ijerph-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Advancing Workaholism Research"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Mental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Cristian Balducci
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy
Interests: workplace bullying; mobbing; workaholism; work addiction; work engagement; work-related stress; psychosocial factors at work; counterproductive work behavior
Dr. Paola Spagnoli
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Psychology, University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, 81100 Caserta, Italy
Interests: workaholism; well-being at work; workplace bullying; organizational socialization; organizational career growth; entrepreneurship
Dr. Malissa Clark
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Department of Psychology, Franklin College of Arts and Science, University of Georgia, USA
Interests: employee well-being; workaholism; work-family conflict; women at work; the effects of mood/emotions on individual and workplace outcomes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, there has been a growth in attention on the phenomenon of workaholism (e.g., Andreassen et al., 2018; Clark et al., 2016; Ng. et al., 2007), a dysfunctional and pathological form of heavy work investment characterized by behaviors (e.g., working for long hours) and cognitions (e.g., obsessively thinking about work activities and issues even when not at work) that have significant implications for individuals’ mental health and organizations’ vitality. Despite important advancements, because of the quality of the available evidence—mainly based on self-report cross-sectional investigations—a number of ambiguities still surround this phenomenon. Additionally, recently, some researchers have argued that considering workaholism as a true addiction may actually reflect a tendency to overpathologize everyday behavior (see Griffiths, Demetrovics, & Atroszko, 2018).

Thus, the main aim of the present Special Issue is to strengthen the available evidence on workaholism. We welcome authors to submit both qualitative and quantitative studies and particularly encourage investigations adopting an interdisciplinary perspective. Examples of topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following areas:

  • Large-scale epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence of workaholism and its socio-demographic and occupational (e.g., work sector) correlates;
  • Studies adopting longitudinal designs and multisource data (e.g. self-reported and physiologic data) to address the link between workaholism and mental health outcomes;
  • Studies explaining microprocess aspects of the health deterioration process activated by workaholism (e.g., daily diary studies);
  • Studies investigating how the currently prevalent working conditions (e.g., high work intensity and the digitization of work, see Balducci et al., 2018) may activate or strengthen workaholic tendencies;
  • Studies that explore the role of workaholism as a vulnerability factor (i.e., a moderator) in the stressor–strain relationship.

It is suggested that a short description of the study is sent in advance to the Special Issue’s main editor (C.B.): [email protected].

References:

  • Balducci, C.; Avanzi, L.; Fraccaroli, F. The individual “costs” of workaholism: An analysis based on multisource and prospective data. Journal of Management, 2018, 44(7), 2961–2986.
  • Clark, M.A.; Michel, J.S.; Zhdanova, L.; Pui, S.Y.; Baltes, B.B. All work and no play? A meta-analytic examination of the correlates and outcomes of workaholism. Journal of Management, 2016, 42(7), 1836–1873.
  • Griffiths, M.D.; Zsolt, D.; Atroszko, P.A. Ten myths about work addiction. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2018, 74(4), 845–857.
  • Ng, T.W.H., Sorensen, K.L., & Feldman, D.C. Dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of workaholism: A conceptual integration and extension. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2007, 28(1), 111–136.

Dr. Cristian Balducci
Dr. Paola Spagnoli
Dr. Malissa Clark
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • workaholism
  • work addiction
  • behavioral addiction
  • mental health
  • personality

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Other

Editorial
Advancing Workaholism Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9435; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17249435 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 582
Abstract
Research on workaholism (also called work addiction by some scholars, especially in the clinical psychology field) has increased substantially in the last few years [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Workaholism Research)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

