Special Issue "Health-Related Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic"

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Rubén López-Bueno
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physical Medicine and Nursing, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: health habits; diet; physical activity; screen time; lifestyle; physical fitness; occupational health
Dr. Yasmín Ezzatvar
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Exercise Intervention for Health Research Group (EXINH-RG), Department of Physiotherapy, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Interests: health habits; pain; exercise; musculoskeletal disorders; occupational health; neuroscience; physical fitness
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Guillermo Felipe López Sánchez
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Murcia, 30720 Murcia, Spain
Interests: health habits; diet; physical activity; screen time; lifestyle; physical fitness; occupational health; sedentarism
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue “Health-Related Behaviors during the COVID-19 Pandemic” in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is open for the submission of manuscripts. This peer-reviewed scientific journal publishes articles and communications in the area of environmental health sciences and public health, with an impact factor of 2.849. For detailed information on the journal, go to https://0-www-mdpi-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/journal/ijerph.

Although it is well-known that confinement-related measures contribute to slow down the spread of SARS-CoV-2, this might also imply a radical change in the lifestyle of the population, disrupting usual daily activities. These changes of health-related behaviors such as insufficient physical activity, lower fruit or vegetable consumption, higher screen exposure, or alcohol consumption above the recommended levels might have negative effects on health. Further, the potential change of daily routines due to restriction measures might vary the schedules and family-related planification involving different occupational habits (e.g., higher sitting time, longer working days, or different movement patterns), which might influence either musculoskeletal or mental health.

For this Special Issue, high-quality observational, experimental, and review studies that provide evidence about the status of health-related behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic and their potential consequences over health are welcomed.

Dr. Rubén López-Bueno
Dr. Yasmín Ezzatvar
Dr. Guillermo Felipe López Sánchez
Dr. Lee Smith
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • exercise
  • diet
  • health habits
  • physical fitness
  • occupational health
  • lifestyle
  • screen time
  • sleep time
  • mental health

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

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Article
Anxiety and Worries among Pregnant Women during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multilevel Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6875; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18136875 - 26 Jun 2021
Viewed by 529
Abstract
Background. Several studies have identified pregnant women as a vulnerable group during the COVID-19 pandemic. The perinatal period has been identified as a stage of great risk for the mental health of pregnant women, due to a large increase in mental pathologies [...] Read more.
Background. Several studies have identified pregnant women as a vulnerable group during the COVID-19 pandemic. The perinatal period has been identified as a stage of great risk for the mental health of pregnant women, due to a large increase in mental pathologies during this period. In this context, the objective of the present study was to assess the associations between socioeconomic and demographic factors, health concerns and health information management, and anxiety level during the COVID-19 pandemic in pregnant Spanish women. Method. The sample of this cross-sectional study was comprised of 353 pregnant women, aged 18 or older and residing in Spain. Data collection was carried out from 1 June to 30 September 2020. Participants were recruited from Quirónsalud University Hospital of Madrid. Multilevel regression models were built to value the associations between demographic factors, health concerns and health information management, and anxiety level during the COVID-19 pandemic among pregnant women. Results. Reduced working hours and income due to the COVID-19 pandemic were related to increased anxiety levels, as was the level of concern about COVID-19 symptoms, potential complications, contagion and consequences for the baby. Worries caused by restrictive measures adopted against COVID-19 and resulting isolation, delivery, postpartum and breastfeeding were also associated with increased anxiety levels. Being a separated or divorced woman and being informed to a greater extent by a midwife were related to lower anxiety levels. An increase in the degree of information obtained about COVID-19 symptoms, complications, contagion and consequences for the baby, restrictive measures and isolation adopted against COVID-19, delivery, postpartum and breastfeeding, were also related to decreased anxiety levels. Conclusions. The most vulnerable future mothers in terms of anxiety levels are those with reduced working hours and income due to the COVID-19 pandemic, those with a higher level of concern and who had access to a lesser degree of information about COVID-19 (symptoms and complications, contagion and consequences on the baby, restrictive measures and isolation, delivery, postpartum and breastfeeding), as well as pregnant women who have obtained information about COVID-19 during pregnancy from TV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
Effect of a Warm-Up Protocol with and without Facemask-Use against COVID-19 on Cognitive Function: A Pilot, Randomized Counterbalanced, Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5885; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115885 - 30 May 2021
Viewed by 919
Abstract
The present study aimed to verify the effect of a warm-up protocol with and without facemask-use on cognitive function. The sample was composed of 17 healthy, non-smoking physical education students (age = 17.6 years, height = 1.71 m, and body mass = 69.7 [...] Read more.
