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Special Issue "Neuroeducation, Motivation and Physical Activity in Students of Physical Education"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Exercise and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Antonio Baena-Extremera
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Didactic of Corporal Expression, Faculty of Education Sciences, Granada 18071, Spain
Interests: physical education; learning and didactic in physical education; motivation; neuroscience; physical activities in the natural environment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Pedro Jesús Ruiz-Montero
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physical Education and Sport. Faculty of Education and Sport Sciences, Campus of Melilla. University of Granada, 52071 Melilla, Spain
Interests: functional fitness in older-adults; service-learning in physical education; active methodology in higher education
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. David Hortigüela Alcalá
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Specific Didactics, Faculty of Education, University of Burgos, 09001 Burgos, Spain
Interests: physical education; models-based practice; teaching evaluation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, neuroscience and neurodidactics are demonstrating significant progress in improving the teaching and learning process in various subjects, such as physical education. As a reflection of this progress, very interesting studies have appeared in the scientific literature concerning the motivation processes of students and the influence of physical activity on brain processes and structures. In this sense, some papers have explained how physical activity can affect both the psychological aspects related to learning as well as the neuroscientific aspects related to the cognitive functions of students. In addition, recent work has shown that many of these variables can be addressed by the teacher or the student, and a close relationship was found between both the development and evolution of the Physical Education class and its future school performance.

This Special Issue aims to collect the most recent research regarding the Neuroeducation, Motivation and Physical Activity in Students of Physical Education, focusing primarily on the analysis of the variables that can affect students and teachers within the didactics and learning-teaching of Physical Education.

Empirical research, qualitative, quantitative or mixed analysis, systematic reviews, meta-analysis, and case studies involving students of Physical Education will be considered. Longitudinal or cross-sectional studies that track any of these variables annually or even comparing between countries and/or cultures will also be considered. The presentation of other analysis on topics related to Physical Education and psychological and didactic variables are also welcome and encouraged.

Dr. Antonio Baena-Extremera
Dr. Pedro Jesús Ruiz-Montero
Dr. David Hortigüela Alcalá
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • physical education
  • education and neuroeducation
  • teaching and learning models
  • didactic and learning
  • motivation
  • autonomy
  • satisfaction
  • classroom climate
  • physical activity and sport
  • cognitive functions
  • brain processes and structures in learning
  • teacher and students

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Neuroeducation, Motivation, and Physical Activity in Students of Physical Education
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2622; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18052622 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 945
Abstract
In recent years, neuroscience and neurodidactics have demonstrated significant progress in improving the teaching and learning process for various subjects, such as physical education [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Influence of Cooperative Learning Intervention on the Intrinsic Motivation of Physical Education Students—A Meta-Analysis within a Limited Range
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 2989; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18062989 - 14 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1099
Abstract
This study was conducted to explore physical education students’ intrinsic motivation and clarify the influence mechanism of cooperative learning methods on learning intrinsic motivation through meta-analysis. In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) criteria, we screened literature from the [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to explore physical education students’ intrinsic motivation and clarify the influence mechanism of cooperative learning methods on learning intrinsic motivation through meta-analysis. In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) criteria, we screened literature from the years 2000–2020. The included literature underwent bias analysis on the basis of the five criteria proposed herein. Data were extracted and summarized from the included literature to analyze the causality before and after cooperative learning intervention. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine principal factors affecting physical education students’ learning intrinsic motivation. Simultaneously, the influencing mechanism of cooperative learning on physical education students’ intrinsic motivation was clarified. Results revealed that intrinsic motivation had a high total effect amount. In the experimental group, only three documents determined the significant influence of cooperative learning on physical education students’ intrinsic motivation. Moreover, the time and age differences needed to be considered thoroughly during the intervention. Therefore, cooperative learning intervention can improve physical education students’ intrinsic motivation significantly, and meta-analysis provided a theoretical foundation for applying cooperative learning to the teaching of physical education majors. Full article
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Article
Active Methodologies in Physical Education: Perception and Opinion of Students on the Pedagogical Model Used by Their Teachers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1438; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041438 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1259
Abstract
The teaching of physical education today still incorporates innovative methodologies in order to create quality physical education. This article sets out to describe which pedagogical model is used in the initial training of physical education teachers at the University of Granada, from the [...] Read more.
