Special Issue "Lifestyle-Induced and Aging-Induced Changes in Body Composition and Physical Fitness: Focus on Healthy Longevity"

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Pasqualina Buono
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Exercise and Wellness Sciences, Parthenope University of Naples, 80133 Naples, Italy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aging is characterized by a progressive, physiological decline of several biological functions. Modifications in body composition (an increased percentage of abdominal fat and reduction in fat-free mass); sarcopenia, associated with an increase in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and the impairment of mitochondrial function; and the reduction of oxidative capacity contribute to the onset of dysmetabolic diseases in aging. Furthermore, the 5–10% VO2 max reduction per decade, responsible for an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), along with the reduced force-generating capacity of skeletal muscle and an increase in protein damage, due to a compromised autophagic response, are additional hallmarks of aging.  In this scenario, risk factors, such as a sedentary lifestyle, and protective ones, such as an active lifestyle and good nutritional habits, play a key antagonistic role in determining quality of life (QoL) and successful aging.

This Special Issue aims to focus on the effects of an active life and appropriate lifelong nutritional habits on physical fitness and body composition in order to achieve successful aging and to counteract non-communicable disease (NCD) development.

Prof. Dr. Pasqualina Buono
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Body composition
  • Physical fitness
  • Cardiorespiratory fitness
  • Adiponectin
  • Oxidative metabolism
  • Nutrition
  • NCDs
  • Non-conventional sport activity
  • Neurodegenerative disorders
  • Cognitive impairment

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
A Single Session of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation Increases Muscle Strength, Endurance and proNGF in Early Parkinson Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5499; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105499 - 20 May 2021
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Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients lead a sedentary lifestyle, being unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally, due to physical and mental limitations. The aim of this study was to assess the acute effects of a single session of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on the physical [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients lead a sedentary lifestyle, being unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally, due to physical and mental limitations. The aim of this study was to assess the acute effects of a single session of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on the physical performances and serum levels of the neurotrophic factors in PD patients. Ten subjects (aged 72.60 ± 6.82) underwent 20 min of physical activity with superimposed WB-EMS and, after four weeks, the same protocol with no WB-EMS. WB-EMS was conducted with intermittent stimulation, with 4 s WB-EMS/4 s rest, at 85 Hz, 350 μs. A physical fitness assessment and blood samples collection, to evaluate neurotrophic factors’ levels (BDNF, FGF21, proNGF, mNGF), were collected before and after the intervention. The RM-ANOVA showed significant improvements in sit-to-stand (p < 0.01), arm curl (p < 0.01), handgrip (p < 0.01) and soda pop test (p < 0.01) after the WB-EMS intervention. Higher proNFG serum levels were observed in the WB-EMS condition compared to the no WB-EMS after 60 min post-intervention (p = 0.0163). The effect of WB-EMS confirmed the electrostimulation ability to modulate the proNGF quantity. The positive impact of the WB-EMS protocol on physical functioning, and eye–hand coordination, makes this intervention a promising strategy to improve motor and non-motor symptoms in PD patients. Full article
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Article
Physical Activity Regulates TNFα and IL-6 Expression to Counteract Inflammation in Cystic Fibrosis Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4691; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094691 - 28 Apr 2021
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Abstract
Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common inherited diseases. It is characterised by a severe decline in pulmonary function associated with metabolic perturbations and an increased production of inflammatory cytokines. The key role of physical activity (PA) in improving the [...] Read more.
Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common inherited diseases. It is characterised by a severe decline in pulmonary function associated with metabolic perturbations and an increased production of inflammatory cytokines. The key role of physical activity (PA) in improving the health status of CF patients and reducing lung function decline has recently been demonstrated. This study evaluated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) expression in two subgroups of CF patients classified based on PA. Methods: We selected 85 CF patients; half of them regularly undertook supervised PA in the three years leading up to the study and half of them were not physically active. Patients were analysed for serum IL-6 and TNFα levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results: We found that the expression levels of IL-6 and TNFα differed in terms of their regulation by PA. In particular, TNFα levels negatively correlated with FEV1% decrease/year and FEV1% decrease (p = 0.023 and p = 0.02, respectively), and positively correlated with serum fasting glucose (p = 0.019) in PA CF patients. In contrast, in the NPA subgroup, TNFα levels were positively correlated with IL-6 (p = 0.001) and negatively correlated with adiponectin (p = 0.000). In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that PA is an independent modulator of the inflammatory state. Conclusions: PA modulates inflammatory processes in CF patients by regulating the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and thus ameliorating lung function. Our data show that PA is a useful complementary strategy in the management of CF and that TNFα may be a marker of these effects of PA. Full article
Article
Device-Measured Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors, Built Environment, and Adiposity Gain in Older Women: A Seven-Year Prospective Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3074; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18063074 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 602
Abstract
The search for determinants of adiposity gain in older women has become vitally important. This study aimed to (1) analyze the adiposity gain based on the participants’ age and (2) determine the prospective associations of baseline intrapersonal, built environment, physical activity, and sedentary [...] Read more.
The search for determinants of adiposity gain in older women has become vitally important. This study aimed to (1) analyze the adiposity gain based on the participants’ age and (2) determine the prospective associations of baseline intrapersonal, built environment, physical activity, and sedentary behavior variables with the adiposity gain in older women. This was a seven-year prospective study (baseline: 2009 to 2012; follow-up: 2016 to 2019) in older women (n = 178, baseline age = 62.8 ± 4.1 years). Baseline and follow-up adiposity (bioelectrical impedance) and baseline physical activity, sedentary behavior (accelerometers), and intrapersonal and built environment (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale questionnaire) variables were included. The body mass index (BMI) increment tended to be inversely associated with the women’s age (p = 0.062). At follow-up, 48, 57, and 54% of the women had a relevant increase (d-Cohen > 0.2) in their BMI, percentage of body fat, and fat mass index, respectively. The women that spent ≥8 h/day being sedentary were 2.2 times (1.159 to 4.327 CI95%, p < 0.02) more likely to increase BMI (0.82 to 0.85 kg/m2) than non-sedentary women. No built environment variables were associated with seven-year adiposity gain (all ps > 0.05). A reduction in sedentary time should be promoted for adiposity gain prevention and health preservation in older women. Full article
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