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Special Issue "Parental Socialization Styles in 21st Century and Adolescent Health and Well-being"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Fernando García
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Methodology of the Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Psychology, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Interests: research design; applied statistics; measurement; parenting; self-concept; culture; health; well-being

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Adolescent health and well-being are gaining more and more visibility, and parenting styles act as an important factor in adolescent health and well-being. During the past century, numerous studies have repeatedly demonstrated that the authoritative parenting style (characterized by warmth and strictness) is optimum for children and adolescents. Childhood authoritativeness has been clearly and repeatedly associated with functioning, even in late adulthood. Although classical studies have also widely recognized that authoritarian parenting style (strictness but not warmth) has been related to optimal adjustment in American ethnic minorities, hierarchical collectivism countries, and environments where the consequences of disobeying parental rules may be serious and harmful to the self and others.

On the other hand, current emergent research in the 21st century is beginning to seriously doubt whether parental strictness and the imposition component of authoritative is needed for optimal parenting. Recent emergent findings suggest that adolescents from indulgent households (warmth but not strictness) have similar outcomes, or even better than those from authoritative homes, mainly in horizontal collectivist South-European and South-American countries. However, interestingly, these findings have extended recently to other prototypical individualist countries in Europe (i.e., Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Norway). There is therefore a need for further evidence to revise how the associations of parenting styles with health and well-being vary by culture across the globe.

This Special Issue is open to any high-quality research in the area of the four parenting styles related to evidence associated with adolescent health and well-being.

Prof. Fernando García
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • parenting styles
  • parental warmth and strictness
  • authoritative families
  • indulgent families
  • authoritarian families
  • neglectful families
  • health
  • competence and adjustment
  • risk-factors
  • drug-use
  • behavior problems

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Research

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Article
Role of Parenting Styles in Adolescent Substance Use Cessation: Results from a Brazilian Prospective Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3432; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16183432 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1439
Abstract
Background: This study aims to identify the association between parenting styles and behavioral changes among adolescents regarding the consumption of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine/crack. Methods: A group of ninety-nine adolescents (39 girls and 60 boys), aged 14 to 19 years (17.05 ± 1.51), [...] Read more.
Background: This study aims to identify the association between parenting styles and behavioral changes among adolescents regarding the consumption of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine/crack. Methods: A group of ninety-nine adolescents (39 girls and 60 boys), aged 14 to 19 years (17.05 ± 1.51), who called in to a call center that provides counseling to substance users, was followed-up for 30 days. Data collection occurred between March 2009 and October 2015. The adolescents answered questions regarding parental responsiveness and demanding nature on a scale to assess parental styles and provided sociodemographic data, substance abuse consumption characteristics, and the Contemplation Ladder scale score. Results: The parental styles most reported by the adolescents were authoritative (30%) and indulgent (28%). Children who perceived their mothers as having an indulgent style and who had absent fathers presented more difficulties in making behavioral changes to avoid alcohol and cocaine/crack consumption. Conclusion: The study found that parent-child relationships were associated with a lack of change in the adolescent regarding substance use behavior, particularly the consumption of alcohol and cocaine/crack. Full article
Article
Effects of Parenting Styles on Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Stress in Spanish Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2778; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16152778 - 03 Aug 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2791
Abstract
Research has repeatedly highlighted the important influence of parental socialization styles on children’s psychosocial adjustment. However, previous studies about their effects on school adjustment have traditionally addressed a limited set of indicators, such as academic achievement or self-concept, which should be broadened in [...] Read more.
Research has repeatedly highlighted the important influence of parental socialization styles on children’s psychosocial adjustment. However, previous studies about their effects on school adjustment have traditionally addressed a limited set of indicators, such as academic achievement or self-concept, which should be broadened in order to increase our level of knowledge about this topic. Thus, the aim of the present study was to analyze the relationships between parenting styles and other relevant school adjustment criteria (self-regulated learning and academic stress) in adolescence. The study participants were 437 Spanish adolescents (44.7% men) from 12 to 18 years old (M = 14.55, SD = 1.80) who were enrolled in high school. A multivariate factorial design (parenting × sex × educational level) was used for each set of criteria. The results are consistent with previous research, showing that the indulgent style was related to better school adjustment during adolescence, evaluated through self-regulated learning and academic stress, thus increasing the available evidence about the influence of parenting styles in this setting. Additionally, this relationship remains invariant with regard to sex and the educational level of the participants in the study. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of parenting practices related to high acceptance/involvement for the adequate school adjustment of Spanish adolescents. Full article
Article
The Role of Parenting Styles on Behavior Problem Profiles of Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2767; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16152767 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3250
Abstract
Parental behavior is one of the most influential factors on the development of adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. These behavioral problems are closely related and often co-occur. The objectives of this work were: (i) to identify adolescents profiles according to their behavior [...] Read more.
Parental behavior is one of the most influential factors on the development of adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. These behavioral problems are closely related and often co-occur. The objectives of this work were: (i) to identify adolescents profiles according to their behavior problems; (ii) to explore individual, family, and social characteristics associated with these profiles; and (iii) to analyze the potential role of parenting styles in belonging to adolescents’ profiles. A total of 449 Spanish adolescents (223 from families declared at-risk and enrolled in Child Welfare Services and 226 from families from the general population) participated in this study. The analyses revealed three profiles of adolescents based on external and internal behavior problems (adjusted, external maladjustment, and internal maladjustment). Parenting styles explained the adolescents’ belonging to different profiles, in which the indulgent style was the most favorable in general terms. The distinctive role of parenting styles on two types of maladjustment profiles was confirmed. The relationship between parenting styles and adolescent adjustment is a key component that should be included in interventions according to adolescents’ behavior problem profiles. Furthermore, the results shed light on the need that family interventions are complemented with individualized interventions with adolescents that accumulate stressful life events. Full article
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Article
Perceived Parenting Styles and Adjustment during Emerging Adulthood: A Cross-National Perspective
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2757; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16152757 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2332
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to determine whether the influence of parenting style on children’s wellbeing is sustained during emerging adulthood. This is a stage in which young people, despite feeling themselves to be adults, often remain in the family home [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study is to determine whether the influence of parenting style on children’s wellbeing is sustained during emerging adulthood. This is a stage in which young people, despite feeling themselves to be adults, often remain in the family home and continue to be financially dependent on their parents. Moreover, since parents’ beliefs, attitudes and behaviors are constructed and interpreted within their cultural milieu, the study also aims to explore the situation in Spain (SP) and Portugal (PT). Those two Southern Europe countries are representative of what is known as the “family welfare regime”, in which the family acts as the main provider of care and security not only during childhood, but also during emerging adulthood. Thus, the present study examines, from a cross-cultural perspective, the relationship between perceived parenting styles and psychological adjustment among a sample of 1047 emerging adults from Spain and Portugal. The results reveal that the most beneficial styles during this stage are the authoritative and permissive ones, with the authoritarian style being more closely related to psychological distress. The study highlights intercultural similarities and the positive role played by more symmetrical relationships in the adjustment of emerging adults in both countries. Full article
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Article
Parental Style, Dating Violence and Gender
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2722; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16152722 - 30 Jul 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2470
Abstract
The relationship between parenting styles and teen dating violence has become a relevant research topic in recent years, especially related to violence inflicted online. To more fully understand this relationship, the objective of the present study was to examine which parenting style (authoritarian, [...] Read more.
The relationship between parenting styles and teen dating violence has become a relevant research topic in recent years, especially related to violence inflicted online. To more fully understand this relationship, the objective of the present study was to examine which parenting style (authoritarian, indulgent, authoritative, or neglectful) best protects against dating violence in adolescent relationships. A total of 1132 adolescents of both sexes participated in this study (46.4% boys and 53.6% girls), with ages between 14 and 18 years old (M = 15.6, SD = 1.3). A multivariate factorial design was applied (MANOVA, 4 × 2), using the parenting style, the parents’ gender, and the adolescents’ gender as independent variables, and the dating violence dimensions (online and offline) as dependent variables. As the results show, the lowest scores on all the dating violence dimensions examined were obtained by adolescents from indulgent families. In addition, three interaction effects were observed between the mother’s parenting style and the adolescent’s gender on online violence (e-violence and control), and the father’s parenting style on offline violence (verbal-emotional). Thus, adolescents with authoritarian mothers obtained the highest scores on violence and control inflicted online, respectively, and adolescent girls with authoritarian fathers obtained the highest scores on verbal-emotional violence. These findings suggest that the indulgent style is the parenting style that protects against violence in teen dating relationships, and they also highlight the risks of the authoritarian style as a family child-rearing model. Full article
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Article
Attachment Styles and Well-Being in Adolescents: How Does Emotional Development Affect This Relationship?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2554; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16142554 - 17 Jul 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2760
Abstract
Attachment relationships with parents, as well as emotional competencies, are protective factors against stress and other physical, mental, and relational health symptoms in adolescence. In this paper, we will examine the mediating role of emotional competencies in the relationship between attachment to parents [...] Read more.
Attachment relationships with parents, as well as emotional competencies, are protective factors against stress and other physical, mental, and relational health symptoms in adolescence. In this paper, we will examine the mediating role of emotional competencies in the relationship between attachment to parents and the well-being of adolescents, taking into account the influence of gender. There were 1276 Spanish adolescents between 12 and 15 years old (M = 13.48; SD = 1.09). We measured mother and father attachment relationships (trust, communication and alienation), emotional competencies (perceive and understand emotions, label and express emotions, manage and regulate emotions), and adolescent well-being using the indicators: somatic complaints, stress, satisfaction with life and affectivity. Descriptive analyses, Pearson correlations, and a multi-group path analysis were performed. The results indicated that emotional competencies partially mediate the relationship between attachment to parents and well-being variables. Attachment to one’s mother and father, along with emotional competencies, are relevant variables in adolescent well-being. This highlights the importance of understanding the protective factors of well-being in adolescence, a time when levels of well-being are reduced compared to childhood. Full article
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Article
Relationships between Parental Socialization Styles, Empathy and Connectedness with Nature: Their Implications in Environmentalism
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2461; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16142461 - 11 Jul 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1961
Abstract
Parents exert a strong influence on several adjustment outcomes. However, little is known about their influence on adolescents’ connectedness with the environment. This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, empathy and connectedness with the environment. The two-dimensional socialization model was used with [...] Read more.
Parents exert a strong influence on several adjustment outcomes. However, little is known about their influence on adolescents’ connectedness with the environment. This study examined the relationships between parenting styles, empathy and connectedness with the environment. The two-dimensional socialization model was used with four resulting styles: Indulgent, authoritative, neglectful and authoritarian. The sample comprised 797 adolescents (52.7% girls) from six public secondary schools who were aged between 12 and 16 years (M = 13.94, SD = 1.28). The results showed significant relationships between parental socialization styles, empathy and connectedness with nature. It was also observed that adolescents from indulgent and authoritative families showed higher levels of empathy and connectedness with the environment than adolescents raised by authoritarian and neglectful parents, with males from such families consistently presenting the lowest levels of empathy and connectedness, which was not the case among women. Additionally, women, regardless of the parental style in which they had been educated, showed greater cognitive and emotional empathy with the natural environment, while adolescents raised in indulgent and authoritative families displayed higher levels of empathy and connectedness than those with authoritarian and neglectful parents. These results suggest that indulgent and authoritative styles are stronger enablers of empathy and connectedness with nature. Full article
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Article
Child-to-Parent Violence: Attitude towards Authority, Social Reputation and School Climate
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2384; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16132384 - 05 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1536
Abstract
Research into child-to-parent violence (CPV) has focused mainly on the description of individual and family variables of adolescents. It is observed that the school context has received little attention despite being a context of development of great importance. In order to deepen the [...] Read more.
Research into child-to-parent violence (CPV) has focused mainly on the description of individual and family variables of adolescents. It is observed that the school context has received little attention despite being a context of development of great importance. In order to deepen the understanding in this field, the objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child-to-parent violence (CPV) and the attitude towards authority, social reputation and school climate. A total of 2101 Spanish adolescents (50.1% males and 49.9% females) from 13 to 18 years participated. A multivariate factorial design (MANOVA, 3 × 3) was carried out using as independent variables CPV level and age. It was found that adolescents with high CPV presented lower values of positive attitude towards institutional authority (PATIA) and school climate (involvement, friendships and teacher’s help), and higher values of positive attitude towards the transgression of social norms (PATTSN) and of perceived and ideal non-conformist social reputation (PNCSR and INCSR, respectively). Younger participants obtained the highest PATIA scores and lowest of PNCSR and the 15–16 years age group obtained the highest scores in PATTSN and INCSR. Adolescents aged 17–18 years show the highest scores in involvement and teacher’s help. Also, three interaction effects were found and indicated that there is an improvement in attitudinal and school adjustment indicators according to the age, except in ideal non-conformist social reputation, which has important practical implications. Full article
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Article
A Third Emerging Stage for the Current Digital Society? Optimal Parenting Styles in Spain, the United States, Germany, and Brazil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2333; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16132333 - 02 Jul 2019
Cited by 69 | Viewed by 3303
Abstract
We propose a new paradigm with three historical stages for an optimal parenting style (i.e., indulgent parenting style), which extends the traditional paradigm of only two stages (i.e., authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles). The three stages concur, at the same time, in different [...] Read more.
We propose a new paradigm with three historical stages for an optimal parenting style (i.e., indulgent parenting style), which extends the traditional paradigm of only two stages (i.e., authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles). The three stages concur, at the same time, in different environments, context, and cultures. We studied the third stage for optimal parent–child relationships through the offspring’s personal and social well-being, with four adolescent samples from 11 to 19 years old (52.2% girls) from Spain (n = 689), the United States (n = 488), Germany (n = 606), and Brazil (n = 672). The offspring’s personal well-being was measured through self-esteem (academic, social, emotional, family, and physical), while social well-being was measured with the internalization of self-transcendence (universalism and benevolence) and conservation values (security, conformity, and tradition). The parent–child parenting style was measured through parental warmth and strictness, and the adolescents’ parents were classified into one of four groups (indulgent, authoritarian, authoritative, and neglectful). Remarkably, the greatest personal well-being was found for adolescents raised with higher parental warmth and lower parental strictness (i.e., indulgent), and the greatest social well-being was found for adolescents raised with higher parental warmth (i.e., indulgent and authoritative; p < 0.05 for all countries). Consistently, poorer personal well-being and social well-being were associated with less parental warmth (i.e., authoritarian and neglectful). Findings suggest that the parent–child relationships analyzed have a common pattern associated with personal and social well-being that coincide with a proposed third stage. Full article
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Article
Relationship between Parental Socialization, Emotional Symptoms, and Academic Performance during Adolescence: The Influence of Parents’ and Teenagers’ Gender
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2231; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16122231 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2380
Abstract
Scientific interest in students’ emotional and psychosocial experiences has been increasing in the last years due to their influence on students’ learning processes and academic performance. The present manuscript tries to go further in the study of the relationship between perceived parenting socialization [...] Read more.
Scientific interest in students’ emotional and psychosocial experiences has been increasing in the last years due to their influence on students’ learning processes and academic performance. The present manuscript tries to go further in the study of the relationship between perceived parenting socialization and academic performance by analyzing not only their direct effects, but also by testing their indirect influence through other variables such as students’ psychological and school maladjustment, especially focusing on gender differences (both of students and parents). The sample comprised 823 students (416 males and 407 females) from the Basque Country (Spain), with ages ranging between 12 and 16 years (M = 13.7, SD = 1.2). Students completed a sociodemographic data form, the PARQ-Control questionnaire, and the BASC-S3 test. Teachers answered an ad hoc question on each student’s academic performance. The data showed that, both for males and females, the same structure of parent–teenager relationship predicted teenagers’ academic performance, via psychological and school maladjustment. However, the intensity of the relationship between parental acceptance and teenagers’ results in all the other factors differed depending on teenagers’ gender. Fathers’ influence was greater in males, and mothers’ influence was higher in females. This study is considered a starting point for a theoretical model predicting academic performance and psychological and school maladjustment among teenagers. Full article
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Article
Adolescent-to-Parent Violence and Family Environment: The Perceptions of Same Reality?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2215; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16122215 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2365
Abstract
The use of several sources of information (parents and children) is scarce in family studies. Child-to-parent violence (CPV) is still considered the most hidden and stigmatized form of family violence. One objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of child-to-parent violence [...] Read more.
The use of several sources of information (parents and children) is scarce in family studies. Child-to-parent violence (CPV) is still considered the most hidden and stigmatized form of family violence. One objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of child-to-parent violence and perceptions of family environment as a function of the informant (parent or child), child’s sex, and parents’ sex in a community population. The study also aimed to analyze the predictive power of family conflict and aggressive family discipline in child-to-parent violence depending on the informant. A sample of 586 adolescents (49% boys, aged between 12 and 18) and their parents (40%) participated in the study. The Family Environment Scale and the Conflict Tactics Scales were administered. Results showed good consistency between adolescent reports and parent reports for physical CPV, but adolescents perceived worse family environments than their parents. Multiple regression models revealed that aggressive family discipline and family are important risk factors for CPV. Early intervention to prevent CPV is recommended, focused on promoting family relationships and avoiding harsh discipline practices. It is important that parents are able to ask for help when they need it. Full article
Article
Parental Socialization Styles: The Contribution of Paternal and Maternal Affect/Communication and Strictness to Family Socialization Style
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2204; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16122204 - 21 Jun 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
The aim of this study is two-fold: (a) to determine the general degree of family affect/communication and strictness by examining the combination of the two classical dimensions of mother parenting style: affect/communication and strictness, and (b) to analyze the impact of both parents’ [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is two-fold: (a) to determine the general degree of family affect/communication and strictness by examining the combination of the two classical dimensions of mother parenting style: affect/communication and strictness, and (b) to analyze the impact of both parents’ affect and strictness on the family style, thereby exploring the specific contribution made by each parent’s style and dimension. Participants were 1190 Spanish students, 47.1% boys and 52.3% girls (M = 14.68; SD = 1.76). The Affect Scale (EA-H) and the Rules and Demandingness Scale (ENE-H) (both by Fuentes, Motrico, and Bersabé, 1999) were used. Structural equation models (SEMs) were extracted using the EQS program. The results reveal that it is not the father’s and the mother’s parenting style combined, but rather the combination of maternal and paternal affect/communication, and maternal and paternal strictness which generates one perception of family affect and another of family strictness. The results also indicated that the weight of both dimensions varies in accordance with the parent’s gender, with maternal dimensions playing a more important role in family socialization style. Full article
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Communication
Which Parenting Style Encourages Healthy Lifestyles in Teenage Children? Proposal for a Model of Integrative Parenting Styles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 2057; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16112057 - 11 Jun 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2857
Abstract
Given that we live in an environment in constant change—a liquid society, according to Bauman—we propose a versatile parenting style with the capacity to adapt to the variations of socio-temporal evolution. This is achieved by basing parenting guidelines on the permanent, executive, cognitive, [...] Read more.
Given that we live in an environment in constant change—a liquid society, according to Bauman—we propose a versatile parenting style with the capacity to adapt to the variations of socio-temporal evolution. This is achieved by basing parenting guidelines on the permanent, executive, cognitive, and affective components of a person. Although the first reviews of parenting styles emphasized the Authoritative style, the emerging tendency in some geographical areas has been to prioritize the Indulgent style. Extracting the common factor of these two styles, the suggestion is to improve the affective aspect of the relationship characterized by warm and close parent–child interactions. It is important to respect the style of each family in order to support it in its educational task while offering guidelines to help consolidate healthy adolescent lifestyles. In this line, we present successful experiments that have helped families in this decisive task by highlighting the efficacy of promoting systemic educational plans that involve the whole society. Full article
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Article
Parental Socialization and Development of Chinese Youths: A Multivariate and Comparative Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(10), 1730; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16101730 - 16 May 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1216
Abstract
Parental socialization has been recently reported as a multifaceted concept, which includes parenting practices and family processes. Nevertheless, prior family research generally treated parental socialization tantamount to parenting behavior only and overlooked its different effects on multiple youth outcomes simultaneously, especially in the [...] Read more.
Parental socialization has been recently reported as a multifaceted concept, which includes parenting practices and family processes. Nevertheless, prior family research generally treated parental socialization tantamount to parenting behavior only and overlooked its different effects on multiple youth outcomes simultaneously, especially in the Chinese population. This study, with a sample of 223 Chinese parent-youth dyads (80.7% mothers; 55.6% male youths; meanage = 16.7 years), found that both authoritative parenting and positive family processes, as measured by a multi-informant approach, significantly predicted higher self-esteem, self-control, future orientation, other perspective taking and lower externalizing problem behavior of Chinese youths concomitantly. Furthermore, youth self-esteem was found to significantly mediate the effects of authoritative parenting and positive family processes on their self-control, future orientation, other perspective taking and externalizing problem behavior, and different facets of parental socialization significantly predicted the youth outcomes differentially. Results of this study highlight importance of considering the multifaceted nature of parental socialization and interrelations of youth development. Full article
Article
Child-To-Parent Violence: Which Parenting Style Is More Protective? A Study with Spanish Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1320; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16081320 - 12 Apr 2019
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 2995
Abstract
The link between parenting style and violent behavior during adolescence has become a relevant topic of research over the last few years. In order to deepen the understanding of this relationship, the aim of the present study was to examine what type of [...] Read more.
The link between parenting style and violent behavior during adolescence has become a relevant topic of research over the last few years. In order to deepen the understanding of this relationship, the aim of the present study was to examine what type of parenting style (authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful) is more protective against child-to-parent violence (CPV). A total of 2112 adolescents of both sexes participated in this study (50.2% men and 49.8% women), aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14. 72, SD = 1.55). A multivariate factorial design (MANOVA, 4 × 2 × 3) was applied using parenting style, sex, and age group (12–14, 15–16, and 17–18 years) as independent variables and dimensions of CPV (physical and verbal aggression against the mother and father) as dependent variables. As shown in the results, the lowest scores on all the dimensions of CPV examined corresponded to the adolescents from indulgent families. Further, two interaction effects were observed between parenting style and age in verbal aggression against the mother and verbal aggression against the father. Regarding these effects, the adolescents from indulgent families obtained the lowest scores in two of the three age groups analyzed (12–14 years and 15–16 years). In the 17–18 years group, adolescents from authoritative families obtained similar but lower values than those coming from families with an indulgent style of parenting. These findings suggest that indulgent style is the most protective parenting style against CPV and also highlight the importance of affective warmth, emotional nurturance, and support giving in preventing CPV. Full article
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Article
Raising Children with Poor School Performance: Parenting Styles and Short- and Long-Term Consequences for Adolescent and Adult Development
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1089; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16071089 - 27 Mar 2019
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 5488
Abstract
This study examines the correlates of authoritative (warmth and strictness), indulgent (warmth but not strictness), authoritarian (strictness but not warmth), and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) parenting with short- and long-term socialization outcomes in adolescents and adults, with and without poor school performance [...] Read more.
This study examines the correlates of authoritative (warmth and strictness), indulgent (warmth but not strictness), authoritarian (strictness but not warmth), and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) parenting with short- and long-term socialization outcomes in adolescents and adults, with and without poor school performance during adolescence. Short- and long-term socialization outcomes were captured by multidimensional self-esteem (academic/professional, emotional, and family), psychological maturity (self-competence, social competence, and empathy), and emotional maladjustment (nervousness, emotional instability, and hostility). Participants (1195 female and 874 male) consisted of a community sample of adolescents (n = 602), young adults (n = 610), middle-aged adults (n = 469) and older adults (n = 388). Design was a 4 × 3 × 2 × 4 MANOVA (parenting style × school performance × sex × age). Results indicated that the relationship between parenting styles and children’s socialization outcomes does not vary as a function of school performance. The link between parenting styles and socialization outcomes shares a common short- and long- term pattern in adolescents and adults: Indulgent parenting was related to equal or even better socialization outcomes than authoritative parenting, whereas authoritarian and neglectful styles were associated with the worst socialization outcomes. Full article
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Article
Parenting and Future Anxiety: The Impact of Having a Child with Developmental Disabilities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 668; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16040668 - 25 Feb 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2539
Abstract
This study examined differences in future anxiety (FA) among mothers and fathers of children with and without developmental disabilities (DD), and it also analyzed differences in FA within the group of parents of children with DD taking into consideration parent-related factors and child-related [...] Read more.
This study examined differences in future anxiety (FA) among mothers and fathers of children with and without developmental disabilities (DD), and it also analyzed differences in FA within the group of parents of children with DD taking into consideration parent-related factors and child-related factors. A group of 167 parents of children with DD were compared to a group of 103 parents of children with typical development. The group with DD included children with autism spectrum disorders, sensory disorders, and intellectual disability. Parents completed the Future Anxiety Scale-FAS1. Mothers of children with DD had a higher general level of FA than fathers of children with and without DD. Mothers of children with DD reported higher anxiety about their future health and the meaning of their future life than fathers of children with DD. For parents of children with DD, those with lower education, male children, and older children reported higher FA. The group at risk of highest general FA are mothers of children with DD, especially those without a professional career. Similarly, parents of teenagers and/or sons with DD are at increased risk of FA. Full article
Article
Parental Psychological Control and Emotional and Behavioral Disorders among Spanish Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 507; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16030507 - 12 Feb 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
There is no denying the fundamental role played by parents in the psychosocial development of their children—either as a liability or as protection against mental health disorders. This study seeks to ascertain, by means of odds ratio statistics (OR), the correlation between parental [...] Read more.
