Special Issue "Prevention, Health Care and Policies for Populations at High Risk for Overweight and Obesity"

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Dorothea Kesztyüs
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of General Practice, Universitätsklinikum Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany
Interests: overweight, obesity, non-communicable diseases, public health, health services research
Dr. Susanne Kobel
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Sports and Rehabilitation Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Ulm, 89075 Ulm, Germany
Interests: health promotion; primary school children; physical activity; healthy eating and drinking behavior

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Overweight and obesity are omnipresent, as are research and programs to reduce their incidence and prevalence. In recent decades, an obesogenic environment has developed that not only leads to reduced physical activity and increased sedentary behavior but, together with a perpetual supply of obesity-promoting ready-to-eat processed food, creates an almost insurmountable barrier to returning to a healthy lifestyle. Governments hardly fulfill their obligation to protect the population from harmful environmental conditions and an industrial food production that has gone astray. The lobby of the producers of adipogenic food and beverages not only massively resists any restrictions but also influences scientific research by targeted funding. Furthermore, excess weight is not sufficiently addressed in healthcare, while the focus is strongly on sequelae and preventive measures are underrepresented. The decline in life expectancy in the USA is a first indicator of political and social failure. It is now high time for governments to legislate, levy taxes, and take comprehensive measures to address the roots of this pandemic. This requires scientific evidence to identify the best and most cost-effective measures in prevention, healthcare, and policies. Hence, we invite you to share your newest research on these topics with us in this Special Issue.

Dr. Dorothea Kesztyüs
Dr. Susanne Kobel
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • overweight and obesity
  • pandemic
  • prevention and control
  • healthcare
  • policies
  • lifestyle
  • living environments
  • all ages

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Healthy Dietary Choices and Physical Activity Participation in the Canadian Arctic: Understanding Nunavut Inuit Perspectives on the Barriers and Enablers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 940; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18030940 - 22 Jan 2021
Viewed by 841
Abstract
Background: Research shows that unhealthy diets and low physical activity are associated with high rates of obesity-linked chronic diseases amongst Nunavut Inuit. To provide contextual insights and deepen our understanding of the factors that underlie these lifestyle choices, we explored the perspectives of [...] Read more.
Background: Research shows that unhealthy diets and low physical activity are associated with high rates of obesity-linked chronic diseases amongst Nunavut Inuit. To provide contextual insights and deepen our understanding of the factors that underlie these lifestyle choices, we explored the perspectives of Nunavut Inuit on the barriers and enablers of healthy diets and physical activity participation in the community of Iqaluit. Methods: One-on-one semi-structured photo-elicitation interviews were conducted with 16 participants of 18 years and over (10 women, six men). The interviews uncovered the participants’ perspectives on the factors influencing healthy diets and physical activity in their community. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and uploaded to QSR NVIVO Version 12. Data analysis was achieved using an inductive thematic approach. Results: Six main factors were identified as barriers or enablers to energy balance-related behaviors: cost and affordability of healthy choices; availability of traditional foods and activities; weather conditions and climate change; infrastructure and community resources; social networks of family and friends; and effect of substance use. Conclusion: This study identified six broad areas that should be considered while mapping out interventions to reduce the burden of obesity-related chronic diseases in Nunavut communities. Full article
Article
Parental Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of Children’s Nutrition and the Potential Mediator Effect between the Health Promotion Program “Join the Healthy Boat” and Children’s Nutrition
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(24), 9463; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17249463 - 17 Dec 2020
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Overweight and obesity, as well as their associated risk factors for diseases, are already prevalent in childhood and, therefore, promoting healthy eating is important. Parental self-efficacy (PSE) and early health-promotion can be helpful in promoting healthy eating. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
Overweight and obesity, as well as their associated risk factors for diseases, are already prevalent in childhood and, therefore, promoting healthy eating is important. Parental self-efficacy (PSE) and early health-promotion can be helpful in promoting healthy eating. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of PSE on children’s nutrition behavior and identify PSE as a mediator between an intervention and children’s nutrition. The kindergarten-based health-promotion program “Join the Healthy Boat” was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial with 558 children (4.7 ± 0.6 years; 52.3% male) participating at both times. Linear and logistic regressions as well as mediation analyses with potential covariates such as parental outcome expectancies or parental nutrition were carried out using questionnaire data. In children, PSE was positively associated with fruit and vegetable intake (β = 0.237; p < 0.001) and showed a protective effect on soft drink consumption (OR 0.728; p = 0.002). Parental nutrition was a stronger predictor of children’s intake of fruit, vegetables (β = 0.451; p < 0.001), and soft drinks (OR 7.188; p < 0.001). There was no mediator effect of PSE. However, outcome expectancies were associated with PSE (β = 0.169; p = 0.032). In conclusion, interventions should promote self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and healthy nutrition for parents as well in order to strengthen the healthy eating habits of children. Full article
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Article
Intervention Effects of the Health Promotion Programme “Join the Healthy Boat” on Objectively Assessed Sedentary Time in Primary School Children in Germany
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9029; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17239029 - 03 Dec 2020
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Abstract
Sedentary behaviour (SB) in children is related to negative health consequences that can track into adulthood. The programme “Join the Healthy Boat” promotes reduced screen time and a less sedentary lifestyle in schoolchildren. This study investigated the effects of the programme on children’s [...] Read more.
Sedentary behaviour (SB) in children is related to negative health consequences that can track into adulthood. The programme “Join the Healthy Boat” promotes reduced screen time and a less sedentary lifestyle in schoolchildren. This study investigated the effects of the programme on children’s SB. For one year, teachers delivered the programme. A total of 231 children (7.0 ± 0.6 years) participated in the cluster-randomised study; there were 154 one year later at follow-up. Children’s SB was assessed using multi-sensor accelerometery, screen time via parental questionnaire. Effects were analysed using (linear) mixed effects regression models. At baseline, children spent 211 (±89) min daily in SB, at follow-up 259 (±109) min/day with no significant difference between the intervention (IG) and control group (CG). SB was higher during weekends (p < 0.01, for CG and IG). However, at follow-up, daily screen time decreased in IG (screen time of >1 h/day: baseline: 33.3% vs. 27.4%; follow-up: 41.2% vs. 27.5%, for CG and IG, respectively). This multi-dimensional, low-threshold intervention for one year does not seem to achieve a significant reduction in children’s SB, although screen time decreased in IG. Therefore, it should be considered that screen time cannot be the key contributor to SB and should not solely be used for changing children’s SB. However, if screen time is targeted, interventions should promote the replacement of screen time with active alternatives. Full article
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Article
Cardiometabolic Risk Factor in Obese and Normal Weight Individuals in Community Dwelling Men
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8925; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17238925 - 30 Nov 2020
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the cardiometabolic risk factors (CRFs) in community dwelling men based on a combination of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). This cross-sectional study was based on 867 males between the ages of 20 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the cardiometabolic risk factors (CRFs) in community dwelling men based on a combination of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). This cross-sectional study was based on 867 males between the ages of 20 and 71 years. Subjects were categorized into 4 groups by BMI and WC (Group 1, BMI < 25 kg/m2 and WC < 90 cm; Group 2, BMI < 25 kg/m2 and WC > 90 cm; Group 3, BMI > 25 kg/m2 and WC < 90 cm; and Group 4 BMI > 25 kg/m2 and WC > 90 cm). The proportion of subjects with a normal weight with high WC was 3.2%. Among normal weight men with the high range of WC, significantly high Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI were found for hypertriglyceridemia (3.8, 1.8–8.2) and high blood glucose (3.2, 1.5–6.9). The probability that the general obesity group (Group 3) had one CRF was around twice that of the reference group (Group 1) (1.9 to 2.1 times), but Group 2 had probability more than 4 times higher (4.3 to 4.6 times). In community dwelling adult men, normal weight with high waist circumference was associated with the highest cardiometabolic risk. In conclusion, follow-up screening of those with high WC may be necessary to detect and prevent cardiometabolic diseases, particularly for men with a normal weight. Full article
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Brief Report
Overweight and Obesity among Adults in Iraq: Prevalence and Correlates from a National Survey in 2015
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4198; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084198 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 594
Abstract
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among adults in Iraq. Data from a 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 3916 persons 18 years or older (M (median) age = 40 years, IQR (interquartile range) age = [...] Read more.
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among adults in Iraq. Data from a 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 3916 persons 18 years or older (M (median) age = 40 years, IQR (interquartile range) age = 29–52 years; men: M = 41 years, IQR = 29–54 years; women: M = 40 years, IQR = 30–51 years) who responded to a questionnaire, and physical and biochemical measures were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression was utilised to predict the determinants of overweight and obesity relative to under or normal weight. The results indicate that 3.6% of the participants were underweight (body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2), 30.8% had normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), 31.8% were overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), and 33.9% had obesity (BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2). In the adjusted multinomial logistic regression, being aged 40–49 years (compared to 18–39 years old) (adjusted relative risk ratio (ARRR): 4.47, confidence interval (CI): 3.39–5.91), living in an urban residence (ARRR: 1.28, CI: 1.14–2.18), and having hypertension (ARRR: 3.13, CI: 2.36–4.17) were positively associated with obesity. Being male (ARRR: 0.47, CI: 0.33–0.68), having more than primary education (ARRR: 0.69, CI: 0.50–0.94), and having a larger household size (five members or more) (ARRR: 0.45, CI: 0.33–0.60) were negatively associated with obesity. Approximately two in three adult participants were overweight/obese, and sociodemographic and health risk factors were found that can be utilised in targeting interventions. Full article