The present study aimed to verify the effect of a warm-up protocol with and without facemask-use on cognitive function. The sample was composed of 17 healthy, non-smoking physical education students (age = 17.6 years, height = 1.71 m, and body mass = 69.7 kg). They were randomized to perform 15 min of warm-up exercises, while wearing a cloth facemask (EXP) or no mask (CON) on two separate occasions, with at least 48-h separating conditions. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and d2 Attention assessment were used to verify cognitive function, using a repeated measures general linear model. The warm-up improved cognitive abilities and the results demonstrated significant differences between the EXP vs. CON groups in post-concentration performance (186.06 ± 15.47 EXP-score vs. 178.12 ± 13.66 CON-score), post the total number of errors (23.47 ± 14.50 EXP-frequency < 29.06 ± 13.74 CON-frequency), and in the post RPE (6.0 ± 1.37 EXP-index > 4.7 ± 0.85 CON-index). Wearing a cloth facemask caused positive effects on cognitive function. This data suggests that wearing a cloth facemask during warm-up may stimulate/improve the cognitive function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
Pain Status and Its Association with Physical Activity, Psychological Stress, and Telework among Japanese Workers with Pain during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5595; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115595 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 667
Abstract
Changes in working styles and physical activities, and an increase in psychological stress during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, may have affected pain conditions among workers with pain; however, these associations are still poorly understood. Therefore, we conducted a web-based, cross-sectional study [...] Read more.
Changes in working styles and physical activities, and an increase in psychological stress during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, may have affected pain conditions among workers with pain; however, these associations are still poorly understood. Therefore, we conducted a web-based, cross-sectional study to investigate these changes among Japanese workers suffering from pain. A total of 1941 workers who were aged 20–64 years and suffered from body pain within 4 weeks prior to the study were included. Information was collected using a self-reported questionnaire between July and August 2020. Among the respondents, 15% reported that their pain worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic. Approximately half of the workers claimed to have decreased physical activity (47%) and increased psychological stress (47%) during the pandemic. Multivariable logistic regression analyses found that telework (odds ratio 2.27, 95% confidence interval 1.68–3.06), decreased physical activity (3.18, 2.38–4.27), and increased psychological stress (2.16, 1.64–2.84) were associated significantly with pain augmentation. The group of workers who participated in telework and had decreased physical activity comprised the highest proportion of those with augmented pain. Our findings suggest that measures, which consider physical activities, psychological aspects, and working styles, to alleviate pain may be required for the working population in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Article
Depressive Symptomatology and Practice of Safety Measures among Undergraduate Students during COVID-19: Impact of Gender
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4924; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094924 - 05 May 2021
Viewed by 879
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected the personal and academic lives of undergraduates in Saudi Arabia. Although studies have suggested that COVID-19 increased the prevalence of psychological health problems among undergraduates, the associations between the risk of depression and safety practices and the [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly affected the personal and academic lives of undergraduates in Saudi Arabia. Although studies have suggested that COVID-19 increased the prevalence of psychological health problems among undergraduates, the associations between the risk of depression and safety practices and the influence of gender on these associations have not been studied in detail. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among preparatory-year undergraduates in a large public university in Saudi Arabia during the outbreak. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and the practice of eight precautionary behaviors was also assessed. Data analysis was performed using the chi-square test, multiple linear regression and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. In total, 3044 undergraduates were surveyed. The mean age was 18.6 years (SD = 0.84), and 61.9% (n = 1883) of the participants were female. Overall, 47.7% of the participants reported having elevated depressive symptoms. Overall mean values of CES-D scores were higher among female undergraduates than that of male undergraduates (18.08 versus 15.56, p < 0.01). There were inverse and weak but significant relationships between the CES-D score and frequent cleaning of hands (male: r = −0.116, p < 0.01; female: r = −0.098, p < 0.01), wearing a mask when going out (male: r = −0.172, p < 0.01; female: r = −0.135, p < 0.01), keeping social distance (male: r = −0.117, p < 0.01; female: r = −0.147, p < 0.01), and covering the nose when sneezing (male: r = −0.202, p < 0.01; female: r = −0.115, p < 0.01). Regression analysis indicated that adherence to precautionary measures was a strong predictor of reduction of depressive symptoms in the target population. Male gender was also found to be an independent predictor of reduction of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were highly prevalent in this target group, and female undergraduates seemed to be more vulnerable to developing such symptoms. Results also indicated that female undergraduates were more likely to implement the protective measures for COVID-19. The promotion of precautionary measures seems to be effective in reducing distress in this target population, but further research is needed to confirm our assertions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
Nonattendance at Scheduled Appointments in Outpatient Clinics Due to COVID-19 and Related Factors in Taiwan: A Health Belief Model Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4445; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094445 - 22 Apr 2021
Viewed by 599
Abstract
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of hospital visits and attendance at scheduled appointments have dropped significantly. We used the health belief model (in three dimensions) to examine the determinants of non-attendance of scheduled appointments in outpatient clinics due to the COVID-19 pandemic. [...] Read more.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of hospital visits and attendance at scheduled appointments have dropped significantly. We used the health belief model (in three dimensions) to examine the determinants of non-attendance of scheduled appointments in outpatient clinics due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants in Taiwan (n = 1954) completed an online survey from 10 April 10 to 23 April 2020, which assessed how people perceived and responded to the outbreak of a fast-spreading infectious disease. We performed both univariate and multivariate logistic regression to examine the roles of cognitive, affective, and behavioral health belief constructs in nonattendance at scheduled appointments. The results indicated that individuals who perceived high confidence in coping with COVID-19 were less likely to miss or cancel their doctor’s appointments, whereas individuals who reported high anxiety and practiced more preventive health behaviors, including avoiding crowded places, washing hands more often, and wearing a mask more often, were more likely to miss or cancel their appointments due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Non-heterosexual participants had a lower rate of nonattendance at scheduled appointments compared with heterosexual ones. The study results increase our understanding of the patients’ cognitive health beliefs, psychological distress, and health behaviors when assessing adherence to medical appointments during a pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
The Relationship between Cognitive Function, Lifestyle Behaviours and Perception of Stress during the COVID-19 Induced Confinement: Insights from Correlational and Mediation Analyses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3194; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18063194 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1073
Abstract
Background: Home confinement during the COVID-19 outbreak may affect lifestyle behaviours, such as daily physical activity, social relationships, eating behaviours, and sleep, among others, which in turn may compromise mental health and psychological states. The aim of the present study was to [...] Read more.