The teaching of physical education today still incorporates innovative methodologies in order to create quality physical education. This article sets out to describe which pedagogical model is used in the initial training of physical education teachers at the University of Granada, from the perspective of the students. The study adopted an exploratory, descriptive and comparative research design, applying a survey to a sample of 303 physical education students. The students perceive that their teachers make use of different organising modalities, methodological strategies and assessment systems that favour the use of active methodologies. The structural equations model for analysing predictive relations between the three methodological components (organising modalities, methodological approaches and evaluation systems) was fitted correctly, obtaining positive relations between the three components. The model also showed positive and negative influences in the opinion of the students in the planning of the teaching–learning methodologies and some of the methodological components. The results indicate that the perception and opinion of the physical education students take on a special role in the development of student-centred methodologies. Full article
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Article
Sports Gamification: Evaluation of Its Impact on Learning Motivation and Performance in Higher Education
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1267; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18031267 - 31 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
In this study, the impacts of sports gamification on college students’ learning motivation and learning performances were explored by training students majoring in physical education to play tennis. A total of 150 students from a physical education college were selected to participate in [...] Read more.
In this study, the impacts of sports gamification on college students’ learning motivation and learning performances were explored by training students majoring in physical education to play tennis. A total of 150 students from a physical education college were selected to participate in this experimental teaching, and they were divided into the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). Based on the above purposes, the differences in the teaching methods and teaching objectives of the EG and the CG is that the former uses games as a key method in tennis teaching. All participants were asked to complete questionnaires, with the purpose of evaluating the learning motivation of tennis before and after sports game intervention. Additionally, the differentiated learning motivation and learning performance between EG and CG before and after experimental teaching was tested and evaluated. Results demonstrate that students in the EG have significantly increased their intrinsic motivation and introjected regulation, thereby showing better results than CG in key test items. In addition, the above result reveals the positive role of sports gamification in promoting the learning motivation and performance of college students. Full article
Article
Development and Validation of a Questionnaire on Motivation for Cooperative Playful Learning Strategies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 960; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18030960 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
Playful learning strategies, such as educational gamification, game-based learning, and escape rooms are increasingly being incorporated into the university education system. In this study, it aims to develop and validate an instrument to analyze motivation regarding the use of playful learning strategies in [...] Read more.
Playful learning strategies, such as educational gamification, game-based learning, and escape rooms are increasingly being incorporated into the university education system. In this study, it aims to develop and validate an instrument to analyze motivation regarding the use of playful learning strategies in university students. A total of 450 university students aged between 18 and 55 (Mean = 22.72; Standard Deviation = 5.01) were part of the sample, with whom playful strategies were implemented during the 2019/2020 school year. The results obtained in the confirmatory factor analysis indicate that the questionnaire on motivation for playful learning strategies has adequate psychometric properties to assess the motivation and perception of student learning in the implementation of ludic strategies in the classroom in the Spanish university context. Full article
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Article
Acute Effect of Cognitive Compromise during Physical Exercise on Self-Regulation in Early Childhood Education
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9325; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17249325 - 13 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1093
Abstract
Self-regulation (SR) in pre-schoolers is a strong predictor of different aspects of mental health and wellbeing. However, SR only recently has been examined concerning physical activity and its effects on cognitive performance. In the present study, 49 preschool children aged 4–5 years were [...] Read more.
