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Special Issue "Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Mirja Hirvensalo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Sport & Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä, Finland
Interests: physical activity across the lifespan; promotion of physical activity; inactivity and sedentary behaviour
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Kasper Salin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Sport & Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä, Finland

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, there has been increasing concern related to lack of physical activity and increase of sedentary time. Because of an insufficient amount of physical activity, incidence of several chronic diseases can follow. These include more than 25 chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, depression, and several cancers. In addition, lack of physical activity is a predictor of obesity and overweight. In recent decades, there has been a rise in body mass index (BMI) levels worldwide.

Physical activity is one of the big four health habits, with the other three being smoking, drinking, and fruit and vegetables consumption. Associations of physical activity and health habits are often studied, but more research is needed to understand the difference between health habits and how these health habits cluster together.

This Special Issue seeks papers on physical activity and its links with other health habits and well-being. Especially papers that are linked with the school environment are welcomed, but also longitudinal studies on the topic are very warmly welcomed. Systematic reviews will also be considered.

Prof. Mirja Hirvensalo
Dr. Kasper Salin
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • sport participation
  • health behavior
  • health promotion
  • intervention
  • risk factors
  • chronic disease
  • prevention
  • health care settings
  • healthy lifestyle
  • health-related fitness
  • exercise
  • behavioral change
  • pedometer
  • accelerometer
  • dietary habits
  • smoking
  • drinking
  • sedentary behavior
  • screen time
  • sleep
  • app-based intervention
  • structured education
  • primary education
  • secondary education
  • after-school physical activity
  • well-being
  • cross-sectional, longitudinal study

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Research

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Article
Physical Activity Promotion Tools in the Portuguese Primary Health Care: An Implementation Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 815; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17030815 - 28 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1769
Abstract
Background: This paper aims to discuss how physical activity (PA) brief assessment, brief counseling, and self-monitoring tools were designed and implemented in the Portuguese National Health Service (NHS), and to report on their current use by health professionals and citizens. Methods: Three digital [...] Read more.
Background: This paper aims to discuss how physical activity (PA) brief assessment, brief counseling, and self-monitoring tools were designed and implemented in the Portuguese National Health Service (NHS), and to report on their current use by health professionals and citizens. Methods: Three digital tools to facilitate PA promotion in primary health care (PHC) were developed: 1) a PA brief assessment tool was incorporated in the electronic health record platform “SClínico Cuidados de Saúde Primários“; 2) a brief counseling tool was developed in the software “PEM—Prescrição Eletrónica Médica” (electronic medical prescription); and 3) a “Physical Activity Card” was incorporated in an official NHS smartphone app called “MySNS Carteira”. Results: From September 2017 to June 2019, 119,386 Portuguese patients had their PA assessed in PHC. Between December 2017 and June 2019, a total of 7957 patients received brief intervention for PA by a medical doctor. Regarding the app “MySNS Carteira”, 93,320 users activated the “Physical Activity Card”, between February 2018 and December 2018. Conclusions: These tools represent key actions to promote PA among Portuguese citizens using PHC as a priority setting. Further initiatives will follow, including proper assessment of their clinical impact and training programs for health care professionals on PA promotion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
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Article
Physical Activity Promotion for Apprentices in Nursing Care and Automotive Mechatronics–Competence Counts More than Volume
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 793; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17030793 - 28 Jan 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Apprentices in the area of nursing care and automotive mechatronics are exposed to increased health risks. In this context, the promotion of physical activity (PA) is considered an effective strategy for the assurance of work ability. The goal of the PArC-AVE study was [...] Read more.