There is no denying the fundamental role played by parents in the psychosocial development of their children—either as a liability or as protection against mental health disorders. This study seeks to ascertain, by means of odds ratio statistics (OR), the correlation between parental psychological control and emotional and behavioral disorders. A total of 762 students took part in this study, with an average age of 12.23 years—53.8% of whom were girls and 46.2% were boys. Children and adolescents reported their parental psychological control and their emotional and behavioral disorders (i.e., emotional and behavioral problems, internalizing and externalizing problems). Minors who perceive their psychological control as high are 6 times more likely to suffer from internalizing disorders and 4.8 times more likely to develop externalizing disorders. Furthermore, the probability of suffering externalizing disorders is higher among males who perceive a high degree of psychological control. This study breaks new ground on the importance of perceived psychological control—considered as a negative form of control by parents—in the emotional and behavioral disorders among children and adolescents. Full article
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Article
Family Functioning, Emotional Intelligence, and Values: Analysis of the Relationship with Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 478; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16030478 - 06 Feb 2019
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3448
Abstract
Aggressive behavior in adolescence is influenced by a diversity of individual, family, and social variables. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between family functioning, emotional intelligence, and personal values for development with different types of aggression, as well as [...] Read more.
Aggressive behavior in adolescence is influenced by a diversity of individual, family, and social variables. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between family functioning, emotional intelligence, and personal values for development with different types of aggression, as well as to establish profiles with these variables according to the aggression. The study was carried out with a sample of 317 high school students aged 13 to 18 years old. The study showed that stress management (emotional intelligence), positive adolescent development, and family functioning predominated in nonaggressive subjects with higher scores than aggressors did. There was also a negative relationship between the different types of aggression and emotional intelligence, positive values, and family functioning. In addition, two different profiles were found. The first profile had less family functioning, interpersonal emotional intelligence, stress management, and fewer personal and social values than the second profile. Full article
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Article
Researching Parental Socialization Styles across Three Cultural Contexts: Scale ESPA29 Bi-Dimensional Validity in Spain, Portugal, and Brazil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 197; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16020197 - 11 Jan 2019
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 2669
Abstract
Recent research that relates parenting with adolescent adjustment has shown the importance of considering the cultural context of the relationship. New results are emerging when considering the classical four-typologies model of parental socialization in some European and South-American countries. Among the instruments used [...] Read more.
Recent research that relates parenting with adolescent adjustment has shown the importance of considering the cultural context of the relationship. New results are emerging when considering the classical four-typologies model of parental socialization in some European and South-American countries. Among the instruments used in this emergent research is the Parental Socialization Scale ESPA29. This scale is a bi-dimensional parenting instrument that was specifically developed to measure the four parenting typologies, through the dimensions of acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition. This study examines the good fit of the orthogonal bi-factor model based on the ESPA29 versus one-dimensional and bi-dimensional oblique alternative models, with three adolescent samples from 12 to 17 years old (53.4% girls), from Spain (N = 826), Portugal (N = 752), and Brazil (N = 628). We applied structural equation models (SEMs) to analyze the fit of the models to the data. The results confirm a better fit to the data for the orthogonal bi-factor model versus one-dimensional and bi-dimensional oblique alternative models across country, adolescent sex, and the three age groups. Additionally, the convergent validity of the scale was proved by showing the relation of the two parenting dimensions with self-concept. The results guarantee the adequacy of the ESPA29 to measure parenting styles. Full article
Article
Parenting Practices as Risk or Preventive Factors for Adolescent Involvement in Cyberbullying: Contribution of Children and Parent Gender
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2664; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15122664 - 27 Nov 2018
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3070
Abstract
Literature points out the role of parenting on adolescent cyberbullying involvement. However, it is necessary to clarify how gender affects this relationship. The aim of this study has been to examine the relation between the adolescents’ perception about parenting practices, and their involvement [...] Read more.
