Special Issue "Cigarettes and Tobacco Advertising"

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Alan Mathios
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Policy Analysis and Management, College of Human Ecology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Interests: economics of information; tobacco; harm reduction; health claims; regulation of advertising
Prof. Dr. Donald Kenkel
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Policy Analysis and Management, College of Human Ecology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Interests: economics of health behaviors; tobacco; harm reduction; cost-benefit analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The World Health Organization estimates that smoking contributes to over 7 million deaths per year around the world. Reducing this number can occur by reducing the onset of cigarette smoking, helping cigarette smokers to quit, or reducing the number of cigarettes current smokers consume. This Special Issue will focus on the role that cigarette advertising, marketing and promotion plays in influencing these outcomes.  Contributions that focus on advertising and marketing strategies by tobacco companies that might encourage onset, deter cessation, or increase demand are relevant. Papers that evaluate the effectiveness of the broad set of public policies that govern the advertising and marketing of cigarettes on onset, cessation, or demand are especially welcome. Examples include (but are not limited to) partial or complete bans of cigarette advertising, the regulation of warning labels, plain packaging requirements, and prohibitions on the sale/marketing of menthol and other flavored cigarettes. Research that focuses on how regulations that govern alternative tobacco products (such as e-cigarettes) interact with and influence the effectiveness of policies focused on cigarette advertising also fits within the scope of this Special Issue. This Special Issue anticipates including papers that cover a diverse set of countries, either by publishing research focused on tobacco firm strategies and government policies within a country or by comparing firm strategies and government policies across countries. 

Disclaimer: We will not accept research funded in part or full by any tobacco companies in this Special Issue. For more details, please check: https://0-www-mdpi-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/1660-4601/15/12/2831/htm.

Prof. Dr. Alan Mathios
Prof. Dr. Donald Kenkel
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cigarettes
  • tobacco-advertising
  • flavors
  • onset
  • cessation
  • demand
  • plain-packaging
  • warning labels
  • e-cigarettes
  • regulation