Self-regulation (SR) in pre-schoolers is a strong predictor of different aspects of mental health and wellbeing. However, SR only recently has been examined concerning physical activity and its effects on cognitive performance. In the present study, 49 preschool children aged 4–5 years were submitted to classroom movement breaks (CMBs) of 15-min with different degrees of difficulty. Before beginning the intervention, SR (i.e., head, toes, knees and shoulders test, HTKS) and skill levels were assessed for tasks demand adjustment to individual resources and the counterbalanced assignment of the participants to the groups. Similarly, after the intervention, the performance on the HTKS was re-evaluated. There was a general intervention effect on the SR of pre-schoolers, regardless of the difficulty level of the task [F (3) = 11.683, p-value < 0.001, η2p = 0.438]. Nevertheless, it seems that only when CMBs stimulate the children cognitively with optimal difficulty, is it possible to obtain benefits. We recommend providing teachers with professional support when implementing physical activity breaks in their daily program to generate an individualized level of cognitive load that would allow children to reach the optimal challenge point. Full article
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Article
Learning a Motor Skill from Video and Static Pictures in Physical Education Students—Effects on Technical Performances, Motivation and Cognitive Load
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9067; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17239067 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1043
Abstract
The purpose of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of a video and three different formats of static pictures (simultaneous-permanent pictures, sequential-transient pictures and sequential-permanent pictures) on the acquisition and retention of a complex judo skill in novice young adults. One [...] Read more.
The purpose of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of a video and three different formats of static pictures (simultaneous-permanent pictures, sequential-transient pictures and sequential-permanent pictures) on the acquisition and retention of a complex judo skill in novice young adults. One hundred and thirty-three first-year students in the certificate in Physical Education (PE) were randomly assigned to either: a static-simultaneous-permanent pictures condition (n = 30), a static-sequential-transient pictures condition (n = 29), a static-sequential permanent pictures condition (n = 36) or a video condition (n = 38). They were instructed to observe and reproduce a complex judo technique (Ippon-Seoi-Nage) immediately after the learning phase (including a sequence of three trials—the acquisition phase) and after one week without observation (the retention phase). The results showed that the continuous video generated better learning performances than all static pictures formats. Moreover, it has been shown that sequential-permanent pictures presentation was more effective than static simultaneous-permanent pictures and sequential-transient pictures. In addition to the human movement effect, complementary explanations in terms of cognitive load theory, perceptual continuity, mental animation and intrinsic motivation are suggested. Implications of the results for the effective design of instructional materials within PE context are discussed. Full article
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Article
Contributions of Service-Learning on PETE Students’ Effective Personality: A Mixed Methods Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8756; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17238756 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 700
Abstract
Service-learning (SL) is a pedagogical model focused on achieving curricular goals while providing a community service. Previous research suggests that SL might promote qualities such as self-esteem, motivation, problem-focused coping, decision-making, empathy, and communication, which are associated with a psychological construct known as [...] Read more.
Service-learning (SL) is a pedagogical model focused on achieving curricular goals while providing a community service. Previous research suggests that SL might promote qualities such as self-esteem, motivation, problem-focused coping, decision-making, empathy, and communication, which are associated with a psychological construct known as students’ Effective Personality (EP). These studies, however, did not specifically analyse the direct effects of SL on this construct. The aim of this study is to explicitly analyse the effect of SL on Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students’ EP using a mixed methods approach. The quantitative part of the approach followed a quasi-experimental design using the validated “Effective Personality Questionnaire for University Students”, which includes four dimensions: “Academic self-efficacy”, “Social self-realisation”, “Self-esteem”, and “Resolutive self-efficacy”. A non-probabilistic sampling on a total of 181 PETE students was then carried out, with 98 participating in the experimental group (42 male, 56 female), and 83 in the control group (34 male, 49 female). The comparisons revealed significant improvements in the experimental group, especially in the social self-realisation and resolutive self-efficacy dimensions. These findings were complemented by a qualitative analysis of 12 students’ semi-structured interviews. In conclusion, the study reported a positive influence of SL on the PETE students’ EP, providing valuable design patterns for future SL implementations. Full article
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Article
Teachers’ Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Thwarting: Can They Explain Students’ Behavioural Engagement in Physical Education? A Multi-Level Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8573; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17228573 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 798
Abstract
Students’ engagement in Physical Education has been linked to several adaptive consequences. Even though the existing literature suggests that perceived autonomy support can predict engagement, research is scarce on how teachers’ antecedents might influence this behavioural outcome. This study sought to compare the [...] Read more.