Background: Home confinement during the COVID-19 outbreak may affect lifestyle behaviours, such as daily physical activity, social relationships, eating behaviours, and sleep, among others, which in turn may compromise mental health and psychological states. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of COVID-19-induced home confinement on stress, attention, and lifestyle behaviours and the correlations between them. Methods: Participants included 144 students (aged 18–22 years, 62.5% female, 89.5% single). Stress, attention, and lifestyle behaviours were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), d2 test, and the Simple Lifestyle Indicator Questionnaire adapted and modified (SLIQ), respectively. Total PSS score, concentration performance (CP), errors (E), and lifestyle behaviours (e.g., diet, exercise/activity, alcohol, and smoking) before and during confinement were calculated. Results: The data showed a significant difference between before and during confinement in total PSS, CP, E, and all lifestyle behaviours (all, p < 0.05). Significant correlations existed between total PSS score, CP, E, and lifestyle behaviours (r= −87–98, all, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Home confinement has a negative effect on stress, attention, and lifestyle behaviours. This study suggests that the adoption of proper lifestyle behaviours, particularly diet, disciplined hygiene, and physical activity, boost health, psychological states, and cognitive function during COVID-19-induced confinement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
COVID-19 Confinement and Sexual Activity in Spain: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2559; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18052559 - 04 Mar 2021
Viewed by 895
Abstract
Restrictions of free movement have been proven effective in tackling the spread of COVID-19 disease. However, sensitive populations submitted to longer periods of restrictions may experience detrimental effects in significant areas of their lifestyle, such as sexual activity. This study examines sexual activity [...] Read more.
Restrictions of free movement have been proven effective in tackling the spread of COVID-19 disease. However, sensitive populations submitted to longer periods of restrictions may experience detrimental effects in significant areas of their lifestyle, such as sexual activity. This study examines sexual activity during the COVID-19 confinement in Spain. A survey distributed through an institutional social media profile served to collect data, whereas chi-squared tests, t-tests, analyses of variance, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess differences among sample subgroups. A total of 71.3% adults (N = 536) (72.8% female) reported engaging in sexual activity with a weekly average of 2.39 times (SD = 1.80), with significant differences favoring males, middle age, married/in a domestic relationship (p < 0.001), employed (p < 0.005), medium–high annual household income, living outside the Iberian Peninsula, and smoking and alcohol consumption. Analyses adjusted for the complete set of control variables showed significant odds for a lower prevalence of weekly sexual activity in women (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.27–0.72). Interventions to promote sexual activity in confined Spanish adults may focus on groups with lower sexual activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Sleep and Self-Regulation in Spanish Preschoolers during the COVID-19 Lockdown
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 693; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020693 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3902
Abstract
Background: A better understanding of the effects of the lockdown on lifestyle behaviors may help to guide the public health response to COVID-19 at a national level and to update the global strategy to respond COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study was [...] Read more.
Background: A better understanding of the effects of the lockdown on lifestyle behaviors may help to guide the public health response to COVID-19 at a national level and to update the global strategy to respond COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on device-measured physical activity (PA), sedentary time, sleep and self-regulation; and to determine whether PA and sleep are related to self-regulation problems during the lockdown. Methods: PA, sedentary time and sleep were assessed using accelerometry in the week in which the Spanish national state of alarm was declared (n = 21). Parents reported preschooler’s self-regulation difficulties (internalizing and externalizing) before (n = 268) and during the lockdown (n = 157) by a validated questionnaire. Results: Preschoolers showed a decrease in total PA (mean difference [MD] = −43.3 min per day, 95% CI −68.1 to −18.5), sleep efficiency (MD = −2.09%, 95% CI −4.12 to −0.05), an increase in sedentary time (MD = 50.2 min per day, 95% CI 17.1 to 83.3) internalizing (MD = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.28) and externalizing (MD = 0.33, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.44) problems. Preschoolers who met the World Health Organization recommendations for PA had lower internalizing scores than non-active peers (MD = −1.28, 95% CI −2.53 to −0.03). Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of meeting PA recommendations to reduce psychosocial difficulties during a lockdown situation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
Poor Sleep during the First Peak of the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 306; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18010306 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
The restrictions enacted during lockdown to limit the spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have led to changes in people’s lifestyle habits. In Italy, these restrictions have dramatically changed the way people work and spend their leisure time, also with repercussions on diet [...] Read more.