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Exploring How Exposure to Truth and State-Sponsored Anti-Tobacco Media Campaigns Affect Smoking Disparities among Young Adults Using a National Longitudinal Dataset, 2002–2017
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7803; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18157803 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 252
Abstract
Background. Little is known regarding long-term impacts of anti-tobacco media campaigns on youth smoking and related disparities in the United States. Methods. We examined longitudinal cohort data from Monitoring the Future (MTF) between 2000 and 2017 in modified Poisson regression models to understand [...] Read more.
Background. Little is known regarding long-term impacts of anti-tobacco media campaigns on youth smoking and related disparities in the United States. Methods. We examined longitudinal cohort data from Monitoring the Future (MTF) between 2000 and 2017 in modified Poisson regression models to understand the long-term impacts of televised Truth and state-sponsored ad campaign exposure at baseline (age 18) on first cigarette and daily smoking initiation 1 to 2 years later (at modal ages 19/20). We also used additive interactions to test for potential effect modification between campaign exposure and smoking outcomes by sex, race/ethnicity, and parental educational attainment. Results. We found no evidence for baseline media campaign exposure to be associated with first cigarette or daily smoking initiation at modal age 19/20. Further, results showed no evidence for effect modification between campaign exposure and first cigarette or daily smoking initiation. Conclusions. We found no evidence that baseline Truth and state-sponsored ad exposure was associated with first cigarette or daily smoking initiation at follow up, nor did we find any evidence for effect modification by sex, race/ethnicity, or parental education. We hypothesize that anti-tobacco media campaigns might have had a short-term impact on smoking behaviors, though these effects were not sustained long term. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cigarettes and Tobacco Advertising)
Article
Effect of Message Approach and Image Size on Pictorial Health Warning Effectiveness on Cigarette Pack in Indonesia: A Mixed Factorial Experiment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6854; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136854 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 667
Abstract
Background: Cigarette consumption remains high and increasing in Indonesia. The government implemented a pictorial health warnings requirement of 40% cover of the pack (front and back) using fear appeal messages. Objective: Our study aims to assess the effectiveness of cigarette pictorial health warnings [...] Read more.
Background: Cigarette consumption remains high and increasing in Indonesia. The government implemented a pictorial health warnings requirement of 40% cover of the pack (front and back) using fear appeal messages. Objective: Our study aims to assess the effectiveness of cigarette pictorial health warnings by message and size. Methods: We conducted a mixed factorial experiment online study using three messaging approaches (fear vs. guilt vs. financial loss) and two picture sizes (40% vs. 75%) among 209 smoking participants. Sociodemographic variables included gender, education, income, employment status, and marital status. Data analysis used a mixed model ANOVA to see the main effect and interaction effect on dependent variables. For subgroup analysis, we used t-test and one-way ANOVA. All analyzes were in SPSS 22. Results: We found significant differences in the three message types, in which fear and guilt have higher effectiveness than financial loss. By subgroup, the guilt message was more compelling among female smokers and married smokers. The financial loss message was effective among lower-income smokers. We found no difference in pictorial health warning effectiveness by image size, potentially because participants could zoom in/out the cigarette pack image on the screen. Conclusions: Our finding supports more diverse message types in pictorial health warnings in Indonesia and other countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cigarettes and Tobacco Advertising)
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Article
Is Youth Smoking Related to the Density and Proximity of Outdoor Tobacco Advertising Near Schools? Evidence from Indonesia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2556; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18052556 - 04 Mar 2021
Viewed by 988
Abstract
Background: Smoking was among the top contributors to deaths and disability as the prevalence among male adults remains high, and that among male youth increases in Indonesia. While local studies have shown high visibility of outdoor tobacco advertising around schools, the country still [...] Read more.
Background: Smoking was among the top contributors to deaths and disability as the prevalence among male adults remains high, and that among male youth increases in Indonesia. While local studies have shown high visibility of outdoor tobacco advertising around schools, the country still has no outdoor tobacco advertising ban. Objective: To examine the association between youth smoking behavior and measures of outdoor tobacco advertising density and proximity in Indonesia. Methods: We combined two primary data sources, including outdoor tobacco advertising and smoking behavior among male youth in Semarang city. We randomly selected and interviewed 400 male students at 20 high schools in the city. In addition, we interviewed 492 male adults who lived near the schools for comparison. Results: We found significant associations between smoking use among youth (but not among adults) and measures of outdoor tobacco advertising density and proximity in Semarang city. Youth at schools with medium and high density of outdoor tobacco advertising were up to 2.16 times more likely to smoke, compared to those with low density. Similarly, youth at senior high schools with proximity to outdoor tobacco advertising were 2.8 times more likely to smoke. Also, young people at poorer-neighborhood schools with a higher density of and proximity to outdoor tobacco advertising were up to 5.16 times more likely to smoke. Conclusions: There were significant associations between smoking use among male youth (but not among male adults) and measures of outdoor tobacco advertising density and proximity in Indonesia. This highlights the need to introduce an outdoor tobacco advertising ban effectively, at least near schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cigarettes and Tobacco Advertising)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Effect of message approach and image size on pictorial health warning effectiveness on cigarette pack in Indonesia: A mixed factorial experiment
Authors: Reny Yuliati; Billy Koernianti Sarwono; Abdillah Ahsan; Dian Kusuma
Affiliation: Imperial College London
Abstract: Background: Cigarette consumption remains high and increasing in Indonesia. The government implemented pictorial health warnings requirement of 40% cover of the pack (front and back) using fear-appeal message. Objective: Our study aims to assess the effectiveness of cigarette pictorial health warning by message and size. Methods: We conducted a mixed factorial experiment online study using 3 messaging approaches (fear vs. guilt vs. financial loss) and 2 picture sizes (40% vs. 75%) among 209 smoking participants. Sociodemographic variables included gender, education, income, employment status, and marital status. Data analysis used a mixed model ANOVA to see the main effect and interaction effect on dependent variables. For subgroup analysis, we used t-test and one-way ANOVA. All analyzes were in SPSS 22. Results: We found significant differences in the three message types, in which fear and guilt have higher effectiveness than financial loss. By subgroup, guilt message was more compelling among female smokers, smokers with children; and employed smokers. Financial loss message was effective among low-income smokers. We found no difference of pictorial health warning effectiveness by image sizes, potentially because participants could zoom in/out the cigarette pack image on the screen. Conclusion: Our finding supports a more diverse message types in pictorial health warnings in Indonesia and other countries.