Article
Same Involvement, Different Reasons: How Personality Factors and Organizations Contribute to Heavy Work Investment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8550; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228550 - 18 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 799
Abstract
The academic literature has drawn a clear distinction between a positive form (i.e., work engagement) and a negative form (i.e., workaholism) of heavy work investment (HWI). Nevertheless, the different weight of individual and situational factors contributing to their development was not thoroughly explored. [...] Read more.
The academic literature has drawn a clear distinction between a positive form (i.e., work engagement) and a negative form (i.e., workaholism) of heavy work investment (HWI). Nevertheless, the different weight of individual and situational factors contributing to their development was not thoroughly explored. This study aims to investigate the role of individual variables (i.e., obsessive–compulsive traits, achievement orientation, perfectionism, and conscientiousness) and situational factors (i.e., job demands and overwork climate) regarding engagement and workaholism simultaneously. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 523 Italian employees. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that overwork climate and job demands were conversely related to engagement and workaholism, with job demand reporting the strongest association with workaholism. Furthermore, fear of failure was the only individual factor showing a significant and opposite relationship with workaholism and engagement. In contrast, perfectionism was positively associated with both forms of HWI. These results shed light on the potential effectiveness of intervention strategies focused on the employees and organizations in preventing workaholism and promoting engagement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Workaholism Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Crossover Effects of Supervisors’ Workaholism on Subordinates’ Turnover Intention: The Mediating Role of Two Types of Job Demands and Emotional Exhaustion
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7742; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17217742 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1141
Abstract
Although much research has been conducted on workaholism, its crossover effects remain uninvestigated, especially in the context of organizations. Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model of burnout and the conservation of resources (COR) theory, we established a dual-path structural model to examine [...] Read more.
Although much research has been conducted on workaholism, its crossover effects remain uninvestigated, especially in the context of organizations. Based on the job demands-resources (JD-R) model of burnout and the conservation of resources (COR) theory, we established a dual-path structural model to examine the effects of supervisors’ workaholism on subordinates’ turnover intention through two types of job demands (perceived workload and interpersonal conflict) as well as subordinates’ emotional exhaustion. The results revealed that supervisors’ workaholism is positively related to subordinates’ emotional exhaustion through increased perceived workload and interpersonal conflict, which result in subordinates’ turnover intention. This study has made a contribution to the literature by extending the scope of workaholism research from self-perspective to other-perspective. The findings also have practical implications for organizations and their human resources (HR) practitioners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Workaholism Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Exploring the Link between Work Addiction Risk and Health-Related Outcomes Using Job-Demand-Control Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7594; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17207594 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1563
Abstract
Purpose of the study: Work addiction risk is a growing public health concern with potential deleterious health-related outcomes. Perception of work (job demands and job control) may play a major role in provoking the risk of work addiction in employees. We aimed [...] Read more.
Purpose of the study: Work addiction risk is a growing public health concern with potential deleterious health-related outcomes. Perception of work (job demands and job control) may play a major role in provoking the risk of work addiction in employees. We aimed to explore the link between work addiction risk and health-related outcomes using the framework of job-demand-control model. Methods: Data were collected from 187 out of 1580 (11.8%) French workers who agreed to participate in a cross-sectional study using the WittyFit software online platform. The self-administered questionnaires were the Job Content Questionnaire by Karasek, the Work Addiction Risk Test, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and socio-demographics. Data Analysis: Statistical analyses were performed using the Stata software (version 13). Results: There were five times more workers with a high risk of work addiction among those with strong job demands than in those with low job demands (29.8% vs. 6.8%, p = 0.002). Addiction to work was not linked to job control (p = 0.77), nor with social support (p = 0.22). We demonstrated a high risk of work addiction in 2.6% of low-strain workers, in 15.0% of passive workers, in 28.9% of active workers, and in 33.3% of high-strain workers (p = 0.010). There were twice as many workers with a HAD-Depression score ≥11 compared with workers at low risk (41.5% vs. 17.7%, p = 0.009). Sleep quality was lower in workers with a high risk of work addiction compared with workers with a low risk of work addiction (44.0 ± 27.3 vs. 64.4 ± 26.8, p < 0.001). Workers with a high risk of work addiction exhibited greater stress at work (68.4 ± 23.2 vs. 47.5 ± 25.1) and lower well-being (69.7 ± 18.3 vs. 49.3 ± 23.0) compared with workers at low risk (p < 0.001). Conclusions: High job demands are strongly associated with the risk of work addiction. Work addiction risk is associated with greater depression and poor quality of sleep. Preventive strategies should benefit from identifying more vulnerable workers to work addiction risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Workaholism Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Maladaptive Rumination Mediates the Relationship between Self-Esteem, Perfectionism, and Work Addiction: A Largescale Survey Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7332; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17197332 - 08 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
Background: Empirical evidence suggests that low self-esteem and high perfectionism are significant personality correlates of work addiction, but the mechanisms underlying these relationships are still unclear. Consequently, exploring cognitive mechanisms will help to better understand work addiction. For instance, rumination is one [...] Read more.