Students’ engagement in Physical Education has been linked to several adaptive consequences. Even though the existing literature suggests that perceived autonomy support can predict engagement, research is scarce on how teachers’ antecedents might influence this behavioural outcome. This study sought to compare the influence of teachers’ basic psychological needs’ satisfaction and basic psychological needs’ thwarting on students’ behavioural engagement and on the relationship between perceived autonomy-support and the students’ behavioural engagement. The sample included 29 Physical Education teachers and 644 students who were taught by the participants teachers. Data were collected using both paper and online surveys and they were analysed using multilevel modelling techniques. The results revealed that, while teachers’ autonomy satisfaction might be significant in the explanation of students’ engagement (β = 0.33, p < 0.01), it seems that needs thwarting could be a better predictor of this outcome (β autonomy thwarting = −0.17, p < 0.01; β competence thwarting = −0.06, p < 0.05). These findings suggest the impact of certain external pressures on teachers’ practices which, in turn, might affect students’ behavioural outcomes. Full article
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Article
Acute Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Cortisol and Working Memory in Physical Education College Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8216; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17218216 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1169
Abstract
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is considered one of the most effective methods for improving cardiorespiratory and metabolic functions. However, it is necessary to clarify their effects on neurophysiological responses and coginitive functioning. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effects of an acute [...] Read more.
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is considered one of the most effective methods for improving cardiorespiratory and metabolic functions. However, it is necessary to clarify their effects on neurophysiological responses and coginitive functioning. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effects of an acute bout of HIIT on neurocognitive and stress-related biomarkers and their association with working memory (WM) capacity in healthy young adults. Twenty-five male college students performed a single bout of HIIT consisting of 10 × 1 min of cycling at their VO2 peak power output. Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and cortisol (CORT) levels, and WM (Digit Span Test (DST)), were assessed pre-, post- and 30 min post-intervention. Significant post-exercise increases in circulating BDNF and CORT levels were observed coinciding with the highest DST performance; however, no statistical associations were found between cognitive and neurophysiological variables. Moreover, DST scores obtained 30 min after exercise remained higher than those assessed at pre-exercise. In conclusion, the stress induced by a single bout of HIIT induces a remarkable response of BDNF and CORT boosting WM capacity in healthy young males. Future research should clarify the association between cognitive and neurobiological markers during intense exercise stimulation. Full article
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Article
Gender, Physical Self-Perception and Overall Physical Fitness in Secondary School Students: A Multiple Mediation Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6871; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186871 - 20 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1185
Abstract
Background: Physical self-perception is often related with better physical fitness perception in adolescents. Moreover, it is an important social cognitive perspective to provide suitable mental health in this population. However, this relationship is unequal between boys and girls. The physical fitness is a [...] Read more.
Background: Physical self-perception is often related with better physical fitness perception in adolescents. Moreover, it is an important social cognitive perspective to provide suitable mental health in this population. However, this relationship is unequal between boys and girls. The physical fitness is a marker of health in young population. The aims of the present study were the following: (1) to compare physical self-perception and self-reported overall physical fitness (OPF) between boys and girls (gender) and body mass index (BMI) status, and (2) to determine the mediating role of all physical self-perception subscales (except physical condition) and BMI status in the link between gender and OPF in adolescent students. Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 85 adolescent students of secondary school between 12 and 17 years of age; 41 were boys (Mage = 14.6, SD = 1.7) and 44 were girls (Mage = 14.4, SD = 1.6). Adolescent participants completed all clinical characteristics by body composition measures (age, body weight, body height, and BMI). Physical self-perception was assessed by the physical self-perception profile (PSPP) whereas the international fitness scale (IFIS) was used to predict the self-reported OPF of adolescents in the present study. Results: Gender (boys and girls) differed significantly in all PSPP subscales and OPF, whereas the BMI status (underweight = 19 students, normal weight = 53 students, overweight/obese = 13 students) showed significant differences in all clinical characteristics, physical condition (PSPP), and OPF. A multiple mediation analysis was performed using bias corrected bootstrap. This multiple mediation analysis revealed that all PSPP subscales were significant mediators between gender and OPF: attractive body (p = 0.013), sport competence (p = 0.009), physical strength (p = 0.002), and self-confidence (p = 0.002). The total direct effect of gender on OPF was significant (p = 0.002). Moreover, the multiple mediation estimated a completely standardized indirect of X on Y for attractive body (effect = 0.109), sport competence (effect = 0.066), physical strength (effect = 0.130), and self-confidence (effect = 0.193). Conclusions: These findings contribute to understanding the link between gender and OPF in adolescent students and the mediation of physical self-perception and OPF in this relationship. In addition, strategies focused to improve self-confidence and physical self-perception are necessary in female adolescent students, because boys showed better physical self-perception in all PSPP subscales. Girls are a risk group because they report low physical self-confidence with their respective insecurity feelings and psychological disorders. Thus, personal physical self-perception must be considered as an important social cognitive perspective to provide suitable mental health in children and adolescents. Full article
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Article
Brain Activity during Different Throwing Games: EEG Exploratory Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6796; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186796 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1193
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to explore the differences in brain activity in various types of throwing games by making encephalographic records. Three conditions of throwing games were compared looking for significant differences (simple throwing, throwing to a goal, and simultaneous throwing [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to explore the differences in brain activity in various types of throwing games by making encephalographic records. Three conditions of throwing games were compared looking for significant differences (simple throwing, throwing to a goal, and simultaneous throwing with another player). After signal processing, power spectral densities were compared through variance analysis (p ≤ 0.001). Significant differences were found especially in high-beta oscillations (22–30 Hz). “Goal” and “Simultaneous” throwing conditions show significantly higher values than those shown for throws without opponent. This can be explained by the higher demand for motor control and the higher arousal in competition situations. On the other hand, the high-beta records of the “Goal” condition are significantly higher than those of the “Simultaneous” throwing, which could be understood from the association of the beta waves with decision-making processes. These results support the difference in brain activity during similar games. This has several implications: opening up a path to study the effects of each specific game on brain activity and calling into question the transfer of research findings on animal play to all types of human play. Full article
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Article
Disordered Eating Attitudes, Anxiety, Self-Esteem and Perfectionism in Young Athletes and Non-Athletes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6754; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186754 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2113
Abstract
Eating disorders are associated with short and long-term consequences that can affect sports performance. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether female athletes, particularly gymnasts and footballers, exhibit more eating problems compared to female non-athletes, and to identify individual personality characteristics [...] Read more.
Eating disorders are associated with short and long-term consequences that can affect sports performance. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether female athletes, particularly gymnasts and footballers, exhibit more eating problems compared to female non-athletes, and to identify individual personality characteristics including anxiety, self-esteem, and perfectionism as possible contributors to eating disorder risk. In a sample of 120 participants, 80 adolescent female athletes were compared to a control condition of 40 non-athletes (mean age 17.2 ± 2.82). Participants responded to a questionnaire package to investigate the presence of disordered eating (SCOFF) and psychological variables in relation to disordered eating symptoms or eating disorder status. Subsequently, anthropometric measures were obtained individually by trained staff. There were statistically significant differences between conditions. One of the most important results was the score in SCOFF (Mann–Whitney = 604, p < 0.05; Cohen’s d = 0.52, r = 0.25), being higher in control than in the gymnast condition. These results suggest that non-athlete female adolescents show more disturbed eating behaviours and thoughts than female adolescents from aesthetic sport modalities and, therefore, may have an enhanced risk of developing clinical eating disorders. Full article
Article
Parents’ and Peers’ Autonomy Support and Exercise Intention for Adolescents: Integrating Social Factors from the Self-Determination Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5365; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17155365 - 25 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
Based on the theory of planned behaviour and self-determination theory, the objective of the present study was to analyse the relationship between (i) parents’ and peers’ autonomy support, and (ii) exercise intention in adolescents, while also considering the mediating role of attitude, control, [...] Read more.
Based on the theory of planned behaviour and self-determination theory, the objective of the present study was to analyse the relationship between (i) parents’ and peers’ autonomy support, and (ii) exercise intention in adolescents, while also considering the mediating role of attitude, control, subjective norms, and descriptive norms. A total of 428 secondary school students, aged between 13 and 19 years old (Mage = 15.30, SD = 1.15), filled in a questionnaire assessing the variables of interest. The relationships between the study variables were examined through a mediation model with bootstrapping technique (20,000 samples) using Mplus v. 7 software. The results showed that the perception of parents’ autonomy support was positively and statistically significant associated with exercise intention; this occurring indirectly through attitude and control both in boys and girls, as well as through subjective norms in the case of girls. Conversely, the perception of peers’ autonomy support was positively and statistically significant associated with exercise intention; this occurring directly both in boys and girls, as well as indirectly through attitude in the case of girls. These findings suggest that, by involving a form of pressure (i.e., subjective/descriptive norms), perceptions of autonomy support may play a more important role than other forms of social influence in predicting exercise intention in adolescents. Full article
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Article
Gamification in Physical Education: Evaluation of Impact on Motivation and Academic Performance within Higher Education
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4465; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17124465 - 21 Jun 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3025
Abstract
Gamification is an innovative pedagogical approach to addressing problems related to social behaviour, student motivation and academic performance at different educational stages. Therefore, this research aimed to analyse its impact on the motivations and academic performances of university students. The research was carried [...] Read more.
Gamification is an innovative pedagogical approach to addressing problems related to social behaviour, student motivation and academic performance at different educational stages. Therefore, this research aimed to analyse its impact on the motivations and academic performances of university students. The research was carried out in the training of future teachers specialising in physical education during two academic courses. In total, 127 students participated in the study, divided into a gamified experimental group (n = 62) and a control group (n = 65). The participants completed a questionnaire to assess motivation in physical education before and after the intervention and performed a final exam to assess academic performance. The results indicated an increase in external regulation in the experimental group only. Furthermore, this group achieved significantly better academic performance. The findings of this study suggest that gamified implementation is beneficial for academic performance at the university stage, even though intrinsic motivation does not change. Furthermore, the nature of rewards or punishments, as characteristic of this pedagogical approach, could play an important role in the expected results, since external regulation increased significantly after the intervention. Full article
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Article
Effects of Cooperative-Learning Interventions on Physical Education Students’ Intrinsic Motivation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4451; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17124451 - 21 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1975
Abstract
The aim was to review the effects of cooperative learning interventions on intrinsic motivation in physical education students, as well as to conduct a meta-analysis to determinate the overall effect size of these interventions. The PRISMA guidelines were followed to conduct this systematic [...] Read more.
The aim was to review the effects of cooperative learning interventions on intrinsic motivation in physical education students, as well as to conduct a meta-analysis to determinate the overall effect size of these interventions. The PRISMA guidelines were followed to conduct this systematic review and meta-analysis. The PEDro Scale was used to assess the risk of bias and the GRADE approach was used to evaluate the quality of the evidence. A total of five studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and they were included in the meta-analysis. Effect size for intrinsic motivation of each study was calculated using the means and standard deviations of the Perceived Locus of Causality Scale (PLOC) before and after the intervention. The overall effect size for intrinsic motivation was 0.38 (95% CI from 0.17 to 0.60) while the heterogeneity was large. Although four of the five studies reported significant within-group improvements in intrinsic motivation, only three studies showed significant between-group differences in favor of the experimental group. The findings showed that program duration and participant age may be relevant factors that must be considered by educators and researchers to conduct future effective interventions. Cooperative learning interventions could be a useful teaching strategy to improve physical education students’ intrinsic motivation. However, given the large heterogeneity and the low quality of the evidence, these findings must be taken with caution. Full article
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Article
Impact of Problematic Smartphone Use and Instagram Use Intensity on Self-Esteem with University Students from Physical Education
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4336; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17124336 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3026
Abstract
Mobile devices are a revolutionary element that offer many possibilities, although they can also cause problems for users. This is the case with the development of addictive behaviors that can affect personal well-being. The purpose of this paper has been to analyze the [...] Read more.