The restrictions enacted during lockdown to limit the spread of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) have led to changes in people’s lifestyle habits. In Italy, these restrictions have dramatically changed the way people work and spend their leisure time, also with repercussions on diet and physical activity. An anonymous survey was disseminated via websites and social media to a convenience sample of the Italian population during and immediately after the first lockdown (10 March–18 May 2020). Data collected on 1826 individuals show that lockdown might have worsened the quality of sleep of almost half of the participants in this cross-sectional study. This worsening was associated with a deterioration in crucial determinants of health, such as physical activity and diet (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.18–2.40 and OR 4.19; 95% CI 2.51–6.96, respectively), with symptoms of psychological distress, such as tension (OR 3.88; 95% CI 2.74–5.52) and loneliness (OR 3.27; 95% CI 2.23–4.79), and with the presence of financial problems (some OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.27–2.72; many OR 7.27; 95% CI 3.59–14.73). The multivariate regression analysis models confirmed these associations. This impact on sleep quality was seen especially among females, those with low education level, and those who experienced financial problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
Article
Hand-Washing Practices among Adolescents Aged 12–15 Years from 80 Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 138; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18010138 - 27 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
The objectives were to (1) assess the prevalence of hand-washing practices across 80 countries and (2) assess frequency of hand-washing practice by economic status (country income and severe food insecurity), in a global representative sample of adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based [...] Read more.
The objectives were to (1) assess the prevalence of hand-washing practices across 80 countries and (2) assess frequency of hand-washing practice by economic status (country income and severe food insecurity), in a global representative sample of adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey 2003–2017 were analyzed. Data on age, sex, hand-washing practices in the past 30 days, and severe food insecurity (i.e., proxy of socioeconomic status) were self-reported. Multivariable logistic regression and meta-analysis with random effects based on country-wise estimates were conducted to assess associations. Adolescents (n = 209,584) aged 12–15 years [mean (SD) age 13.8 (1.0) years; 50.9% boys] were included in the analysis. Overall, the prevalence of hand-washing practices were as follows: never/rarely washing hands before eating (6.4%), after using toilet (5.6%), or with soap (8.8%). The prevalence of never/rarely washing hands after using the toilet (10.8%) or with soap (14.3%) was particularly high in low-income countries. Severe food insecurity was associated with 1.34 (95%CI = 1.25–1.43), 1.61 (95%CI = 1.50–1.73), and 1.44 (95%CI = 1.35–1.53) times higher odds for never/rarely washing hands before eating, after using the toilet, and with soap, respectively. A high prevalence of inadequate hand washing practices was reported, particularly in low-income countries and those with severe food insecurity. In light of the present COVID-19 pandemic and the rapid expansion being observed in low- and middle-income locations, interventions that disseminate good hand-washing practices are urgently required. Such interventions may also have cross-over benefits in relation to other poor sanitation-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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Review

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Review
Global Impact of COVID-19 on Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors in the Adult Population: A Scoping Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1876; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041876 - 15 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1674
Abstract
Objective: To provide an overview of what is known about the impact of COVID-19 on weight and weight-related behaviors. Methods: Systematic scoping review using the Arksey and O’Malley methodology. Results: A total of 19 out of 396 articles were included. All [...] Read more.
Objective: To provide an overview of what is known about the impact of COVID-19 on weight and weight-related behaviors. Methods: Systematic scoping review using the Arksey and O’Malley methodology. Results: A total of 19 out of 396 articles were included. All studies were conducted using online self-report surveys. The average age of respondents ranged from 19 to 47 years old, comprised of more females. Almost one-half and one-fifth of the respondents gained and lost weight during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. Among articles that examined weight, diet and physical activity changes concurrently, weight gain was reported alongside a 36.3% to 59.6% increase in total food consumption and a 67.4% to 61.4% decrease in physical activities. Weight gain predictors included female sex, middle-age, increased appetite, snacking after dinner, less physical exercise, sedentary behaviors of ≥6 h/day, low water consumption and less sleep at night. Included articles did not illustrate significant associations between alcohol consumption, screen time, education, place of living and employment status, although sedentary behaviors, including screen time, did increase significantly. Conclusions: Examining behavioral differences alone is insufficient in predicting weight status. Future research could examine differences in personality and coping mechanisms to design more personalized and effective weight management interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Behaviours during the COVID-19 Pandemic)
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