Special Issue "Basics of Hygiene in Public Health and Health Promotion"

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Danila de Vito
E-Mail Website
Chief Guest Editor
Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, University of Bari, 70122 Bari, Italy
Interests: public health; dental hygiene; preventive medicine
Prof. Dr. Davide Farronato
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Surgical and Morphological Sciences, Universita degli Studi dell'Insubria, 21100 Varese, Italy
Interests: dentistry; dental hygiene

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Public health decision making can be a complicated process because of the complex nature of inputs and the need for group decision making. Nevertheless, public health research and practice during the last century have gained many notable achievements and contributed to the 30-year gain in life expectancy. Despite these accomplishments, a greater attention to evidence-based approaches may be helpful. In its most straightforward definition, evidence-based public health (EBPH) means applying the principles of evidence-based medicine/practice (EBM/EBP) to the field of public health. However, randomized clinical trials—the gold standard in EBM/EBP—are not always applicable in investigating public health problems. An evidence-based approach to public health and preventive medicine could potentially have numerous direct and indirect benefits, including access to more and higher-quality information on best practice, a higher likelihood of successful prevention programs and policies, greater workforce productivity, and more efficient use of public and private resources.

This Special Issue seeks research papers on various aspects related to the emerging field of evidence-based public health, covering different aspects of the basics of hygiene in public health and health promotion, that is, from evidence generation and evidence synthesis to evidence communication and policy recommendation.

In particular, we encourage the submission of interdisciplinary work and multicountry collaborative research. We welcome submissions of original research papers using different study designs, critical and relevant reviews, including as systematic reviews and meta-analysis, methodological papers, and manuscripts that emphasize theoretical content.

We welcome original research papers using different study designs as well as systematic reviews and meta-analysis.

Prof. Dr. Danila de Vito
Prof. Dr. Marco Tatullo
Prof. Dr. Davide Farronato
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Health promotion
  • Preventive medicine
  • Pandemic diseases
  • Screening
  • Dental hygiene
  • Clinical microbiology
  • COVID-19
  • Medicine and dentistry

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Development and Validation of a Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Questionnaire on COVID-19 (KAP COVID-19)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7493; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147493 - 14 Jul 2021
Viewed by 418
Abstract
Given its highly contagious nature and an absence of a specific antiviral agent to this date, the key to controlling the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and decreasing the infection rate is adherence to preventive measures. It is essential to understand an [...] Read more.
Given its highly contagious nature and an absence of a specific antiviral agent to this date, the key to controlling the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and decreasing the infection rate is adherence to preventive measures. It is essential to understand an individual’s knowledge, attitudes and practices toward COVID-19 since public adherence to health guidelines relies heavily on these aspects. However, there is no validated instrument that evaluates knowledge, attitudes and practices toward COVID-19. Thus, this study aimed to develop and validate such tool. A questionnaire was developed based on international and national guidelines and a review of the literature. Initial items were evaluated by 10 experts to determine content validity. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability testing were conducted with a convenience sample of 229 nursing students. Based on the content, face validity and factor analysis, 34 items were selected. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value of 0.735 indicated a highly acceptable score with a significant Bartlett’s test of sphericity (p < 0.0001). The internal consistency coefficients indicated acceptable reliability of the tool (Cronbach’s α = 0.75). The KAP COVID-19 is a valid instrument that can be used to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices toward COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Basics of Hygiene in Public Health and Health Promotion)
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Article
Diagnostic Accuracy of a New Antigen Test for SARS-CoV-2 Detection
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6310; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18126310 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 586
Abstract
Background and aims: Quick and reliable diagnostic tools play an important role in controlling the spread of the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a new cyto-salivary antigen test aimed at detecting the presence of [...] Read more.
Background and aims: Quick and reliable diagnostic tools play an important role in controlling the spread of the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a new cyto-salivary antigen test aimed at detecting the presence of antigens for SARS-CoV-2, as compared by the gold standard RT-PCR and a lateral flow test. Methods: A total of 433 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study and the sensitivity and specificity of the new cyto-salivary antigen test were calculated, as compared to the RT-PCR nasopharyngeal swab and to the lateral flow test. Results: A total of 433 samples were collected and tested at the Mediterranean Fair in Palermo from February 2021 until April 2021. The new cyto-salivary antigen had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 94.2%. The sensitivity and the specificity of the lateral flow test were 55% and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: The new cyto-salivary antigen test detected more positive cases than the RT-PCR in a sample of asymptomatic subjects, demonstrating to be a promising tool for a more sensitive diagnosis of COVID-19. Further studies are warranted to better characterize its diagnostic accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Basics of Hygiene in Public Health and Health Promotion)
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Article
Serological Profile of Children and Young Adults with at Least One SARS-CoV-2 Positive Cohabitant: An Observational Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1488; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041488 - 04 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
At the end of 2019, a new disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 appeared in Wuhan Province in China. Children seemed to be infected less frequently than adults, and family clusters seemed to play an important role in the spread of the [...] Read more.
At the end of 2019, a new disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 appeared in Wuhan Province in China. Children seemed to be infected less frequently than adults, and family clusters seemed to play an important role in the spread of the pandemic. The aim of this study is to evaluate the serological profile of children and young adults between 4 and 16 years of age in order to assess the transmission patterns of COVID-19 between cohabitants. The subjects lived with at least one cohabitant who tested positive for the disease using a nasopharyngeal swab. To avoid contact with the disease, families were interviewed by telephone. Forty-nine children and adolescents with a mean age of 11 years were then subjected to a rapid lateral flow chromatographic test. Of them, seven (14.3%) were immunoglobulin G (IgG)-positive, and four (8.2%) were immunoglobulin M (IgM)-positive. In total, 16.3% of the tested sample had antibodies against SARS-CoV-2: this may confirm the lower vulnerability of children to COVID-19, despite the small sample size. The time from the negativization of the cohabitant until the test day may have influenced the results, especially when this timeframe is wide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Basics of Hygiene in Public Health and Health Promotion)
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Review

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Review
Encountering Parents Who Are Hesitant or Reluctant to Vaccinate Their Children: A Meta-Ethnography
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7584; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147584 - 16 Jul 2021
Viewed by 474
Abstract
(1) Background: Health professionals play an important role in addressing parents who are hesitant or reluctant to immunise their children. Despite the importance of this topic, gaps remain in the literature about these experiences. This meta-ethnography aimed to synthesise the available body of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Health professionals play an important role in addressing parents who are hesitant or reluctant to immunise their children. Despite the importance of this topic, gaps remain in the literature about these experiences. This meta-ethnography aimed to synthesise the available body of qualitative work about the care experiences of community and hospital health professionals in encounters with parents hesitant or reluctant to vaccinate their children. The aim is to provide key information for the creation of strategies that address vaccine hesitancy or refusal and ensure public trust in vaccination programs, which are required in a pandemic context such as the current one. (2) Methods: Noblit and Hare’s interpretive meta-ethnography of 12 studies was followed. A line of argument synthesis based on a metaphor was developed. (3) Results: The metaphor “The stone that refuses to be sculpted”, accompanied by three themes, symbolises the care experiences of health professionals in their encounters with parents that hesitate or refuse to vaccinate their children. (4) Conclusions: The creation of clearer communication strategies, the establishment of a therapeutic alliance, health literacy and the empowerment of parents are recommended. The incorporation of health professionals in decision making and the strengthening of multidisciplinary teams interacting with such parents are also included. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Basics of Hygiene in Public Health and Health Promotion)
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