Background: Empirical evidence suggests that low self-esteem and high perfectionism are significant personality correlates of work addiction, but the mechanisms underlying these relationships are still unclear. Consequently, exploring cognitive mechanisms will help to better understand work addiction. For instance, rumination is one of the under-researched topics in work addiction, although it may explain specific thinking processes of work-addicted individuals. The purpose of the study was to test the mediating role of maladaptive rumination (i.e., brooding) in the relationship between personality and addiction. Methods: In a largescale cross-sectional, unrepresentative, online study, 4340 adults with a current job participated. The following psychometric instruments were used: Work Addiction Risk Test Revised, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and Ruminative Response Scale. Results: It was found that self-oriented perfectionism, socially prescribed perfectionism, and self-esteem had both direct and indirect relationships with work addiction via the mediating effect of maladaptive rumination. The two paths involving brooding explained 44% of the direct relationship. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that brooding type of rumination as a putatively maladaptive strategy explains why individuals characterized by low self-esteem and high perfectionism may have a higher risk of work addiction. The results suggest that cognitive-affective mechanisms in work addiction are similar to those found in other addictive disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Workaholism Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Double-Edged Sword of a Calling: The Mediating Role of Harmonious and Obsessive Passions in the Relationship between a Calling, Workaholism, and Work Engagement
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6724; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186724 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1076
Abstract
Even though research on perceiving a calling has been growing, our understanding of its double-edged sword effects and psychological mechanisms remain unclear, especially in terms of work engagement and workaholism. Based on the heavy working investment (HWI) and dualistic model of passion (DMP) [...] Read more.
Even though research on perceiving a calling has been growing, our understanding of its double-edged sword effects and psychological mechanisms remain unclear, especially in terms of work engagement and workaholism. Based on the heavy working investment (HWI) and dualistic model of passion (DMP) theories, we established a dual-path structural model to examine the effects of callings on work engagement and workaholism through two types of passion: harmonious (HP) and obsessive (OP) passions. Our results showed that the association between perceiving a calling and work engagement was partially mediated by HP, while the association between perceiving a calling and workaholism was fully mediated by OP. This study contributes to the literature in that it reveals how perceiving a calling has different effects on work engagement and workaholism through the HWI theoretical lens, as well as the mediating roles of HP and OP, based on the DMP theory. Our findings can be practically applied in organizations and counseling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Workaholism Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Workload, Workaholism, and Job Performance: Uncovering Their Complex Relationship
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6536; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186536 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2337
Abstract
The current study aimed to test how workload, via workaholism, impacts job performance along with the complex interplay of perfectionistic concerns and work engagement in this mediated relationship. A two-wave, first and second stage dual-moderated mediation model was tested in an SEM framework. [...] Read more.
The current study aimed to test how workload, via workaholism, impacts job performance along with the complex interplay of perfectionistic concerns and work engagement in this mediated relationship. A two-wave, first and second stage dual-moderated mediation model was tested in an SEM framework. Results based on a sample of 208 workers revealed a complex and nuanced relationship among the studied constructs, such that the simple mediation model was not significant, but the indirect effect was negative, nonsignificant, or positive conditional on both moderators. The results offer interesting theoretical and practical implications for future studies to be conducted in this area of research. In particular, lower levels of perfectionistic concerns were associated with a positive relationship between workload and workaholism, and lower levels of work engagement were related to a negative link between workaholism and job performance. Findings suggest work engagement should be monitored and promoted by managers, especially when workload, and consequently, the possible risk of workaholism, cannot be avoided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Workaholism Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Workaholism, Work Engagement and Child Well-Being: A Test of the Spillover-Crossover Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6213; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17176213 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2126
Abstract
This study examines how working parents’ work attitudes (i.e., workaholism and work engagement) are associated with their child’s psychological well-being. Based on the Spillover-Crossover model (SCM), we hypothesize that (a) work-to-family spillover (i.e., work-to-family conflict and facilitation) and (b) employee happiness will sequentially [...] Read more.
This study examines how working parents’ work attitudes (i.e., workaholism and work engagement) are associated with their child’s psychological well-being. Based on the Spillover-Crossover model (SCM), we hypothesize that (a) work-to-family spillover (i.e., work-to-family conflict and facilitation) and (b) employee happiness will sequentially mediate the relationship between parents’ work attitudes and their child’s emotional and behavioral problems. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Japanese dual-earner couples with pre-school child(ren). On the basis of valid data from 208 families, the hypothesized model was tested using structural equation modeling. For both fathers and mothers simultaneously, workaholism was positively related to work-to-family conflict, which, in turn, was negatively related to happiness. In contrast, work engagement was positively related to work-to-family facilitation, which, in turn, was positively related to happiness. Fathers’ and mothers’ happiness, in turn, were negatively related to their child’s emotional and behavioral problems. Results suggest that parents’ workaholism and work engagement are related to their child’s emotional and behavioral problems in opposite ways, whereby parents’ spillover and happiness mediate this relationship. These findings support the SCM and suggest that decreasing workaholism and improving work engagement may not only improve employees’ happiness, but also decrease their child’s emotional and behavioral problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Workaholism Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Unravelling Work Drive: A Comparison between Workaholism and Overcommitment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5755; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17165755 - 09 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1454
Abstract
Workaholism and overcommitment are often used as interchangeable constructs describing an individual’s over-involvement toward their own job. Employees with high levels in both constructs are characterized by an excessive effort and attachment to their job, with the incapability to detach from it and [...] Read more.