Mobile devices are a revolutionary element that offer many possibilities, although they can also cause problems for users. This is the case with the development of addictive behaviors that can affect personal well-being. The purpose of this paper has been to analyze the influence of smartphone addiction and Instagram use intensity on the self-esteem of Physical Education students. A cross-sectional research design was adopted by applying an online survey to a sample of undergraduate students (n = 385). The results showed that gender and age were factors that influenced the problematic use of the smartphone. In turn, there was a significant positive correlation between smartphone addiction and Instagram use intensity. The influence of smartphone addiction on students’ self-esteem was also highlighted. In contrast, Instagram use intensity did not affect self-esteem. Finally, the findings are discussed, and the main implications of the study are established, where physical education students take on a special role in order to avoid the improper use of smartphones and Instagram through sport. Full article
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Article
Perceived Novelty Support and Psychological Needs Satisfaction in Physical Education
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4169; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17114169 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1753
Abstract
In recent years, novelty has been proposed as a potential fourth basic psychological need. In the present study, the behavior of novelty resulting from support from the Physical Education teacher was evaluated in 723 students with an average age of 13.30 years old. [...] Read more.
In recent years, novelty has been proposed as a potential fourth basic psychological need. In the present study, the behavior of novelty resulting from support from the Physical Education teacher was evaluated in 723 students with an average age of 13.30 years old. The first objective was to validate the Support for Basic Psychological Needs-4 (SBPN-4) in Physical Education questionnaire, which included support for the novelty factor. The second objective was to test the mediation model in order to confirm the effect of support for novelty in relation to basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation. The results obtained show that the Support for Basic Psychological Needs-4 (SBPN-4) questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool. On the other hand, support for novelty predicts satisfaction of basic psychological needs, particularly novelty satisfaction, which in turn predicts intrinsic motivation. These results show how the students are capable of perceiving the teacher’s support for novelty and how this positively influences their intrinsic motivation. Further investigations are required to continue developing our knowledge of the role of novelty as a basic psychological need. Full article
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Article
Augmented Reality as a Resource for Improving Learning in the Physical Education Classroom
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3637; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17103637 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
Recently, there has been a proliferation of technopedagogical practices, based on the application of active teaching and learning processes through the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). The main objective of this work is to analyse the impact of training action through [...] Read more.
Recently, there has been a proliferation of technopedagogical practices, based on the application of active teaching and learning processes through the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). The main objective of this work is to analyse the impact of training action through the use of augmented reality in physical education for the development and acquisition of spatial orientation, as opposed to more traditional training based on the exhibition method. The methodology developed is quantitative, through a quasi-experimental design post-test in 140 high school students in the field of physical education. The results indicate that all of the dimensions show a very high, significant relationship. The greatest difference in average is observed in motivation. In contrast, the smallest difference, although significant, is observed in the grades given by the teachers themselves. It can be concluded that the method of teaching through augmented reality is effective in teaching high school students in the subject of physical education, especially for the acquisition of spatially oriented content. Full article
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Article
Influence of Academic Performance, Level of Play, Sports Success, and Position of Play on the Motivation of the Young Football Player
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3374; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17103374 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
Background: Motivation in athletes is a state that fluctuates due to multiple factors that can, in turn, negatively or positively influence sports performance. Objectives: The aim of this study was twofold, being, on the one hand, to analyze the motivation of soccer players [...] Read more.
