Special Issue "Aquatic Activities, Health and Wellbeing"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Sport and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Antonio José Silva
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Ciências do Desporto, Exercício e Saúde, Quinta de Prados, Escola de Ciências da Vida e do Ambiente, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
Interests: swimming; training; evaluation; biomechanics; performance
Dr. Daniel Almeida Marinho
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Sport Sciences, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: health fitness and exercise; sports biomechanics; exercise physiology; resistance training; strength training; concurrent training; performance assessment; strength and conditioning; physical fitness; exercise evaluation; exercise prescription; swimming; water aerobics; warm-up procedures; recovery procedures
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Tiago M. Barbosa
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
1 Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Bragança, Portugal
2 Research Centre in Sports, Health and Human Development, Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: biomechanics; elite performance; sports performance; modelling; forecast
Dr. Henrique Pereira Neiva
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Sport Science, University of Beira-Interior (UBI/CIDESD), 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Interests: strength and conditioning; health fitness and exercise; sports biomechanics; exercise physiology; resistance training; strength training; concurrent training; performance assessment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Swimming performance has become one of the emerging and trendy topics in sport sciences and related scientific fields. On a regular basis, coaches and athletes require evidence-based support to help their decision making and ultimately to excel in a highly demanding and competitive environment. Swimming performance is strongly linked to physiological variables, and those are dependent on biomechanical profile and motor strategies. Improvements in the aforementioned determinants, even those deemed as marginal, can add up, yielding meaningful improvements in performance. These days, the swimming fraternity and academic community is keen to have a better understanding of how different dose–response patterns can help swimmers to enhance their performance. This is the case for topics such as the response to different types of exercise, exercise programs, warm-ups, and recovery techniques, among others. Each swimmer aspires to improve, reaching their main goals. In this Special Issue, we invite researchers and practitioners to submit manuscripts related to the analysis of swimming performance based on its key determinants, such as physiology, biomechanics, motor control, or strength and conditioning. Implications for performance enhancement, such as descriptions, modeling, and forecast may also be addressed.

Prof. Dr. Antonio José Silva
Dr. Daniel Marinho
Dr. Tiago M. Barbosa
Dr. Henrique Neiva
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • swimming
  • training
  • evaluation
  • biomechanics
  • performance

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Different Undulatory Underwater Swimming Positions Based on Multi-Body Motion Numerical Simulation Method
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 12263; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182212263 - 22 Nov 2021
Viewed by 427
Abstract
The study of hydrodynamic characteristics of swimming is the main way to optimize the swimming movement. The relationship between position, water depth, and swimming performance of undulatory underwater swimming are one of the main concerns of scholars. Therefore, the aim of this study [...] Read more.
The study of hydrodynamic characteristics of swimming is the main way to optimize the swimming movement. The relationship between position, water depth, and swimming performance of undulatory underwater swimming are one of the main concerns of scholars. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the swimming performance of three different undulatory underwater swimming positions under various swimming depths using a numerical simulation method based on multi-body motion. The simulation was conducted using 3D incompressible Navier–Stokes equations using the RNG k-ε turbulence closure equations, and in combination with the VOF method thus that we could include the water surface in our calculations. Different swimming depths based on the distance from the shoulder joint center to the initial water surface were considered. The velocity of the shoulder joint center was captured with a swimming motion monitoring system (KiSwim) and compared with the calculated results. The study found that there was a significant difference in the hydrodynamic characteristics of the three undulatory underwater swimming positions (i.e., the dorsal, lateral, and frontal positions) when swimming near the water surface, and the difference decreased as the swimming depth increased. There was a negative correlation (R(dorsal) = −0.928, R(frontal) = −0.937, R(lateral) = −0.930) between the swimming velocities of the three undulatory underwater swimming positions and the water depth (water depth = 0.2–0.7 m) and that the lateral position had the greatest average velocity. Therefore, it is recommended that swimmers travel at least 0.5 m below the water surface in any undulatory underwater swimming position in order to avoid excessive drag forces. As the swimmer approaches the water surface, the lateral position is worth considering, which has better velocity and hydrodynamic advantage than the other two undulatory underwater swimming positions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Activities, Health and Wellbeing)
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Article
What Is the Optimal Strength Training Load to Improve Swimming Performance? A Randomized Trial of Male Competitive Swimmers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(22), 11770; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182211770 - 10 Nov 2021
Viewed by 950
Abstract
This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of high, moderate, and low resistance training volume-load of maximum strength training on muscle strength and swimming performance in competitive swimmers. Thirty-three male swimmers were randomly allocated to high (age = 16.5 ± 0.30 years), moderate [...] Read more.