Workaholism and overcommitment are often used as interchangeable constructs describing an individual’s over-involvement toward their own job. Employees with high levels in both constructs are characterized by an excessive effort and attachment to their job, with the incapability to detach from it and negative consequences in terms of poor health and job burnout. However, few studies have simultaneously measured both constructs, and their relationships are still not clear. In this study, we try to disentangle workaholism and overcommitment by comparing them with theoretically related contextual and personal antecedents, as well as their health consequences. We conducted a nonprobability mixed mode research design on 133 employees from different organizations in Italy using both self- and other-reported measures. To test our hypothesis that workaholism and overcommitment are related yet different constructs, we used partial correlations and regression analyses. The results confirm that these two constructs are related to each other, but also outline that overcommitment (and not workaholism) is uniquely related to job burnout, so that overcommitment rather than workaholism could represent the true negative aspect of work drive. Additionally, workaholism is more related to conscientiousness than overcommitment, while overcommitment shows a stronger relationship with neuroticism than workaholism. The theoretical implications are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Workaholism Research)
Article
Is Narcissism Associated with Heavy Work Investment? The Moderating Role of Workload in the Relationship between Narcissism, Workaholism, and Work Engagement
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4750; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17134750 - 01 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1507
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the association between narcissism and two forms of heavy work investment, namely, workaholism and work engagement. More specifically, it was hypothesized that narcissism is positively associated with both workaholism and work engagement, with workload moderating these relationships, which [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the association between narcissism and two forms of heavy work investment, namely, workaholism and work engagement. More specifically, it was hypothesized that narcissism is positively associated with both workaholism and work engagement, with workload moderating these relationships, which are expected to be stronger when the workload is high. Overall, 217 workers completed a self-report questionnaire, and the hypothesized relationships were tested using moderated multiple regression. Results partially supported our predictions. Narcissism was positively associated with workaholism and its dimensions of working excessively and working compulsively only in individuals facing a high workload. Furthermore, narcissism was positively associated with work engagement and its dimensions of vigor and dedication (but no absorption) in employees with average levels of workload. Finally, the workload exacerbated the relationship between narcissism and work engagement and its dimensions so that these associations were stronger when the workload was high. Overall, our study suggested that in a work environment characterized by moderate levels of demand, individuals with strong narcissistic components might inherently feel energetic and dedicated (i.e., engaged) at work. Differently, in a demanding work environment, workers with high narcissism might experience higher work engagement, but they could also be at risk of workaholism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Workaholism Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
How Can Work Addiction Buffer the Influence of Work Intensification on Workplace Well-Being? The Mediating Role of Job Crafting
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4658; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17134658 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Despite growing attention to the phenomenon of intensified job demand in the workplace, empirical research investigating the underlying behavioral mechanisms that link work intensification to workplace well-being is limited. In particular, a study on whether these behavioral mechanisms are dependent on certain type [...] Read more.
Despite growing attention to the phenomenon of intensified job demand in the workplace, empirical research investigating the underlying behavioral mechanisms that link work intensification to workplace well-being is limited. In particular, a study on whether these behavioral mechanisms are dependent on certain type of individual difference is absent. Using data collected from 356 Chinese health care professionals, this study utilized a dual-path moderated mediation model to investigate the mediating role of job crafting behavior between work intensification and workplace well-being, and the moderating role of work addiction on this indirect path. The results demonstrated that although work intensification was negatively associated with workplace well-being, this effect was more likely to take place for non-workaholics. Specifically, compared with non-workaholics, workaholics were more prone to engage in job crafting behavior in terms of seeking resources and crafting towards strengths, and therefore less likely to have reduced well-being experience. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for research and practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Workaholism Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Viewpoint
Work Addiction, Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder, Burn-Out, and Global Burden of Disease: Implications from the ICD-11
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 660; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17020660 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3776
Abstract
Occupational stress and high workload are being increasingly recognized as significant contributors to the diseases and disorders constituting major components of the global burden of disease. A more detailed definition of burn-out was recently included by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the [...] Read more.
Occupational stress and high workload are being increasingly recognized as significant contributors to the diseases and disorders constituting major components of the global burden of disease. A more detailed definition of burn-out was recently included by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) which reflects a growing acknowledgment of the role of professional work in mental health. One of the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder/anankastic personality disorder (OCPD/APD) is an undue preoccupation with productivity to the exclusion of pleasure and interpersonal relationships. This compulsive overworking is closely related to the concept of work addiction, and OCPD/APD was suggested to be its major risk factor. OCPD/APD is the most prevalent personality disorder and one that appears to produce the highest direct and indirect medical costs. At the same time, it is vastly understudied. In recent years, it has been repeatedly emphasized that it requires consistent conceptualization and clarification of its overlapping with similar conditions. Even though the limited existing studies suggest its strong relationship with burn-out and depression among employed individuals, there has been no systematic effort to investigate its role in the consequences of occupational stress and high workload. This paper identifies several substantial gaps in the current understanding of the relationships between work addiction, OCPD/APD, burn-out, and the global burden of disease within the context of the WHO’s plan of developing evidence-based guidelines on mental wellbeing in the workplace. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Workaholism Research)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop