Special Issue "Global Health and Infection"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Economics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Mustafa Z. Younis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Health Economics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS 39217, USA
Interests: health economics and finance; global Health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We call for papers for a Special Issue that focuses on Global Health and Infection. The interconnected fluid network formed by the flow of cash, commodities, humans, and vectors helps spread infectious diseases among conurbations in this globalized world. The current emergence and spread of COVID-19 is actually the epitome of globalization. Infectious agents are experiencing a great bonanza from this newfangled globalization marked by faster travel and freer trade. Infectious diseases not only affect individual health but also negatively impact quality of life, social wellbeing, equity, employment, income, national security, and even political stability.

The aim of this Special Issue is to help disseminate innovative scholarship and strategies to advance global health, with a particular focus on infection and its far-reaching ramifications.

Original research, reviews, perspectives, and research notes on any topic relevant to global health and infection are welcome. Multidisciplinary manuscripts related to all aspects of communicable diseases of global significance and/or their association with non-communicable diseases will be considered. Additionally, manuscripts on health equity, global health security, implementation research, social determinants of health, disease burden, population health, and other urgent and neglected global health issues are welcome.

The Journal will adhere to rigorous standards of peer review and consider all manuscripts on the basis of ethical and methodological integrity and potential to contribute to the extant body of knowledge. We welcome quality articles in the above areas from scholars from around the world.

Prof. Dr. Mustafa Younis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Global Health
  • Public Health
  • Health Economics & Finance

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Article
Postoperative Drip-Infusion of Remifentanil Reduces Postoperative Pain—A Retrospective Observative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9225; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18179225 - 01 Sep 2021
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Development of remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia (RIH) postoperatively is an unpleasant experience that requires further treatment. This study assessed the effects of gradual withdrawal combined with drip infusion of remifentanil on postoperative pain and the requirement for rescue analgesics. A total of 559 patients receiving [...] Read more.
Development of remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia (RIH) postoperatively is an unpleasant experience that requires further treatment. This study assessed the effects of gradual withdrawal combined with drip infusion of remifentanil on postoperative pain and the requirement for rescue analgesics. A total of 559 patients receiving total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil were enrolled. All patients either underwent gradual withdrawal of remifentanil (GWR) or gradual withdrawal combined with drip infusion (GWDR) with a dose of 1 mcg·kg−1 for 30 min after extubation. The numeric rating scale (NRS) and the requirement of rescue analgesics were assessed. The requirement for rescue analgesics was significantly lower in the GWDR group than in the GWR group (13.2% vs. 35.7%; p < 0.001). At the post-anesthetic care unit (PACU), patients in the GWDR group had a lower NRS pain score (p < 0.001). In addition, in the postoperative 2nd hour, patients in the GWDR group had a significantly lower NRS than the GWR group (beta, −0.31; p = 0.003). No remifentanil-related adverse effects were observed. We found that gradual withdrawal combined with drip infusion of remifentanil required less rescue analgesics and reduced pain scores. The new way of remifentanil administration may be effective to prevent RIH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Health and Infection)
Article
Common Symptoms of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Work Functioning of Active-Duty Service Members with a History of Deployment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8079; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158079 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 751
Abstract
This study used data from the Military Health System Data Repository to examine the association between mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) and work functioning such as work duty limitations, hospital emergency room visits and inpatient admissions for active-duty service members (ADSMs). Further, this [...] Read more.
This study used data from the Military Health System Data Repository to examine the association between mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) and work functioning such as work duty limitations, hospital emergency room visits and inpatient admissions for active-duty service members (ADSMs). Further, this study assessed the role that common symptoms of mTBI play in work functioning. Multivariate results showed that having a mTBI diagnosis is not a major factor that results in being “released with work duty limitations”. However, findings from these regression models also showed that the interaction of mTBI with cognitive and linguistic symptoms resulted in odds of 3.63 (CI: 1.40–9.36, p < 0.01) for being “released with work duty limitations” and odds of 4.98 (CI: 1.16–21.39, p < 0.05) for having any emergency department visits compared to those with no diagnosis of mTBI and none of these symptoms. Additionally, the interaction of mTBI with sleep disturbance and chronic pain showed odds of 2.72 (CI: 1.31–5.65, p < 0.01) and odds of 11.56 (CI: 2.65–50.44, p < 0.01) for being “released with work duty limitations” compared to those with no diagnosis of TBI and none of these symptoms, respectively. Further research is needed to investigate the association between mTBI and duration of time off work to provide a comprehensive understanding of the effect of mTBI on work functioning in the Military Health System. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Health and Infection)
Article
The Mediating Role of Gaming Disorder in the Effect of Narcissism on Happiness in Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 7137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18137137 - 03 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1166
Abstract
We aimed to determine the relationship between gaming disorder, narcissism, and happiness levels of children between the ages of 9 and 15. This study was based on the compensation theory. The sample consists of 461 boys who continue their education in public schools [...] Read more.
We aimed to determine the relationship between gaming disorder, narcissism, and happiness levels of children between the ages of 9 and 15. This study was based on the compensation theory. The sample consists of 461 boys who continue their education in public schools in Istanbul. In the study, a mixed research design, which nests qualitative data into quantitative, was used. In addition to the scales and sociodemographic form, the Draw-a-Person test was also used to better understand children’s inner world. According to the findings, there is a significant relationship between gaming disorder and narcissism and happiness levels in children. Accordingly, as narcissism increases in children, the gaming disorder level increases, and happiness decreases. We also found a mediation effect in the impact of narcissism on happiness through gaming disorder. According to the results, we think that the problem is not caused by the individual but by society. For a solution, we recommend making more macro-level social work interventions within the framework of system theory instead of the current medical model in combating gaming disorder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Health and Infection)
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Article
The Role of Family Influence and Academic Satisfaction on Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Happiness
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5919; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115919 - 31 May 2021
Viewed by 1407
Abstract
Careers are a reality of life that need to be considered as multi-dimensional in today’s modern societies. Choosing a career is a complex process that coincides with high school and university ages, creating psycho-social stress. Considering the literature, the effects of different environmental [...] Read more.
Careers are a reality of life that need to be considered as multi-dimensional in today’s modern societies. Choosing a career is a complex process that coincides with high school and university ages, creating psycho-social stress. Considering the literature, the effects of different environmental factors have been revealed in separate studies. This study examines both individual and environmental factors together. By adopting a quantitative research method, we collected cross-sectional data through online questionnaires from 1130 university students. The association of family influence and academic satisfaction with happiness through career decision self-efficacy was meaningful using gender, age, income, and parents’ education as control variables. Family influence and academic satisfaction were positively correlated with career decision self-efficacy and happiness. In conclusion, we found that family influence and support, students’ work, and academic satisfaction are positively significant in terms of the career process and happiness. It was understood that the career reality should be considered with a holistic view that includes family, school, and work experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Health and Infection)
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Article
Public Response, Anxiety and Behaviour during the First Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic in Saudi Arabia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4628; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094628 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 676
Abstract
This study aims to investigate public response attitude, anxiety, practices and trust in the authorities’ mitigation plan during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. A national cross sectional phone survey was conducted among Saudi residents aged 16 years and above. A total of [...] Read more.
This study aims to investigate public response attitude, anxiety, practices and trust in the authorities’ mitigation plan during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. A national cross sectional phone survey was conducted among Saudi residents aged 16 years and above. A total of 90,421 (45.2%) individuals participated in the study. Of those, the overall rate of COVID-19 correct knowledge was 82% (mean: 9.84); social media was the most reported source of knowledge. Younger age, low levels of education and foreign residents were associated with poor knowledge. Overall, 49.5% scored 5 or more on the GAD-7 test, indicating anxiety symptoms, 19.2% of them scored 10 and above, suggesting moderate to severe anxiety. Majority of participants (>78%) trusted and supported the interventions implemented by the government to control COVID-19. Social distancing practices among participants was as following, 72.5% stayed at home and avoid going out for nonessential business and 49.5% avoided attending social events and family gatherings. Trust in authorities, being anxious, worry and levels of knowledge about the disease, were the most common factors affecting adoption of the recommended practices. Continuous evaluation of public response about COVID-19, and the effectiveness of protective measures is essential to better inform policy-makers and identify ways of encouraging behaviour change among public during pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Health and Infection)
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Article
The Financial Burden of Cancer on Families in the United States
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(7), 3790; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18073790 - 05 Apr 2021
Viewed by 789
Abstract
This study examined the relationship between a diagnosis of cancer and the likelihood of having any out-of-pocket costs (OOPC) and medical debt, and the amounts of OOPC and medical debt, at the household level. We used the 2013 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, [...] Read more.