Title: Exploring How Exposure to Truth and State-Sponsored Anti-Tobacco Media Campaigns Affect Smoking Disparities among Young Adults Using a National Longitudinal Dataset, 2002-2017
Authors: David C. Colston; Yanmei Xie; James F. Thrasher; Sherry Emery; Megan E. Patrick; Andrea R. Titus; Michael R. Elliott; Nancy L. Fleischer
Affiliation: Center for Social Epidemiology and Population Health, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Abstract: Background. Little is known regarding long-term impacts of anti-tobacco media campaigns on youth smoking and related disparities in the United States. Methods. We examined longitudinal cohort data from Monitoring the Future (MTF) between 2000 and 2017 in modified Poisson regression models to understand the long-term impacts of televised Truth and State-sponsored ad campaign exposure at baseline (age 18) on first cigarette and daily smoking initiation 1 to 2 years later (at modal ages 19/20). We also used additive interactions to test for potential effect modification between campaign exposure and smoking outcomes by sex, race/ethnicity, and parental educational attainment. Results. We found no evidence for baseline media campaign exposure to be associated with first cigarette or daily smoking initiation at modal age 19/20. Further, results showed no evidence for effect modification between campaign exposure and first cigarette or daily smoking initiation. Conclusions. We found no evidence that baseline Truth and state-sponsored ad exposure was associated with first cigarette or daily smoking initiation at follow up, nor did we find any evidence for effect modification by sex, race/ethnicity, or parental education. We hypothesize that anti-tobacco media campaigns might have had a short-term impact on smoking behaviors, though these effects were not sustained long-term.

Title: Corruption, Change in Tobacco Smoking Habits and Cardiovascular Mortality in Developed Countries
Authors: Moran Shechnick; Israel Waismel-Manor; Patricia Moy; Udi Nussinovitch
Affiliation: 1. School of Political Science, University of Haifa, Haifa 3498838, Israel 2. Department of Communication, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA 3. Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel; 4. Department of Cardiology and Applicative Cardiovascular Research Center (ACRC), Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba 44281, Israel
Abstract: Aims: Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality worldwide, and evidence points to smoking as a major preventable cause of such diseases. However, countries may differ in their attitudes toward tobacco. This may be attributed in part to stakeholders that may encourage politicians not to act against tobacco. Corruption may influence the economy, create social inequalities, and lower public trust in government. We aim to investigate the association between corruption and cardiovascular health in western societies and hypothesize there will be a previously undetermined association between the two. Methods: Data were derived from the OECD statistics database and the Transparency International database to calculate the average Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) score for all 36 OECD members between 2012 and 2019. Correlations were evaluated between cardiovascular health and related morbidity and deaths, and average CPI scores. Results: All-cause mortality was significantly associated with average CPI score. Similar significant correlations were found between average CPI score and acute myocardial infarction-related deaths, ischemic heart disease-related deaths, CVA-related deaths, preventable mortality, and treatable mortality. A significant correlation was found between the average annual decrease in the percentage of smokers and CPI score. Countries with above-median CPI score had a greater annual decrease in the percentage of smokers. Conclusion: Lower corruption levels are significantly associated with cardiovascular health in OECD countries. These findings suggest that the low influence of tobacco companies on governments contributes to the observed associations in non-corrupt countries and illustrate the need to further study the link between corruption and public health.

Title: Theory-Based Social and Non-social Engagement Features in Smoking Cessation Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis
Authors: Qinghua Yang
Affiliation: Department of Communication Studies, Bob Schieffer College of Communication. Texas Christian University, Box 298045 Fort Worth, TX 76129, USA
Abstract: Despite the ubiquity of smartphone ownership and the increasing integration of social engagement features in smoking cessation apps to engage users, the social and non-social engagement features that are present in current smoking cessation apps and the effectiveness of these features in engaging users remain understudied. To fill the gap in the literature, a content analysis of free and paid smoking cessation mobile apps was conducted to examine a) the presence of social features (i.e., social support, social announcement, social referencing) and non-social engagement features (e.g., personal environmental changes, goal setting, progress tracking, reinforcement tracking, self-monitoring, personalized recommendations), and b) their relationships with user engagement scores measured by the Mobile App Rating Scale. The findings not only contribute to the mobile communication literature by applying and extending the theory-based mobile health apps engagement typology, but also inform future architecture design of smoking cessation mobile apps.

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