during Isokinetic Strength Exercise in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction Phenotype: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 709; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19020709 - 09 Jan 2022
Viewed by 167
Abstract
Exercise intolerance, a hallmark of patients with heart failure (HF), is associated with muscle weakness. However, its causative microcirculatory and muscle characteristics among those with preserved or reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF or HFrEF) phenotype is unclear. The musculoskeletal abnormalities that could result in [...] Read more.
Exercise intolerance, a hallmark of patients with heart failure (HF), is associated with muscle weakness. However, its causative microcirculatory and muscle characteristics among those with preserved or reduced ejection fraction (HFpEF or HFrEF) phenotype is unclear. The musculoskeletal abnormalities that could result in impaired peripheral microcirculation are sarcopenia and muscle strength reduction in HF, implying lowered oxidative capacity and perfusion affect transport and oxygen utilization during exercise, an essential task from the microvascular muscle function. Besides that, skeletal muscle microcirculatory abnormalities have also been associated with exercise intolerance in HF patients who also present skeletal muscle myopathy. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the muscle microcirculation dynamics via near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) response during an isokinetic muscle strength test and ultrasound-derived parameters (echo intensity was rectus femoris muscle, while the muscle thickness parameter was measured on rectus femoris and quadriceps femoris) in heart failure patients with HFpEF and HFrEF phenotypes and different functional severities (Weber Class A, B, and C). Twenty-eight aged-matched patients with HFpEF (n = 16) and HFrEF (n = 12) were assessed. We found phenotype differences among those with Weber C severity, with HFrEF patients reaching lower oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb, μM) (−10.9 ± 3.8 vs. −23.7 ± 5.7, p = 0.029) during exercise, while HFpEF reached lower O2Hb during the recovery period (−3.0 ± 3.4 vs. 5.9 ± 2.8, p = 0.007). HFpEF with Weber Class C also presented a higher echo intensity than HFrEF patients (29.7 ± 8.4 vs. 15.1 ± 6.8, p = 0.017) among the ultrasound-derived variables. Our preliminary study revealed more pronounced impairments in local microcirculatory dynamics in HFpEF vs. HFrEF patients during a muscle strength exercise, combined with muscle-skeletal abnormalities detected via ultrasound imaging, which may help explain the commonly observed exercise intolerance in HFpEF patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Sports Performance and Health across the Lifespan)
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Article
Age and Training-Related Changes on Body Composition and Fitness in Male Amateur Cyclists
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph19010093 - 23 Dec 2021
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Abstract
Master athletes are considered as a model of healthy aging because they can limit the age-related decline of physiological abilities compared to sedentary individuals. The main objective of this study is to analyze age-related changes and annual training on body composition (BC) and [...] Read more.
Master athletes are considered as a model of healthy aging because they can limit the age-related decline of physiological abilities compared to sedentary individuals. The main objective of this study is to analyze age-related changes and annual training on body composition (BC) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) parameters. The participants in this retrospective cross-sectional study were 176 male cyclists, aged 40–60 years. BC was evaluated through anthropometric measurements and CRF was determined by an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion. A comparative study between age groups was carried out through a one-way ANOVA test and the associations between the variables were assessed by Spearman’s correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis to estimate the performance. Training was generally associated with a decrease in both body weight and body fat (p < 0.05). A decrease in resting heart rate was observed as a vagal effect of kilometers cycled per year (p < 0.05). Kilometers cycled per year were associated with an increase in peak power output, which was larger in the master 40 group (p < 0.05) with a non-significant upward in VO2max (p > 0.05). In the performance prediction model, the included variables explained 52% of the variance. In summary, the changes induced by age were minimal in BC and negligible in CRF, whereas HR decreased with age. Training load was generally associated with a decrease in body weight, BMI and body fat percentage that was particularly notable in the abdominal skin folds. A decrease in HRrest was observed as a vagal effect due to kilometers cycled per year, and age did not seem to have a significant effect. The annual cycling kilometers were associated with to high PPO that is greater in the M40 group and a non-significant upward trend in VO2max. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Sports Performance and Health across the Lifespan)
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Article
Are Resistance Training-Induced BDNF in Hemodialysis Patients Associated with Depressive Symptoms, Quality of Life, Antioxidant Capacity, and Muscle Strength? An Insight for the Muscle–Brain–Renal Axis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11299; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182111299 - 27 Oct 2021
Viewed by 647
Abstract