Apprentices in the area of nursing care and automotive mechatronics are exposed to increased health risks. In this context, the promotion of physical activity (PA) is considered an effective strategy for the assurance of work ability. The goal of the PArC-AVE study was therefore to better understand the role of PA for apprentices employed in these two sectors. In an exploratory study, 55 apprentices wore an ActiGraph accelerometer over seven consecutive days and were subject to activity analysis. The objective accelerometer data (18,979 ± 3780 steps/day; 471.00 ± 159.75 min of moderate-to-vigorous PA/week), complemented by questionnaire data, indicated that most met the volume-based PA recommendations. Subsequently, we conducted a multicenter study comprising 745 apprentices from six vocational education institutions. Path analyses showed that competencies for health-enhancing PA were significantly related to indicators of work ability (0.180 ≤ b ≤ 0.452) and psychophysical health (0.139 ≤ b ≤ 0.347), whereas mere volume of PA was not (−0.048 ≤ b ≤ 0.080). In summary, apprentices of nursing care and automotive mechatronics showed high levels of PA. However, the results highlight the importance of competencies for health-enhancing PA. The PAHCO model could provide a useful framework for the conceptualization of effective interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
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Article
Adhering to the 2017 Dutch Physical Activity Guidelines: A Trend over Time 2001–2018
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 681; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17030681 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1267
Abstract
Recently, new physical activity (PA) guidelines were adopted in the Netherlands consisting of two components: (1) addressing duration of moderate and vigorous PA, (2) bone and muscle strengthening activities. The aim of this study is to retrospectively assess the long-term trend in fulfilling [...] Read more.
Recently, new physical activity (PA) guidelines were adopted in the Netherlands consisting of two components: (1) addressing duration of moderate and vigorous PA, (2) bone and muscle strengthening activities. The aim of this study is to retrospectively assess the long-term trend in fulfilling the criteria of the new PA guidelines and to gain insight into which activities contribute to changes over time. Data were available for 2001–2018 of a nationally representative sample of approximately 7000 Dutch citizens aged 12 years and over using the Short Questionnaire to Assess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed by age, sex, and level of education. Overall, a positive trend was found from 39.9% adherence in 2001 to 46.0% in 2018. Adherence levels among adolescents decreased and increased among adults and seniors. Intermediate and higher educated groups showed positive trends over time whereas a stable trend was observed among lower educated. Activities contributing most to changes over time were sports, leisure time walking, and strenuous occupational activities. In the period 2001–2018, though an increasing trend was found, less than half of the population was sufficiently active. Special effort is necessary to reach adolescents, seniors, and lower educated groups in PA promotion programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
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Article
Intervention Strategies to Elicit MVPA in Preschoolers during Outdoor Play
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 650; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17020650 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1442
Abstract
Approximately 50% of preschoolers do not meet physical activity recommendations and children who reside in low-income rural communities may be further at risk for higher levels of sedentary behavior. Outdoor play is essential for preschool children; however, literature is unclear as to which [...] Read more.
Approximately 50% of preschoolers do not meet physical activity recommendations and children who reside in low-income rural communities may be further at risk for higher levels of sedentary behavior. Outdoor play is essential for preschool children; however, literature is unclear as to which types of interventions elicit moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for all preschoolers. The aim of this study was to determine which type of intervention, physical activity or fundamental motor skill focus, elicits MVPA during outdoor play. Ninety-eight preschool children (M age = 4.48 years) from one Head Start center participated in an outdoor play intervention two days per week for 7 weeks. Classes were randomly assigned to one of four groups: fundamental motor skill focus (FMS), physical activity focus (PA), FMS and PA (FMS + PA), and control. An accelerometer worn on the hip measured MVPA. Results showed that age, sex and group assignment contributed to MVPA at the beginning of the intervention and age, sex, group assignment and MVPA during the beginning of the intervention contributed to MVPA at the end of the intervention. Overall, the FMS + PA group elicited MVPA from males and females of all ages. Interventions that combine both FMS and PA may reduce physical activity disparities in preschool children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
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Article
Establishing a Scientific Consensus on the Cognitive Benefits of Physical Activity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17010029 - 18 Dec 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1991
Abstract
Research suggests that physical activity can be used as an intervention to increase cognitive function. Yet, there are competing views on the cognitive effects of physical activity and it is not clear what level of consensus exists among researchers in the field. The [...] Read more.
Research suggests that physical activity can be used as an intervention to increase cognitive function. Yet, there are competing views on the cognitive effects of physical activity and it is not clear what level of consensus exists among researchers in the field. The purpose of this study was two-fold: Firstly, to quantify the scientific consensus by focusing on the relationship between physical activity and cognitive function. Secondly, to investigate if there is a gap between the public’s and scientists’ interpretations of scientific texts on this topic. A two-phase study was performed by including 75 scientists in the first phase and 15 non-scientists in the second phase. Participants were asked to categorize article abstracts in terms of endorsement of the effect of physical activity on cognitive function. Results indicated that there was a 76.1% consensus that physical activity has positive cognitive effects. There was a consistent association between scientists’ and non-scientists’ categorizations, suggesting that both groups perceived abstracts in a similar fashion. Taken together, this study provides the first analysis of its kind to evaluate the level of consensus in almost two decades of research. The present data can be used to inform further research and practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
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Article
Associations of Leisure-Time Physical Activity Trajectories with Fruit and Vegetable Consumption from Childhood to Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4437; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16224437 - 12 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1655
Abstract
A physically active lifestyle and a diet rich in vegetables and fruits have a central role in promoting health. This study examined the associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) trajectories and fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) from childhood to middle age. The data [...] Read more.