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Intervention effects of the health promotion programme "Join the Healthy Boat" on objectively assessed sedentary time in primary school children in Germany
Authors: Susanne Kobel
Affiliation: Division of Sports and Rehabilitation Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Ulm, 89075 Ulm, Germany

Title: Associations of early vs. late time-restricted eating with markers of obesity: a secondary analysis of two pilot studies
Authors: Dorothea Kesztyüs
Affiliation: Institute of General Practice, Universitätsklinikum Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany

Title: Parental self-efficacy as a predictor of children's nutrition and its potential mediator effect between the health promotion program—Join the Healthy Boat and children's nutrition
Authors: Ricarda Möhler
Affiliation: Universitätsklinikum Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany

Title: Physical activity and its role in the prevantion of overweight and obesity using the examples of women who train in fitness clubs, run and dance the Tango
Authors: Joanna Witkoś; Magdalena Hartman-Petrycka
Affiliation: Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University, Krakow, Poland

Title: Pediatricians’ views on implementing preventive nutritional counseling in ambulatory care – A qualitative study in Bavaria, Germany
Authors: Curbach, Janina; Brandstetter, Susanne; Leuschner, Berit; Burg, Maria Rosa; Loss, Julika
Affiliation: University of Regensburg

Title: Overweight and obesity in patients with congenital heart disease
Authors: Jan Müller; and his working group from the Institute of Preventive Pediatrics
Affiliation: Technische Universität München

Title: The development of a nutrition and eating behavior screening tool for mental health settings prone to obesity and cardiometabolic complications: rationale and protocol
Authors: Annabel S. Müller-Stierlin; Sabrina Mörkl; Scott B. Teasdale
Affiliation: Ulm University

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