This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of high, moderate, and low resistance training volume-load of maximum strength training on muscle strength and swimming performance in competitive swimmers. Thirty-three male swimmers were randomly allocated to high (age = 16.5 ± 0.30 years), moderate (age = 16.1 ± 0.32 years) and a low resistance training volume-load group (age = 15.9 ± 0.31). This study was carried out in mid-season (January to March). Pre and post strength (e.g., repetition maximum [1RM] leg extension and bench press tests), swimming (25, 50 m front-crawl), start (speed, time, distance) and turn (time of turn) performance tests were conducted. Our findings revealed a large main effect of time for 1RM bench press: d = 1.38; 1RM leg extension: d = 1.55, and for 25 (d = 1.12), and 50 m (d = 1.97) front-crawl, similarly for start and turn performance (d = 1.28–1.46). However, no significant Group × Time interactions were shown in all strength swimming performances, start and turn tests (p > 0.05). In conclusion, low training loads have been shown to elicit the same results as moderate, and high training loads protocol. Therefore, this study shows evidence that the addition of low training volume-loads as a regular part of a maximal strength training regime will elicit improvements in strength and swimming performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Activities, Health and Wellbeing)
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Article
Relationship between Swimming Performance, Biomechanical Variables and the Calculated Predicted 1-RM Push-up in Competitive Swimmers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11395; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph182111395 - 29 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 568
Abstract
One repetition maximum (1RM) push-ups, based upon the load–velocity relationship, are able to predict the maximum upper body strength. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the predicted 1RM push-up based upon the load–velocity relationship and swimming performance [...] Read more.
One repetition maximum (1RM) push-ups, based upon the load–velocity relationship, are able to predict the maximum upper body strength. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between the predicted 1RM push-up based upon the load–velocity relationship and swimming performance and kinematical variables in competitive swimmers. Thirty-three competitive male swimmers (age = 16.46 ± 0.59 years, body mass = 72.82 ± 8.41 kg, body height = 180.56 ± 5.69 cm) performed push-up exercises without a weight vest and with a 10, 20 and 30 kg weight vests. A load–velocity relationship was established as a product of the load and velocity of the push-up per participant, and the equation was used to establish a predicted 1RM. Our findings showed a predicted 1RM push-up of 82.98 ± 9.95 kg. Pearson correlations revealed a nearly perfect relationship between the 1RM push-up and the 25 or 50 m front crawl (r = −0.968, r = −0.955), and between 1RM push-up and the 25 or 50 m front crawl with arms (r = −0.955, r = x0.941). Similarly, our results revealed significant near-perfect correlations between 1RM push-up and kinematical variables (r = 0.93–0.96) except the stroke index, which had a large relationship (r = 0.56). This study suggests that swimming performance and kinematical variables are correlated with the predicted 1RM push-up. The 1RM push-up based upon the load–velocity relationship is a low cost and time-effective alternative for swimmers and coaches to predict maximum upper body strength to optimize swimming performance in short races. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Activities, Health and Wellbeing)
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Communication
Pacing Strategies of 1500 m Freestyle Swimmers in the World Championships According to Their Final Position
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7559; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147559 - 15 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 697
Abstract
In 1500 m freestyle swimming races, pacing is generally represented by a parabolic or U-shaped curve indicating that swimming velocity is greatest at the start and the last laps of the race while swimmers maintain an even pace through the middle section of [...] Read more.
In 1500 m freestyle swimming races, pacing is generally represented by a parabolic or U-shaped curve indicating that swimming velocity is greatest at the start and the last laps of the race while swimmers maintain an even pace through the middle section of the race. However, there is no information to determine if 1500 m race winners select pacing different to other, less successful swimmers within the same competition. Therefore, this investigation aimed to describe the pacing strategies adopted by 1500 m freestyle competitive swimmers in World Championships (long course), from 2003 to 2019 to determine the most effective pacing to obtain victory or a medal. The official overall and split times for 1500 m freestyle races of the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) were obtained from the website of this organization. In total, data of 143 swimming performances (71 male and 72 female) were extracted. With the split times, lap times, and position were calculated across the race. To determine differences in the pacing between best- and worst-ranked finalist, swimmers in each race were divided into four groups based on the final position (1st vs. 2nd vs. 3rd vs. 4–8th). All the lap times of the winners of the race were faster than those of participants classified as 4–8th position for men and women races (p < 0.05). However, there were no differences in lap velocity among the different positions achieved at the end of the race when it was normalized by average race velocity. Additionally, there were no differences in the lap-to-lap variability among swimmers with different positions at the end of the race. In summary, both men and women elite swimmers selected parabolic pacing consisting of a fast start in the first lap, an even pace close to their average race velocity in the mid-section of the race (from 50 to 1400 m), followed by an end spurt in the final lap(s). This pattern was very similar in all finalists irrespective of the final position in the race. Hence, the obtaining of a medal in the World Championships was associated to possessing a faster average race velocity rather than a specific pacing profile through the race. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Activities, Health and Wellbeing)
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Article
Exploration of Internal and External Factors of Swimmers’ Performance Based on Biofluid Mechanics and Computer Simulation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6471; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18126471 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 976
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of different swimming strokes on the performance of swimmers and the resistance of each part from the perspective of hydrodynamics. In this paper, the influence of internal and external factors on the swimming [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of different swimming strokes on the performance of swimmers and the resistance of each part from the perspective of hydrodynamics. In this paper, the influence of internal and external factors on the swimming speed is analyzed comprehensively and meticulously from the macro and micro perspectives. In the macroscopic part, the swimming speed representation model is established, and the validity of the model is further verified by the analysis of experimental data and hydrodynamic equations. In the microscopic part, we carefully analyzed details such as the opening angle of the palm, the timing of the arm and leg and the angular velocity of each link of the human body. Combined with computer simulation, stereo modeling and numerical analysis are carried out, and the best scheme FOR how to cooperate with each part of the body in swimming is given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Activities, Health and Wellbeing)
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Article
Biological Age in Relation to Somatic, Physiological, and Swimming Kinematic Indices as Predictors of 100 m Front Crawl Performance in Young Female Swimmers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 6062; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18116062 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 962
Abstract
Background: Some swimmers reach high performance level at a relatively young age. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between adolescent female swimmers’ 100 m front crawl race (Vtotal100) and several anthropometry, [...] Read more.