A physically active lifestyle and a diet rich in vegetables and fruits have a central role in promoting health. This study examined the associations between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) trajectories and fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) from childhood to middle age. The data were drawn from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with six age cohorts. Participants were 9 to 18 years (n = 3536; 51% females) at baseline in 1980 and 33 to 48 years at the last follow-up in 2011. LTPA and FVC were self-reported. LTPA trajectories were identified using latent profile analyses, after which the mean differences in FVC across the trajectories were studied. Active, low-active, decreasingly and increasingly active trajectories were identified for both genders. An additional trajectory describing inactivity was identified for females. Those who were persistently active or increased their LTPA had higher FVC at many ages when compared to their inactive or low-active counterparts (p < 0.05). In females prior to age 42 and in males prior to age 24, FVC was higher at many ages in those with decreasing activity than in their inactive or low-active counterparts (p < 0.05). The development of LTPA and FVC from childhood to middle age seem to occur in tandem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
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Article
The Daily Mile: 15 Minutes Running Improves the Physical Fitness of Italian Primary School Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3921; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16203921 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2391
Abstract
The Daily Mile™ is an innovative school-based intervention that requires children to run or jog outside for 15 min at a self-selected pace during class time. Today, only one study has investigated the efficacy of The Daily Mile on physical fitness, which was [...] Read more.
The Daily Mile™ is an innovative school-based intervention that requires children to run or jog outside for 15 min at a self-selected pace during class time. Today, only one study has investigated the efficacy of The Daily Mile on physical fitness, which was conducted with Scottish children. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of The Daily Mile in Italian primary schools. A total of 486 children participated in The Daily Mile for 3 months (experimental group), whereas 309 children continued their daily school routine (control group). The 6-min run test, standing long jump, body mass index, and waist-to-height ratio were assessed. Their teachers completed surveys for assessing the intervention acceptability. After correction for age and gender, significant group × time interactions were observed in the 6-min run test and standing long jump results. In the post-test period, the experimental group showed improvement in the 6-min run test and standing long jump results. Overall, the teachers were satisfied with the program and found it suitable for their school context and easy to implement. The Daily Mile was successfully implemented and smoothly accepted in the day routine of Italian primary schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
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Article
Designing Activating Schoolyards: Seen from the Girls’ Viewpoint
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3508; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16193508 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Girls are typically less active in the schoolyard during recess than boys. It is therefore necessary to understand influences on girls’ recess activity in schoolyards. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate girls’ perceptions of physical environmental factors influencing recess physical [...] Read more.
Girls are typically less active in the schoolyard during recess than boys. It is therefore necessary to understand influences on girls’ recess activity in schoolyards. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate girls’ perceptions of physical environmental factors influencing recess physical activity in re-designed schoolyards and to compare the perceptions of girls from different age groups. In 2018, 50 girls from five Danish schools were interviewed using photo-elicitation. The girls were from Grade 4 (n = 28, age 10–11) and Grade 6 (n = 22, age 12–13). Data were analysed using pen profiles constructed from verbatim transcripts. Ten factors emerged: variety, accessibility, size, designated spaces, greenery, playground markings, active play facilities, sports facilities, play equipment, and speakers. Play facilities (trampolines, obstacle courses, dancing and gymnastic appliances) were favoured over traditional sport facilities. Designated spaces, greenery and speakers were important for feeling comfortable within the schoolyard. Although similar factors were raised by the two age groups, some factors were perceived as enablers by the youngest and as barriers by the oldest girls, highlighting the complexity of designing schoolyards that cater to all ages. A greater understanding of how different designs and facilities may be perceived by girls of different ages is important for the design of future schoolyards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
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Article
Healthy Lifestyle in Children and Adolescents and Its Association with Subjective Health Complaints: Findings from 37 Countries and Regions from the HBSC Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3292; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16183292 - 07 Sep 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1698
Abstract
Background: It is important to clearly understand the factors associated with subjective health complaints. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between subjective health complaints, several health behaviors, and a composite measure of healthy lifestyle. Methods: Data were from the Health Behaviour in [...] Read more.
