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Special Issue "Dark Traits Influence on Health and Risk Behaviors"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Pablo Clemente Espinosa Breen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychology, University of A Coruña, 15001 A Coruñ, Spain
Interests: dark traits; moral disengagement; risk behavior; antisocial behavior; sexual aggression
Prof. Dr. Miguel Clemente
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychogy, University of A Coruña, 15001 A Coruña, Spain
Interests: legal psychology; child custody; dark traits; violence; antisocial behavior
Dr. Valdiney V. Gouveia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Psychology, Federal University of Paraiba, Joao Pessoa 58051-900, Brasil
Interests: personality; human values; subjective well-being; prosocial behavior; antisocial behavior

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There are many attitudes and cognitive and personality variables that explain detrimental behaviour towards others across all domains. These traits share common features related to opportunistic behaviour, self-centeredness and disregard for the well-being of others.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to establish how dark traits affect health and risk behaviors in order to provide cues for intervention, and is open to contributions within this scope. There is a wealth of research on how these traits predict behaviors that place others at risk (i.e., aggression, delinquency, bullying, mobbing, sexual harassment), and many of these behaviors also have negative short-term and long-term outcomes for the perpetrator. Evidence for how dark traits influence health behavior is more limited, although they have been related to risky sexual behaviour, social networking sites addiction, risky driving, gambling, smoking, binge drinking and especially substance use.

Dr. Pablo Clemente Espinosa Breen
Prof. Miguel Clemente
Dr. Valdiney V. Gouveia
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • dark factors of personality
  • dark triad
  • moral disengagement
  • psychopathy
  • narcissism
  • machiavellianism
  • health behavior
  • risk behavior

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Article
Revenge in Couple Relationships and Their Relation to the Dark Triad
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7653; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147653 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Background: This research examines how, when a romantic partner commits a perceived transgression that leads to couple break up, vengeful reactions are predicted by the type of transgression and the Dark Triad of personality. Methods: An incidental sample of 2142 participants, half male [...] Read more.
Background: This research examines how, when a romantic partner commits a perceived transgression that leads to couple break up, vengeful reactions are predicted by the type of transgression and the Dark Triad of personality. Methods: An incidental sample of 2142 participants, half male and half female aged 18 to 70, completed a questionnaire developed by the authors to assess how they had reacted after being the perceived victims of a transgression committed by their partner and a measure of the Dark Triad. Results: Results show half of the people who feel as though they are victims of a partner transgression show revenge reactions. These reactions are more emotional than rational and do not usually anticipate their consequences or success. Moreover, revenge is related primarily to psychopathy and to a lesser extent to Machiavellianism. Psychopathy is the best predictor for revenge thoughts and actions, whereas narcissism does not predict revenge when controlling for other dark traits. Conclusions: This study contributes to the explanation of revenge reactions in couple relationships in relation to the type of transgression perceived and the Dark Triad. Conflicts that arise out of revenge may have long-lasting consequences for both the perceived aggressor and victim, and our results may be useful for assessing risks, monitoring, and preventing negative consequences for partners or ex-partners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dark Traits Influence on Health and Risk Behaviors)
Article
Health and Risk Behaviors of Bystanders: An Integrative Theoretical Model of Bystanders’ Reactions to Mistreatment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5552; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115552 - 22 May 2021
Viewed by 545
Abstract
This article constructs a comprehensive theoretical model that outlines bystanders’ emotional and behavioral responses to the mistreatment of adolescent peers. The model captures bystanders’ risk and health risk behaviors, which have been overlooked in the context of their reactions; when addressed at all [...] Read more.
This article constructs a comprehensive theoretical model that outlines bystanders’ emotional and behavioral responses to the mistreatment of adolescent peers. The model captures bystanders’ risk and health risk behaviors, which have been overlooked in the context of their reactions; when addressed at all in connection with bystanders of bullying among adolescents, they have been treated separately. Here, we present bystanders’ emotional and cognitive reactions and their impact on bystanders’ responses including a set of responses that demonstrate risk and health risk behaviors that are directed to the bystander as a victim by proxy. The theoretical framework is the conservation of resources theory, which posits that personal resources (i.e., potency and moral disengagement) and social resources impact the process that leads to bystanders’ reactions. Previous models have overlooked the integrative viewpoint of bystanders, and comprehensive models that explain bystanders’ behavioral and emotional responses have received little attention especially with regards to adolescents. Two recent models overlooked core features embedded in the current model, including the risk and health risk behaviors that it integrates. The proposed model presents a novel and more comprehensive view of bystanders’ reactions and the process underlying these reactions. It integrates existing knowledge embedded in other existing models. At the same time, this perspective indicates the centricity of potency as a key resource that dictates the emotional response and behaviors of bystanders. This potentially allows for new applications in the mitigation of adverse impacts that follow the witnessing of mistreatment. The article discusses these applications, which are based on previous findings, their implications for practice, and directions for future empirical research necessary to validate the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dark Traits Influence on Health and Risk Behaviors)
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Article
Intimate Partner Aggression Committed by Prison Inmates with Psychopathic Profile
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5141; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18105141 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 449
Abstract
Psychopathy and intimate partner aggression (IPA) are two concepts that usually appear concomitantly. Male violence toward women is often considered a psychopathic trait that sometimes involves the woman’s homicide by her partner and, at other times, attempted homicide. This phenomenon has been studied [...] Read more.
Psychopathy and intimate partner aggression (IPA) are two concepts that usually appear concomitantly. Male violence toward women is often considered a psychopathic trait that sometimes involves the woman’s homicide by her partner and, at other times, attempted homicide. This phenomenon has been studied by conducting interviews following Hare’s model with 92 men incarcerated under a compliance regime in a Spanish prison (Córdoba). The results detected six explanatory factors of IPA as a result of attempted homicide or homicide: criminal past and delinquency, impulsivity, the need to stand out from others, lack of empathy, manipulation of others, and instability in partner relationships. The first two factors predict a occurrence of high scores on Hare’s Psychopathy Checklist. The results are discussed, and future lines of research are presented, especially focused on the concept of dehumanization and revenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dark Traits Influence on Health and Risk Behaviors)
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Article
Beyond the Pale: Dark Traits and Close Relations Influence Attitudes toward COVID-19 and the Rejection of Quarantine Rules
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4838; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094838 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 763
Abstract
Dark personality traits are predictors of detrimental behavior (e.g., selfishness or violating norms). This research examined the influence dark personality traits on attitudes toward the COVID-19 pandemic and quarantine rules. We determined whether specific dark traits could predict non-compliance, beyond the global measure [...] Read more.
Dark personality traits are predictors of detrimental behavior (e.g., selfishness or violating norms). This research examined the influence dark personality traits on attitudes toward the COVID-19 pandemic and quarantine rules. We determined whether specific dark traits could predict non-compliance, beyond the global measure of dark personality traits. Additionally, previous research suggests that people are more likely to violate rules for the benefits of close relations, rather than for their own self-interests. We examined how this tendency interacts with dark traits. The 823 participants in the study completed measures of the dark triad, moral disengagement, and attitudes toward COVID-19 rules, and responded to vignettes about themselves or close relations escaping quarantine. Using a bifactor model approach, results showed that a general dark factor predicted non-compliance to COVID-19 rules, but that some moral disengagement mechanisms contributed to non-compliance beyond this factor. Vignette results showed that participants were more willing to break quarantine rules for a close relation than for themselves, except for those high in moral disengagement, who broke rules more—regardless of who was involved. These findings have important implications for intervention programs and policies, since individuals with dark traits tend to “selfishly” trespass norms, but anyone can “go beyond the pale, i.e., go outside the limits of acceptable behavior, for a loved one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dark Traits Influence on Health and Risk Behaviors)
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Article
Narcissism and Exercise Addiction: The Mediating Roles of Exercise-Related Motives
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4243; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084243 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1593
Abstract
The present research examined whether the associations that narcissistic personality features had with exercise addiction were mediated by particular motives for engaging in exercise in a large Israeli community sample (N = 2629). The results revealed that each aspect of narcissism was [...] Read more.
The present research examined whether the associations that narcissistic personality features had with exercise addiction were mediated by particular motives for engaging in exercise in a large Israeli community sample (N = 2629). The results revealed that each aspect of narcissism was positively associated with exercise addiction. Narcissistic admiration and narcissistic rivalry had similar positive indirect associations with exercise addiction through the interpersonal motive for exercise. However, these aspects of narcissism diverged in their indirect associations with exercise addiction through psychological motives, body-related motives, and fitness motives for exercise such that these indirect associations were positive for narcissistic admiration but negative for narcissistic rivalry. Narcissistic vulnerability had positive indirect associations with exercise addiction through body-related motives and fitness motives that were similar to those observed for narcissistic admiration. These results suggest that exercise-related motives may play important roles in the associations that narcissistic personality features have with exercise addiction. The discussion will focus on the implications of these results for understanding the complex connections between narcissism and exercise addiction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dark Traits Influence on Health and Risk Behaviors)
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Article
Our Vulnerable Dark Side—Two Laboratory Approaches
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 3941; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18083941 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 641
Abstract
The Dark Triad of personality has been associated with aggression against others as a reaction to perceived provocations. However, previous work has also shown that such responsive aggression even occurs if it means harming oneself. The first of two laboratory studies aimed to [...] Read more.
The Dark Triad of personality has been associated with aggression against others as a reaction to perceived provocations. However, previous work has also shown that such responsive aggression even occurs if it means harming oneself. The first of two laboratory studies aimed to investigate whether this relation between the Dark Triad and self-harming behavior also occurs in situations where no others are affected but self-harm is likely. The second laboratory study considered two different settings in a within-participants design in order to analyze the stability of self-harming behavior and to what extent the Dark Triad constructs influence this behavior. The sample for study 1 consisted of 151 students (45.7% female) with a mean age of 21.40 years (SD = 2.19); the sample for study 2 consisted of 251 students (76.0% female) with a mean age of 22.21 years (SD = 3.90). Aside from the Dark Triad’s common core, depending on how self-harm was triggered (ego-threat (mainly narcissism), being alone with one’s own thoughts (mainly psychopathy), or reward condition (mainly Machiavellianism)), the Dark Triad traits differed in their responsiveness but were stable over the last two conditions, thereby suggesting a vulnerable side of the Dark Triad. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dark Traits Influence on Health and Risk Behaviors)
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Article
Associations between Dark Triad and Ambivalent Sexism: Sex Differences among Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7754; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17217754 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2747
Abstract
The Dark Triad traits (DT; Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) have been repeatedly labeled as a constellation of traits that are characterized by a dishonest and self-focused approach to interpersonal relations. Personality psychologists suggest that these traits make some people more susceptible than others [...] Read more.
The Dark Triad traits (DT; Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism) have been repeatedly labeled as a constellation of traits that are characterized by a dishonest and self-focused approach to interpersonal relations. Personality psychologists suggest that these traits make some people more susceptible than others to intergroup bias, threat, and aggression. Thus, in order to delve into a psychological profile prone to accepting and justifying sexist attitudes, the aims of the current study were to analyze the presence of DT and sexist attitudes in a sample of 367 adolescents (Mage = 15.12, SD = 0.88; 50.1% males), find out the relationships that DT has with both hostile and benevolent sexism, and analyze the relevant differences between sexes in these relationships. The results indicated higher scores in DT and Ambivalent sexism for males. The correlations of Machiavellianism with psychopathy, and psychopathy with narcissism revealed significantly higher associations in males than females. The structural equation modeling of the bifactorial model, characterized by a global latent factor that encompasses the common characteristics of DT—along with the three specific factors of Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism—showed that the global latent factor of DT was related to both hostile and benevolent sexism in males and females. Singularly, narcissism was related to benevolent sexism in males, and psychopathy was related to hostile sexism in females. Finally, this research discusses the implications of these results on the implementation of positive models of interpersonal relationships in adolescence towards dating violence prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dark Traits Influence on Health and Risk Behaviors)
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Article
Dark Triad Traits and Risky Behaviours: Identifying Risk Profiles from a Person-Centred Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6194; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17176194 - 26 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1434
Abstract
The relationship between Dark Triad traits and risky behaviours has been shown in recent years. However, few studies have attempted to disentangle this relationship using a person-centred approach. The goal of the current study was to identify subgroups of individuals on the basis [...] Read more.
The relationship between Dark Triad traits and risky behaviours has been shown in recent years. However, few studies have attempted to disentangle this relationship using a person-centred approach. The goal of the current study was to identify subgroups of individuals on the basis of their scores on Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism and analyse the differences between them in a set of risky behaviours (i.e., frequency of substance use, reactive and proactive aggression, risk perception and risk engagement, and problematic internet use). The sample consisted of 317 undergraduates aged 18–34 (46% males). The results of the latent profile analysis showed five subgroups of individuals that were identified based on their scores on the Dark Triad traits: low-Dark Triad, narcissistic, Machiavellian/narcissistic, psychopathic, and Machiavellian/psychopathic. Overall, the Machiavellian/narcissistic and Machiavellian/psychopathic subgroups showed higher scores for most risky behaviours. The low-Dark Triad scored higher for risk perception. No significant differences between subgroups were found as regards frequency of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use. These findings suggest that the combination of the Dark Triad traits lead to more negative outcomes as regards risky behaviour than individual components. Moreover, they highlight the relevance of using a person-centred approach in the study of dark personalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dark Traits Influence on Health and Risk Behaviors)
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