This study examined the relationship between a diagnosis of cancer and the likelihood of having any out-of-pocket costs (OOPC) and medical debt, and the amounts of OOPC and medical debt, at the household level. We used the 2013 Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a continuous, representative panel survey that collects demographic, economic, and social data in the United States. The analytic sample included head of households and their spouse (if married), 18–64 years old. Two-part models were used. The first part consisted of logistic regression models and the second part consisted of generalized linear models with logarithmic link and a gamma distribution. Logistic regression results showed odds of 2.13 (CI: 1.27, 3.57, p < 0.01) for any OOPC and odds of 1.55 (CI: 0.93, 2.58, p < 0.1) for any medical debt for households in which either the head or spouse (if married) reported a diagnosis of cancer compared to those that did not report a diagnosis of cancer. Likewise, results from the second part of the model for households with a positive amount of OOPC showed an exponentiated coefficient of 1.73 (CI: 1.33, 2.25, p < 0.01) for households in which either the head or spouse (if married) reported a diagnosis of cancer compared to households without a diagnosis of cancer. This study shows that a diagnosis of cancer places a financial burden on families, particularly with all types of debt, in the United States even after controlling for differences between households with a diagnosis of cancer and those without a diagnosis of cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Health and Infection)
Article
Health Risks, Preventive Behaviours and Respiratory Illnesses at the 2019 Arbaeen: Implications for COVID-19 and Other Pandemics
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3287; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18063287 - 22 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1056
Abstract
COVID-19 poses grave challenges for mass gatherings. One of the world’s largest annual gatherings, Arbaeen, occurs in Iraq. We studied respiratory symptoms and risk and protective factors using representative sampling of Arbaeen pilgrims in 2019 to inform prevention of COVID-19 transmission. Structured sampling [...] Read more.
COVID-19 poses grave challenges for mass gatherings. One of the world’s largest annual gatherings, Arbaeen, occurs in Iraq. We studied respiratory symptoms and risk and protective factors using representative sampling of Arbaeen pilgrims in 2019 to inform prevention of COVID-19 transmission. Structured sampling was used to recruit walking pilgrims. A questionnaire asked about respiratory symptoms, risk, and preventive factors, including hygiene-related resources of toilet facilities. The commonest symptom reported by the 1842 participants (63.3% male, 36.7% female) was cough (25.6%). Eating in mawkibs (rest areas) with indoor kitchens and drinking only packaged water were associated with lower risk of cough (AOR = 0.72, CI = 0.56–0.94; AOR = 0.60; CI = 0.45–0.78, p < 0.05). Facemask use was associated with increased risk of cough (AOR = 2.71, CI = 2.08–3.53, p < 0.05). Handwashing was not protective against cough, or against (one or more of) cough, fever, or breathlessness in multivariate analysis. Toilet facilities often lacked running water (32.1%) and soap (26.1%), and had shared hand towels (17%). To reduce risk of respiratory infections including COVID-19 during Arbaeen or other mass gatherings, needs include running water, soap, and hygienic hand drying options or hand sanitiser. Education on proper handwashing and facemask approaches and monitoring around food preparation and eating spaces are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Health and Infection)
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Article
Extreme Temperatures and Firm-Level Stock Returns
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2004; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18042004 - 19 Feb 2021
Viewed by 694
Abstract
By linking stock returns with weather conditions from 2007 to 2019 in China, we study how firm-level stock returns react to extreme temperatures. Based on a multivariate ordinary least squares regression model with fixed effects, empirical results show that firm-level stock returns decrease [...] Read more.