Background: It is important to clearly understand the factors associated with subjective health complaints. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between subjective health complaints, several health behaviors, and a composite measure of healthy lifestyle. Methods: Data were from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2014 international database. Participants were 167,021 children and adolescents, aged 10–16 years, from 37 countries and regions. A composite score of healthy lifestyle was created using a combination of daily physical activity, daily consumption of fruit and vegetables, <2 hours spent daily in screen-based behaviors, no drinking, and no smoking. The subjective health complaints assessed were headaches, stomach aches, backache, dizziness, feeling low, irritability, nervousness, and sleep difficulties. Results: Those who engage in physical activity every day, spend less than two hours a day in screen-based behaviors, do not drink alcohol, and do not smoke tobacco presented a higher likelihood of not having subjective health complaints. A healthy lifestyle was significantly related to having less of all the subjective health complaints. Those with a healthy lifestyle were 50% (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.5–0.6, p < 0.001) less likely to have multiple health complaints. Conclusions: Healthy behaviors and healthy lifestyles are related with less subjective health complaints and less multiple health complaints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
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Article
Validity of Wrist-Worn Activity Trackers for Estimating VO2max and Energy Expenditure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(17), 3037; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16173037 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2441
Abstract
Activity trackers are a simple and mostly low-priced method to capture physiological parameters. Despite the high number of wrist-worn devices, there is a lack of scientific validation. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the activity trackers represent a valid alternative [...] Read more.
Activity trackers are a simple and mostly low-priced method to capture physiological parameters. Despite the high number of wrist-worn devices, there is a lack of scientific validation. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the activity trackers represent a valid alternative to gold-standard methods in terms of estimating energy expenditure (EE) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Twenty-four healthy subjects participated in this study. In total, five commercially available wrist-worn devices were tested with regard to their validity of EE and/or VO2max. Estimated values were compared with indirect calorimetry. Validity of the activity trackers was determined by paired sample t-tests, mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE), Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, and Bland-Altman plots. Within the tested devices, differences in scattering in VO2max and EE could be observed. This results in a MAPE > 10% for all evaluations, except for the VO2max-estimation of the Garmin Forerunner 920XT (7.3%). The latter significantly underestimates the VO2max (t(23) = –2.37, p = 0.027), whereas the Garmin Vivosmart HR significantly overestimates the EE (t(23) = 2.44, p = 0.023). The tested devices did not show valid results concerning the estimation of VO2max and EE. Hence, the current wrist-worn activity trackers are most likely not accurate enough to be used for neither purposes in sports, nor in health care applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
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Article
Influence of Emotional Intelligence, Motivation and Resilience on Academic Performance and the Adoption of Healthy Lifestyle Habits among Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2810; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16162810 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 5009
Abstract
Included among the basic objectives of Physical Education (PE) classes is the consolidation of habits of a healthy lifestyle among adolescents. However, the main studies in this field have focused on cognitive aspects related to students during these classes, yet they ignore the [...] Read more.
Included among the basic objectives of Physical Education (PE) classes is the consolidation of habits of a healthy lifestyle among adolescents. However, the main studies in this field have focused on cognitive aspects related to students during these classes, yet they ignore the role that emotions can play in the adoption of future habits. Objectives: To analyze how emotions (emotional intelligence and emotional state) can influence the resilience and motivation of adolescents, as well as academic performance and adoption of healthy lifestyle habits. Methodology: 615 secondary school students between the ages of 14 and 19 participated (M = 16.02; SD = 1.57) in the study. A structural equations model was developed using the main variables and by applying some of the principles of Self-Determination Theory. The results show that emotional intelligence is positively related to positive emotions and negatively related to negative emotions. Positive emotions positively predict both self-motivation towards physical education classes and resilience. Resilience positively predicts self-motivation. Finally, self-motivation acts as a predictor of both academic performance and regular participation in physical activity. Conclusions: This study successfully shows the importance of focusing on emotions in PE classes inasmuch as emotion increases the tendency to get good grades and maintain active lifestyle habits. In this sense, focusing on the emotions of students in PE could prove quite beneficial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
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Article
Physical Activity among Spanish Undergraduate Students: A Descriptive Correlational Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(15), 2770; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16152770 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1769
Abstract
Achieving the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) is associated with better health. Despite this, most undergraduate students report low levels of PA. This study aimed to assess the achievement of recommended PA levels in a wide sample of undergraduate students from Madrid [...] Read more.