Background: Motivation in athletes is a state that fluctuates due to multiple factors that can, in turn, negatively or positively influence sports performance. Objectives: The aim of this study was twofold, being, on the one hand, to analyze the motivation of soccer players of developmental age in two different contexts (training time (baseline) and the precompetitive time) depending on the category, sports success and playing position, and, on the other hand, to find relations of the motivation dimensions with the academic performance and physical characteristics of the soccer players. Methods: One hundred and forty-one under 16 (U16) soccer players were selected (age: 14.7 ± 0.5; height: 170.4 ± 7.2 cm; weight: 61.6 ± 10.0 kg). Data on academic performance, physical and socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and in two differentiated moments, the motivation dimensions, both in training and in competition. Results: The results showed that the general motivation decreases with the competition, and in particular, the intrinsic motivation, where the precompetitive evaluation is lower than the basal, in both categories (p < 0.05). In addition, demotivation is explained by 10.2%, 19.8%, and 23.9% by fat mass, by academic performance, and by category, respectively; and the extrinsic motivation of external regulation is explained in 26.0% by the academic performance factor (p < 0.01). Conclusions: U16 soccer players show lower levels of motivation at moments prior to the sports competition, and these dimensions of motivation are explained by the category, academic performance, and fat mass. Full article
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Article
Evaluating Activation and Absence of Negative Effect: Gamification and Escape Rooms for Learning
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2224; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072224 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2354
Abstract
Innovation has allowed for and developed new ways of teaching and learning. Gamification is among the new training methodologies, which is a didactic approach based on the game structure with an attractive component for students. Within gamification, flipped learning and problem-based learning, escape [...] Read more.
Innovation has allowed for and developed new ways of teaching and learning. Gamification is among the new training methodologies, which is a didactic approach based on the game structure with an attractive component for students. Within gamification, flipped learning and problem-based learning, escape rooms can be found as a technical aspect, which is focused on providing enigmas and tracks for the various educational content that students have assimilated through learning based on problem solving. The aim of this study is to identify how the use of gamification with the use of educational escape rooms affects activation and absence of a negative effect on students. 61 Master students of the Autonomous City of Ceuta participated in this case study. They were divided into three study groups (1 control group; 2 experimental groups) that followed different formative actions (control group—traditional; experimental groups—escape rooms). To achieve the objectives, a mixed research design based on quantitative and qualitative techniques was followed. The instrument used for data collection was the GAMEX (Gameful Experience Scale). The results reveal that the students who had taken a gamified formative action through escape rooms obtained better assessment results in the indicators concerning motivation, teamwork, commitment, activation, and absence of a negative effect on the learning process than those with the traditional methodology. Full article
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Review

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Review
The Application of the Teaching Games for Understanding in Physical Education. Systematic Review of the Last Six Years
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3330; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17093330 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2704
Abstract
A systematic review of the research conducted on Teaching Games for Understanding in Physical Education in the last six years (2014–2019), updating and expanding with new categories the last published review by Harvey and Jarret in 2014. Four databases were used to select [...] Read more.
A systematic review of the research conducted on Teaching Games for Understanding in Physical Education in the last six years (2014–2019), updating and expanding with new categories the last published review by Harvey and Jarret in 2014. Four databases were used to select those articles that included information on the implementation of Teaching Games for Understanding in different educational stages. According to PRISMA guidelines and including the PICO strategy after the exclusion criteria, 12 articles were fully assessed based on eight criteria: (1) year and author; (2) country; (3) number of participants, educational level, and duration of implementation; (4) type of research; (5) curricular content; (6) purpose of the research; (7) most relevant results; and (8) learning environment. The results showed how research focuses on both primary and secondary education, primarily in short-term interventions. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed research is used almost equally, and dealt evenly with sports and games, leaving motor skills, physical abilities and body expression underrepresented. Regarding the goals of the studies, motor and cognitive learning were the most frequently assessed, focusing on improvement of game development, such as tactical aspects, decision-making, technical skills or level of physical activity. The implementation of the model is carried out in too short a time to achieve significant outcomes. This review can help researchers and practitioners conduct Teaching Games for Understanding intervention programs in primary and secondary Physical Education. They must be rigorous when they claim that they implement this pedagogical model in schools. Full article
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