Background: Some swimmers reach high performance level at a relatively young age. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between adolescent female swimmers’ 100 m front crawl race (Vtotal100) and several anthropometry, body composition, and physiological and specific strength indices. Methods: Nineteen adolescent female swimmers were examined for biological age (BA) and body composition. Oxygen uptake was measured during water-flume stage-test front crawl swimming with ventilatory thresholds examination. Specific strength indices were assessed during 30 s of tethered swimming. Stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL), and stroke index (SI) were also examined. Results: BA was strongly correlated with anthropometrics and tethered swimming strength indices, and showed moderate to strong correlation with ventilatory thresholds. Speed of swimming in the race was moderately to largely correlated with speed at V˙O2 maxVV˙O2max (r = 0.47–0.55; p < 0.05)—ventilatory thresholds (VAT, VRCP) (r = 0.50–0.85; p < 0.05), SL (r = 0.58–0.62; p < 0.05), and SI (r = 0.79–0.81; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Results confirmed a significant role of biological maturation mediation on body composition and body size, ventilatory indices, and specific strength indices. BA was not a significant mediation factor influencing the swimming kinematics (SL, SI) and speeds of VAT, VRCP or VV˙O2 max, which were strong predictors of the 100 m race. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Activities, Health and Wellbeing)
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Article
Monitoring Master Swimmers’ Performance and Active Drag Evolution along a Training Mesocycle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3569; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18073569 - 30 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1065
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the effects of a swimming training mesocycle in master swimmers’ performance and active drag. Twenty-two 39.87 ± 6.10 year-old master swimmers performed a 25 m front crawl at maximal intensity before and after a typical four-week training mesocycle. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze the effects of a swimming training mesocycle in master swimmers’ performance and active drag. Twenty-two 39.87 ± 6.10 year-old master swimmers performed a 25 m front crawl at maximal intensity before and after a typical four-week training mesocycle. Maximum, mean and minimum speeds, speed decrease and hip horizontal intra-cyclic velocity variation were assessed using an electromechanical speedometer, and the active drag and power to overcome drag were determined using the measuring active drag system. Maximum, mean and minimum front crawl speeds improved from pre- to post-training (mean ± 95% CI: 3.1 ± 2.8%, p = 0.04; 2.9 ± 1.6%, p = 0.01; and 4.6 ± 3.1%, p = 0.01; respectively) and the speed decrease along the 25 m test lowered after the training period (82.5 ± 76.3%, p = 0.01). The training mesocycle caused a reduction in the active drag at speeds corresponding to 70% (5.0 ± 3.9%), 80% (5.6 ± 4.0%), and 90% (5.9 ± 4.0%), but not at 100% (5.9 ± 6.7%), of the swimmers’ maximal exertions in the 25 m test. These results showed that four weeks of predominantly aerobic training could improve master swimmers’ performance and reduce their hydrodynamic drag while swimming mainly at submaximal speeds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Activities, Health and Wellbeing)
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Article
Modelling the 200 m Front-Crawl Performance Predictors at the Winter Season Peak
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 2126; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17062126 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1268
Abstract
This study aimed to identify potential predictors of 200 m front crawl performance at the winter season peak based on the anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical domains. Twelve expert male swimmers completed an incremental 7 × 200 m step test immediately after their most [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify potential predictors of 200 m front crawl performance at the winter season peak based on the anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical domains. Twelve expert male swimmers completed an incremental 7 × 200 m step test immediately after their most important winter competitions. Measurements were made of: (i) height, body mass and arm span as anthropometrical parameters; (ii) velocity at a 4 mmol·L−1 lactate concentration (V4), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2máx) and energy cost (C), as physiological parameters; (iii) stroke frequency (SF), stroke length (SL), stroke index (SI) and propelling efficiency (ηp) as biomechanical indicators; and (iv) 200 m front crawl race time in official long course competitions. Spearman correlation coefficients identified V4 as the single factor having significant relationship with performance. Simple regression analysis determined V4, SI and arm span as the most relevant variables of each group. Multiple linear regression models showed that physiological factors explained better (59%) the variation in performance at this stage of the season, followed by the biomechanical (14%) ones. Therefore, V4 can be one important aspect for training control and diagnosis for those who want to achieve success in the 200 m front crawl at the winter season peak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquatic Activities, Health and Wellbeing)
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