Achieving the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) is associated with better health. Despite this, most undergraduate students report low levels of PA. This study aimed to assess the achievement of recommended PA levels in a wide sample of undergraduate students from Madrid (N = 2960). Overall PA and leisure-time PA (LTPA) were measured with the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Descriptive analyses and logistic regression were performed. It was revealed that 22.4% and 55.6% of overall PA and LTPA, respectively, did not achieve World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. When PA was measured as overall PA, the achievement of the recommended level was positively predicted by male sex; a Body Mass Index (BMI) indicative of normal weight or being overweight; spending less time sitting or reclining; work; and studying health science, social sciences, engineering, or architecture (all p < 0.001; r2 = 0.075). Using LTPA, the positive predictors of achieving recommended PA levels were male sex, having a BMI indicative of normal weight or being overweight, work, studying at a public university, and studying health science (r2 = 0.048). These findings suggest that universities should implement strategies to promote PA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
Article
Association between Level of Empathy, Attitude towards Physical Education and Victimization in Adolescents: A Multi-Group Structural Equation Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2360; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16132360 - 03 Jul 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1780
Abstract
Currently, there is a problem related to violence and tolerance towards violence, and the levels of empathy of the subjects can affect this, in addition to the practice of physical activity. The present study sought to define and contrast an explanatory model of [...] Read more.
Currently, there is a problem related to violence and tolerance towards violence, and the levels of empathy of the subjects can affect this, in addition to the practice of physical activity. The present study sought to define and contrast an explanatory model of victimization, empathy and attitude towards physical education, and to analyze the existing relationships between these variables as a function of engagement with physical activity. A total of 2388 adolescents from Spain participated in this research. The sample was made up of both sexes (43.39% males and 56.61% females), with ages reported between 11 and 17 years (M = 13.85; SD = 1.26). Empathy (TECA), attitude towards physical education (CAEF) and victimization (EV) were measured. A multi-group structural equation model was developed, which showed excellent fit to the empirical data (χ2 = 559.577; DF = 38; p < 0.001; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.957; normalized fit index (NFI) = 0.954; incremental fit index (IFI) = 0.957; root mean squared error of the mean (RMSEA) = 0.054). A direct positive relationship exists between affective and cognitive empathy. A positive association was found between motivational climate and engagement in physical activity. With regards to victimization, the verbal dimension obtained the highest correlation score, followed by the relational and physical dimensions. In the case of adolescents who regularly engaged in physical activity, the verbal and physical dimensions presented the weakest correlations, whilst the relational dimension was the most strongly associated in the case of sedentary adolescents. The main conclusions of the present study it is that the relationship between affective empathy and cognitive empathy is positive and direct, however, this relationship is slightly stronger and differentiated in sedentary adolescents than in those who practice physical activity on a regular basis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
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Article
The Effects of Brain Breaks on Motives of Participation in Physical Activity among Primary School Children in Malaysia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(13), 2331; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16132331 - 02 Jul 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1852
Abstract
Brain breaks is a physical activity (PA) video designed for school settings that is used to stimulate student’s health and learning. The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of brain breaks on motives of participation in PA among primary school [...] Read more.
Brain breaks is a physical activity (PA) video designed for school settings that is used to stimulate student’s health and learning. The purpose of this study is to measure the effects of brain breaks on motives of participation in PA among primary school children in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was used to divide 159 male and 176 female students aged 10 to 11 years old, mean (standard deviation (SD)) = 10.51 (0.50), from two schools in Kelantan, Malaysia into intervention (n = 183) and control (n = 152) groups. Students undertook brain breaks activities on school days (five minutes per session) spread out for a period of four months. Mixed factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the students’ motives of participation in PA for pre-, mid-, and post-tests using the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale-Youth-Malay (PALMS-Y-M). Mixed factorial ANOVA showed significant changes in enjoyment, F(2, 392) = 8.720, p-value (ηp2) = 0.001 (0.043); competitiveness, F(2, 195) = 4.364, p-value (ηp2) = 0.014 (0.043); appearance, F(2, 392) = 5.709, p-value (ηp2) = 0.004 (0.028); and psychological condition, F(2, 392) = 4.376, p-value (ηp2) = 0.013 (0.022), whereas mastery, affiliation, and physical condition were not significant (p < 0.05). Further post-hoc analysis revealed a significant downward trend in the control group (p < 0.05). Brain breaks is successful in maintaining students’ motives for PA in four of the seven factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
Article
“When I Go There, I Feel Like I Can Be Myself.” Exploring Programme Theory within the Wave Project Surf Therapy Intervention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2159; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16122159 - 18 Jun 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3426
Abstract
Mental health issues in young people are a priority for health and social care. Surf therapy is an innovative intervention that may help address this health burden globally. While increasing evidence demonstrates the effectiveness of surf therapy, there has been limited exploration as [...] Read more.