Literature points out the role of parenting on adolescent cyberbullying involvement. However, it is necessary to clarify how gender affects this relationship. The aim of this study has been to examine the relation between the adolescents’ perception about parenting practices, and their involvement in cyberbullying, bearing in mind both girls’ and boys’ gender and progenitors’ gender. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish secondary school students (47.9% girls; Mage = 14.34). Two-way ANOVA and binary logistic regression analyses were carried out. An effect of the interaction between sex and cyberbullying roles in maternal affection and communication, inductive discipline, and psychological control, as well as paternal promotion of autonomy and psychological control, was found. In general, it can be observed that the more negative results were found in cyber-aggressors, especially when this role is assumed by girls. The results of logistic regression analysis suggest that parenting practices explain better cyberbullying involvement in girls compared to boys, finding some important differences between both sexes regarding protective and risk factors. These findings highlight the importance of parenting practices to explain cyberbullying involvement, which supports the necessity of including family among the addresses of intervention programs. Full article
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Article
Parenting Style and Reactive and Proactive Adolescent Violence: Evidence from Spain
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2634; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15122634 - 24 Nov 2018
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3305
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between the parenting styles—authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful—and reactive and proactive school violence among peers. These analyses were also performed by sex and age groups. The sample consisted of 2399 Spanish adolescents [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between the parenting styles—authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful—and reactive and proactive school violence among peers. These analyses were also performed by sex and age groups. The sample consisted of 2399 Spanish adolescents (50.2% male), aged between 12 and 18 years, mean (M) = 14.69, standard deviation (SD) = 1.82. A multivariate analisys of variance (MANOVA, 4 × 2 × 2) was applied, considering parenting style, sex, and age group (12–14 and 15–18 years) as independent variables to analyze the possible effects of interaction. Reactive, proactive, and pure violence were the dependent variables. The results showed the main effects of parenting styles, sex, and age, as well as an interaction between sex, age, and parenting styles. The interpretation of the findings suggested that the authoritarian parenting style was related to greater engagement in proactive and reactive violent behaviors. In relation to the effect of the interaction between sex, age, and parenting styles, it was observed that adolescents from indulgent families, of both sexes and in any of the studied age groups, obtained lower scores in proactive violence. The discussion highlights the importance of affection and warmth for well-adjusted children’s behavior. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Parenting Styles and Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescence: A Systematic Literature Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3192; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16173192 - 01 Sep 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2860
Abstract
A growing body of recent research has identified associations between various parenting practices and styles and internalizing problems among adolescents. However, the reported findings are inconsistent and the studies in question have been conducted from different theoretical backgrounds. The aim of this systematic [...] Read more.
A growing body of recent research has identified associations between various parenting practices and styles and internalizing problems among adolescents. However, the reported findings are inconsistent and the studies in question have been conducted from different theoretical backgrounds. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the literature on the association of parental socialization styles with depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation. To this end, we conducted a systematic search of the PsycInfo, Scopus, Pubmed, and Web of Science databases, covering literature published from 2010 to 2019. The search was restricted to peer-reviewed studies in English or Spanish. The results show that parental warmth, behavioural control, and autonomy granting are inversely related to internalizing symptoms in adolescents. Conversely, psychological control and harsh control by parents are positively associated with adolescent anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. Although the associated effect sizes are only small or moderate, the results suggest that these variables should be taken into account when designing programmes aimed at promoting parenting styles conducive to the wellbeing of adolescents. Full article
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Review
Measurement and Function of the Control Dimension in Parenting Styles: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3157; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16173157 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1565
Abstract
Recent studies have shown different results in identifying which parenting style is the most beneficial for children, which has encouraged certain authors to wonder whether parental control is still needed for optimal parenting. As such investigations have been conducted with different measuring instruments, [...] Read more.
Recent studies have shown different results in identifying which parenting style is the most beneficial for children, which has encouraged certain authors to wonder whether parental control is still needed for optimal parenting. As such investigations have been conducted with different measuring instruments, it is necessary to check whether the use of different instruments leads to different results. In order to figure this out, a systematic review of the recent literature (Web of Science and Scopus, 2000–2017) was carried out. This review found that, using certain instruments, parental control is associated with better outcomes in children, while using certain others, control is associated with worse outcomes. The difference seems to be in the way of measuring parental control. Full article
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