Background: Hemodialysis patients are suffering from depressive symptoms. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are negatively associated with depressive symptoms and decrease during a single hemodialysis session. Resistance training (RT) might be an additional non-pharmacological tool to increase BDNF and promote mental health. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Hemodialysis patients are suffering from depressive symptoms. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are negatively associated with depressive symptoms and decrease during a single hemodialysis session. Resistance training (RT) might be an additional non-pharmacological tool to increase BDNF and promote mental health. Methods: Two randomized groups of hemodialysis patients: control (CTL, n = 76/F36; 66.33 ± 3.88 years) and RT (n = 81/F35; 67.27 ± 3.24 years). RT completed six months of training thrice a week under the supervision of strength and conditioning professional immediately before the dialysis session. Training loads were adjusted using the OMNI rating of perceived exertion. The total antioxidant capacity (TROLOX), glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and BDNF levels were analyzed in serum samples. Quality of life (assessed through Medical Outcomes—SF36), and Beck Depression Inventory was applied. Results: RT improved handgrip strength (21.17 ± 4.38 vs. 27.17 ± 4.34; p = 0.001) but not for CTL (20.09 ± 5.19 vs. 19.75 ± 5.54; p = 0.001). Post-training, RT group had higher values as compared to CTL related to TROLOX (RT,680.8 ± 225.2 vs. CTL,589.5 ± 195.9; p = 0.001) and GSH (RT, 9.33 ± 2.09 vs. CTL,5.00 ± 2.96; p = 0.001). RT group had lower values of TBARS as compared to CTL at post-training (RT, 11.06 ± 2.95 vs. CTL, 13.66 ± 2.62; p = 0.001). BDNF increased for RT (11.66 ± 5.20 vs. 19.60 ± 7.23; p = 0.001), but decreased for CTL (14.40 ± 4.99 vs. 10.84 ± 5.94; p = 0.001). Quality of life and mental health increased (p = 0.001) for RT, but did not change for CTL (p = 0.001). BDNF levels were associated with emotional dimensions of SF36, depressive symptoms, and handgrip (p = 0.001). Conclusions: RT was effective as a non-pharmacological tool to increased BDNF levels, quality of life, temper the redox balance and decrease depressive symptoms intensity in hemodialysis patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Sports Performance and Health across the Lifespan)
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Article
Effects of a Specific Core Stability Program on the Sprint and Change-of-Direction Maneuverability Performance in Youth, Male Soccer Players
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10116; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph181910116 - 26 Sep 2021
Viewed by 893
Abstract
Although it is recommended to use sport-specific training programs to optimize performance, studies analyzing the effects of the core stability training with high levels of sport-specificity on athletic performance are insufficient and unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects [...] Read more.
Although it is recommended to use sport-specific training programs to optimize performance, studies analyzing the effects of the core stability training with high levels of sport-specificity on athletic performance are insufficient and unclear. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of the level of specificity of a CORE stability program on specific soccer actions. Fourteen youth players were randomly assigned to the specific core stability group (SCS; n = 7) or the general core stability group (GCS; n = 7). The eight-week intervention consisted of two weekly training sessions added to the usual soccer training. Both groups performed four CORE stability tasks. The SCS group followed the principle of sports specificity, while the GCS group performed CORE stability commons. Ten-meter linear sprinting (Sprint) and change-of-direction maneuverability (V-cut) were evaluated before and after the intervention programs. A statistically significant improvement was obtained in Sprint (d = 0.84 95% CI (0.22, 1.45), p = 0.008) and V-cut (d = 1.24 95% CI (0.52, 1.93), p < 0.001). At posttest, statistically nonsignificant differences were obtained between groups in Sprint (d = 1.03 95% CI (−0.25, 2.30), p = 0.082) and V-cut (d = −0.56 95% CI (−1.89, 0.78), p = 0.370). In conclusion, sprint and change-of-direction maneuverability were improved, but there was no superiority of any type of training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Sports Performance and Health across the Lifespan)
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Article
Speed, Change of Direction Speed and Reactive Agility in Adolescent Soccer Players: Age Related Differences
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5883; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115883 - 30 May 2021
Viewed by 1328
Abstract
There are a plethora of studies investigating agility in soccer; however, studies have rarely presented the reaction time in differentiating age groups in adolescent soccer players. We investigated age differences in reactive agility, speed, and change of direction speed (CODs), in a group [...] Read more.
There are a plethora of studies investigating agility in soccer; however, studies have rarely presented the reaction time in differentiating age groups in adolescent soccer players. We investigated age differences in reactive agility, speed, and change of direction speed (CODs), in a group of highly trained adolescent soccer players. A total of 75 adolescent male soccer players (aged 14–19 years) were recruited. The players were grouped based on their age to under 15 (U15; n = 27), under 17 (U17; n = 25), and under 19 (U19; n = 23) players. Players were tested for 5 m, 10 m, and 20 m sprint, CODs speed test, Illinois test, and reactive agility test (total and reaction time). Only the reactive agility test with a live tester (RAT live) and RAT live reaction time (RAT live RT) distinguished U19 from both groups, U17 (RAT live, p < 0.01; RAT RT live, p < 0.01) and U15 (RAT live, p < 0.01; RAT RT live, p < 0.01). Groups did not have different times for 5 m sprint, RAT light and RAT RT light, F = 0.472, 2.691, 1.023, respectively, p > 0.05. Moreover, a significantly slower average performance of sprint 20, CODs left and right, and Illinois was also observed in U15 as compared to U17 and U19 (p < 0.05). We can conclude that results in agility tests that include live testers can be a significant factor that differentiates between adolescent soccer players considering their age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Sports Performance and Health across the Lifespan)
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