Mental health issues in young people are a priority for health and social care. Surf therapy is an innovative intervention that may help address this health burden globally. While increasing evidence demonstrates the effectiveness of surf therapy, there has been limited exploration as to how it achieves its outcomes. Such theoretical exploration is important for service optimisation, monitoring and proliferation. This research aimed to adopt, for the first time, a rigorous grounded theory approach to explore underlying programme theory within the Wave Project surf therapy intervention. Participants (n = 22, 14 males and 8 females; mean age = 14 years, SD = 3.5, range 8–23) were interviewed about their intervention experiences. Data were analysed through constant comparative analysis and memo writing. Two core categories reflected mediators by which surf therapy may achieve its outcomes: “Self-Selected Pacing and Progression While Surfing” and “Creation of Emotional and Physical Safe Space at Beach”. Three antecedent (linking known inputs to core categories) and three consequent categories (linking core categories to associated outputs) were also identified. These demonstrate theorised pathways from known inputs to associated outcomes within the intervention. These important findings provide plausible evidence on how to optimise the Wave Project’s delivery in tackling mental health burden. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
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Article
Motivational Climate and Physical Activity: A Multigroup Analysis in Romanian and Spanish University Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 2013; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16112013 - 05 Jun 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1616
Abstract
Background: Motivational climate in sport is a psychosocial construct which is related with several factors, such as healthy habits and well-being, and is influenced by teachers, trainers, and parents. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between motivational climate, family [...] Read more.
Background: Motivational climate in sport is a psychosocial construct which is related with several factors, such as healthy habits and well-being, and is influenced by teachers, trainers, and parents. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between motivational climate, family functionality, and physical activity within a population of students from Spain and Romania. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of university students specialization: physical education (n = 605; 20.71 ± 2.42 years old), using the perceived motivational climate in sport questionnaire-2 (PMCSQ-2), the physical activity questionnaire for adolescents (PAQ-A), and the family functionality scale (APGAR) as the main instruments. IBM SPSS Amos was used for data analysis in the structural equation model that was developed. Results: We observed positive relationships between task-oriented climate, family functionality, and the level of physical activity, showing higher regression weights for Spanish university students. Ego-oriented climate was negatively related to family functionality in Spanish university students, while this association was positive in Romanian students. Moreover, the relationship between physical activity and functional family was stronger in respondents from Spain. Conclusions: It can be pointed out that a better family functionality can promote higher levels of physical activity and self-determined motivations in sports shown by task-oriented motivational climates. Thus, it is essential to take into account the influence of family in the promotion of healthy lifestyles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
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Article
Effects of Regular Aerobic Exercise and Resistance Training on High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Taiwanese Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(11), 2003; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16112003 - 05 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1448
Abstract
Increased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) can improve endothelial function. This may help reduce cardiovascular risks and mortality. Evidence has been provided on the association between cardiometabolic traits, such as HDL-C and exercise modalities. However, there is the absence of studies investigating [...] Read more.