By linking stock returns with weather conditions from 2007 to 2019 in China, we study how firm-level stock returns react to extreme temperatures. Based on a multivariate ordinary least squares regression model with fixed effects, empirical results show that firm-level stock returns decrease with exposure to extreme temperatures. We further explore the heterogeneity in the temperature-return relation to enrich our understanding of the economic mechanism behind it. The impact of extreme temperatures on abnormal stock returns is more pronounced in smaller, younger, more volatile, less profitable firms and firms with more intangible assets. The results indicate that the investor mood likely plays a role in the extreme temperature effect. The impact of extreme temperatures holds after addressing a series of concerns. Overall, our paper provides additional firm-level evidence on the environment-induced mood effect in the stock market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Health and Infection)
Article
The Psychological Consequences of COVID-19 Fear and the Moderator Effects of Individuals’ Underlying Illness and Witnessing Infected Friends and Family
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1836; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041836 - 13 Feb 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2713
Abstract
The COVID-19 virus has become a fearful epidemic for people all over the world. In Turkey, long quarantine periods and curfews have increased both physical and psychological problems. Due to the rapid spread and substantial impact of the COVID-19 virus, different psychological effects [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 virus has become a fearful epidemic for people all over the world. In Turkey, long quarantine periods and curfews have increased both physical and psychological problems. Due to the rapid spread and substantial impact of the COVID-19 virus, different psychological effects were observed among different segments of society, such as among young people, elderly people, and active workers. Because of fear caused by the COVID-19 virus, it is thought that depression, stress, and anxiety levels have increased. It is estimated that there are more psychological issues for people with poor health and others whose friends or family became ill or have died because of COVID-19. To explore and test the situation mentioned above, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Turkey with 3287 participants above 16 years old. We measured COVID-19 fear, along with anxiety, stress, and depression levels (DASS21) and demographics. Firstly, we tested whether COVID-19 fear predicts stress, anxiety, and depression. Secondly, we investigated if the effect of COVID-19 fear is stronger for those who have underlying illness and for those whose friends or family became ill or have died because of COVID-19. The results showed that women and 16–25 years old youths have higher COVID-19-related fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Furthermore, we found a significant relationship between COVID-19 fear and stress, anxiety, and depression, as well as significant moderation effects of having an underlying illness and having friends or family who were infected or have died. These results show the importance of implementing specific implementations, particularly for vulnerable groups, to minimize the psychological problems that may arise with the pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Health and Infection)
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Article
Hand Hygiene Knowledge, Perception, and Practices among Domestic Visitors to the Prophet’s Mosque in Al Madinah City Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 673; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020673 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1434
Abstract
This study aimed to assess hand hygiene knowledge, perception, and practices of visitors to the Prophet’s Mosque in Al Madinah City, Saudi Arabia. Using a self-administered electronic questionnaire, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among domestic residents, who visited the mosque between 31 July [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess hand hygiene knowledge, perception, and practices of visitors to the Prophet’s Mosque in Al Madinah City, Saudi Arabia. Using a self-administered electronic questionnaire, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among domestic residents, who visited the mosque between 31 July and 3 August 2020. Participants’ demographic data, hand hygiene knowledge, perception, and practices were collected. Four hundred participants aged 18–65 (median 36) years completed the survey, of which 215 (53.8%) were female. The visitors’ mean knowledge score about hand hygiene was 6.4 (± standard deviation (SD) 1.35) of total 12. Most participants (392, 98%) were aware of the role of hand hygiene in preventing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19); nevertheless, 384 (96%) said hand hygiene lowers body immunity and 316 (79%) thought <60% alcohol is sufficient for hand disinfection. Males had a higher knowledge score than females (6.46 (±1.41) vs. 6.14 (±1.27), p = 0.02) and, visitors who had no formal education scored higher than those with post-graduate education (6.88 (±1.45) vs 5.73 (±1.12), p = 0.01). Washing hands with soap and water was the predominant method practiced after a meal (365, 91.7%), after toilet visit (354, 88.5%), after touching a surface (262, 65.7%), after waste disposal (332, 83.2%), and when hands were visibly dirty (357, 89.5%). Al Madinah visitors had moderate knowledge about hand hygiene, but demonstrated some knowledge gaps and negligence in practice that are crucial to curb the spread of COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Health and Infection)
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