Increased levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) can improve endothelial function. This may help reduce cardiovascular risks and mortality. Evidence has been provided on the association between cardiometabolic traits, such as HDL-C and exercise modalities. However, there is the absence of studies investigating this association in Taiwan. We assessed the relationship between exercise type and HDL-C among Taiwanese adults. Data were collected from Taiwan Biobank (TWB), a national biomedical research database that contains the genetic information of ethnic Taiwanese residents gathered from 2008 to 2016. We enrolled 24,856 participants aged 30 to 70 years who completed a questionnaire about their recent health behaviors including smoking, drinking, and exercise. Regular exercise was categorized as non-aerobic exercise (separated as weight training, ball game, and mixed exercise) and strict aerobic exercise. Linear regression models were used to assess the effects of exercise in a questionnaire-based manner. After multivariate adjustments, HDL-C was positively associated with aerobic (β = 1.33748, p < 0.0001) and non-aerobic (β = 2.56210; p < 0.0001) exercise. Positive associations were also found for resistance training (β = 4.01828, p = 0.0020), ballgame (β = 2.43815, p = 0.0001), and mixed exercise (β = 2.47021, p < 0.0001). This study demonstrated that both aerobic and non-aerobic exercise have positive effects on HDL-C among Taiwanese adults. Among the non-aerobic exercise groups, resistance training had the greatest effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Can Active Video Games Improve Physical Activity in Adolescents? A Review of RCT
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 669; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17020669 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2366
Abstract
Children and adolescents are not meeting the required federal physical activity (PA) guidelines established by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. It is critical that a regular pattern of PA is established in their youth to ensure ongoing PA into [...] Read more.
Children and adolescents are not meeting the required federal physical activity (PA) guidelines established by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. It is critical that a regular pattern of PA is established in their youth to ensure ongoing PA into adulthood. However, many programs implemented during adolescence have shown limited effects, stressing the need for more innovative approaches to generate more interest and maintenance of PA behavior in this age group. Active video games (AVGs) or exergaming may prove to be an innovate process to improve PA in children and adolescents. A literature review was conducted to explore if active video games or exergaming could be an effective intervention to improve physical activity in adolescents. Active video games, also called “exergames”, are a category of video games that require movement or physical exertion to play the game. The methodology consisted of searching Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, ERIC, PubMed, and Web of Science databases. Inclusion criteria involved only youth aged 12 to 19 years, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and studies within the last 12 years. The following search terms were used: exergaming or active video games; physical activity or exercise; adolescents or youth; RCT or randomized clinical trial. The outcome indicates that exergaming or active video games can be an effective tool to improve PA in adolescents that will be more acceptable and sustainable than many conventional approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
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Review
Exercise-Based Interventions to Enhance Long-Term Sustainability of Physical Activity in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2527; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16142527 - 15 Jul 2019
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3738
Abstract
Exercise is a form of physical activity (PA). PA is an important marker of health and quality of life in older adults. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to assess the effect of exercise-based interventions [...] Read more.
Exercise is a form of physical activity (PA). PA is an important marker of health and quality of life in older adults. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to assess the effect of exercise-based interventions on an at least six-month follow up PA measure, and to describe the specific strategies implemented during the intervention to strengthen the sustainability of PA in community-dwelling 65+ year-old adults. We registered and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO: CRD42017070892) of randomized clinical trials (RCT). We searched three electronic databases during January 2018 to identify RCT assessing any type of exercise-based intervention. Studies had to report a pre-, post-, and at least 6-month post-intervention follow-up. To be included, at least one PA outcome had to be assessed. The effect of exercise-based interventions was assessed compared to active (e.g., a low-intensity type of exercise, such as stretching or toning activities) and non-active (e.g., usual care) control interventions at several time points. Secondary analyses were conducted, restricted to studies that reported specific strategies to enhance the sustainability of PA. The intervention effect was measured on self-reported and objective measures of time spent in PA, by means of standardized mean differences. Standardized mean differences of PA level were pooled. Pooled estimates of effect were computed with the DerSimonian–Laird method, applying a random effects model. The risk of bias was also assessed. We included 12 studies, comparing 18 exercise intervention groups to four active and nine non-active control groups. Nine studies reported specific strategies to enhance the long-term sustainability of PA. The strategies were mostly related to the self-efficacy, self-control, and behavior capability principles based on the social cognitive theory. Exercise interventions compared to active control showed inconclusive and heterogeneous results. When compared to non-active control, exercise interventions improved PA time at the six-months follow up (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.30; 95%CI 0.15 to 0.44; four studies; 724 participants; I2 0%), but not at the one- or two-years follow-ups. No data were available on the mid- and long-term effect of adding strategies to enhance the sustainability of PA. Exercise interventions have small clinical benefits on PA levels in community-dwelling older adults, with a decline in the observed improvement after six months of the intervention cessation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Healthy Lifestyle)
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