Special Issue "Physical Exercise and Chronic Diseases Prevention"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Thomas E. Dorner
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Medical University Vienna, Centre for Public Health, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Unite Lifestyle and Prevention, Wien, Austria
Interests: (social) determinants of health; healthy aging; physical activity; nutrition, sexuality; chronic disease prevention; community resilience
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Igor Grabovac
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Interests: health promotion; health behaviour modification; occupational health; human sexuality; social discrimination; sports medicine
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Physical activity and exercise are very important factors associated with preventing the development of many chronic diseases, as well as having a modifying effect on their symptoms and course, in people living with chronic diseases. As such, physical activity and exercise are crucial in the management of chronic diseases and fulfills various important tasks: (1) it increases subjective health, wellbeing and quality of life regardless of changes in disease severity; (2) it can be part of the medical treatment regime, especially in diseases where lack of physical activity has contributed to the development of the disease; (3) in those chronic diseases, physical activity can prevent the progression of the diseases and the development of disease complications; (4) in patients with chronic diseases, physical exercise can contribute to the prevention of secondary comorbidities which could worsen various outcomes in the course of the primary chronic disease; (5) finally, physical activity is important to maintain and improve physical function, physical performance, workability and reduce physical symptoms (e.g., pain) in patients with chronic disease, as well as having a beneficial effect on their mental health.

With this Special Issue, we want to highlight the importance of physical exercise across various aspects of chronic disease prevention. We aim to focus not only on the effectiveness of physical exercise in prevention, but also on the settings for physical exercise and their integration within a comprehensive health care infrastructure, and adherence to exercise in patients with chronic conditions. 

Prof. Thomas E. Dorner
Dr. Igor Grabovac
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Different aspects of exercise
    • Endurance exercise
    • Strength training
    • Exercise intensity
    • Exercise duration
    • Exercise frequency
  • Different chronic conditions
    • Cardiovascular diseases
    • Cancer
    • Metabolic diseases
    • Musculoskeletal diseases
    • Mental disorders
    • Chronic pain
    • Chronic communicable diseases (e.g. HIV)
    • Frailty
  • Prevention of various adverse outcomes
    • Disease development
    • Mortality
    • Disease complications
    • Functional limitations
    • Work disability
    • Sexual dissatisfaction
  • Exercise and health care system
    • Integrated care
    • Practicability and manageability
    • Adherence

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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Article
Adherence Is More Than Just Being Present: Example of a Lay-Led Home-Based Programme with Physical Exercise, Nutritional Improvement and Social Support, in Prefrail and Frail Community-Dwelling Older Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4192; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18084192 - 15 Apr 2021
Viewed by 518
Abstract
Background: Little is known about the implementation of lifestyle interventions in frail, community-dwelling people. This study highlights different domains of adherence to explain an effectively delivered home-based intervention. Methods: Eighty prefrail and frail persons (≥65 years) participated in a physical training, nutritional, and [...] Read more.
Background: Little is known about the implementation of lifestyle interventions in frail, community-dwelling people. This study highlights different domains of adherence to explain an effectively delivered home-based intervention. Methods: Eighty prefrail and frail persons (≥65 years) participated in a physical training, nutritional, and social support intervention over 24 weeks. A detailed log book was kept for comprehensive documentation in order to assess adherence and further organizational, exercise, and nutritional parameters. Results: Participants reached an adherence rate (performed home visits/number of planned visits) of 84.0/80.5% from week 1–12/13–24. Out of those, 59% carried out ≥75% of the offered visits. Older age was associated with a higher adherence rate. A mean of 1.5 (0.6) visits/week (2 were planned) were realized lasting for a mean of 1.5 (0.9) hours (154% of the planned duration). Per visit, 1.2 (0.6) circuits of strength training were performed (60.5% of the planned value) and 0.5 (0.3) nutritional interventions (47%). After twelve months, 4.2% still carried out the home visits regularly and 25.0% occasionally. Conclusion: Adherence is much more than “being there”. Adherence rate and category are limited parameters to describe the implementation of a complex lifestyle intervention, therefore a comprehensive documentation is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise and Chronic Diseases Prevention)
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Article
“It Is Like Medicine”: Using Sports to Promote Adult Women’s Health in Rural Kenya
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2347; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18052347 - 27 Feb 2021
Viewed by 716
Abstract
Despite the well-documented health benefits of recreational sports, few opportunities exist in lower- and middle-income countries for adult women to participate in recreational physical activities. An explanatory sequential mixed methods approach was used to explore associations between an innovative soccer program for adult [...] Read more.
Despite the well-documented health benefits of recreational sports, few opportunities exist in lower- and middle-income countries for adult women to participate in recreational physical activities. An explanatory sequential mixed methods approach was used to explore associations between an innovative soccer program for adult women and self-reported health status. Cross-sectional survey data were collected in 2018–2019 from 702 women in the Nikumbuke Project, a health and literacy program in southeastern rural Kenya, followed by focus group discussions with 225 women who also participated in the Project’s soccer program. Quantitative findings suggest that women who participated in soccer had 67% greater odds of reporting good or excellent health than their non-soccer playing peers. Thematic analysis of qualitative data indicated that women credited soccer with less pain, fatigue, and stress, as well as weight loss and reduced dependence on medicine for hypertension, pain, and sleep problems. Women equated health benefits with greater ease and efficiency in completing chores, reduced worries, youthful energy, male-like strength, and pleased husbands. Soccer programs for adult women may be particularly effective interventions in settings where access to health care is limited and where lack of opportunity to engage in physical aerobic activity increases women’s risks for poor health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise and Chronic Diseases Prevention)
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Article
The Influence of Occupational Categories on Overall and Domain-Specific Physical Activity and the Association with Chronic Diseases. An Analysis Using the Austrian Health Interview Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 2148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18042148 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Background: The performance of physical activity (PA) in different domains varies between different occupational groups and they contribute differently to the prevention and management of chronic diseases. This study aimed to give a fuller picture of the potential influence occupational categories have [...] Read more.
Background: The performance of physical activity (PA) in different domains varies between different occupational groups and they contribute differently to the prevention and management of chronic diseases. This study aimed to give a fuller picture of the potential influence occupational categories have on the different domains of PA among the Austrian population of working age. Methods: A total of 8251 gainfully employed persons in 9 major and 39 sub-major occupational groups from the Austrian Health Interview Survey 2014 were analyzed. PA was measured with the Physical Activity Questionnaire of the European Health Interview Survey (EHIS-PAQ) and the prevalence of 17 chronic diseases was obtained. Results: A total of 48.2% were mostly active when working, 18.4% reported transport-related PA in the upper quintile, 50.4% performed at least 150 min per week of moderate PA or cycling, 32.7% performed muscle-strengthening PA at least twice a week, and 76.3% were either mostly physically active when working or complied with the aerobic PA guidelines. As a general rule, people in physically active occupational groups tended to perform less PA in their leisure time and vice versa. Occupational groups with especially low amount of PA were Information Technology workers, directors, and secretarial staff. People with a chronic disease tended to perform less PA, but there was an interaction between occupation and chronic disease on PA. Conclusions: Domain-specific programs to promote PA should be developed for various occupational categories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise and Chronic Diseases Prevention)
Article
Regular Exercise and Depressive Symptoms in Korean Older Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(1), 303; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18010303 - 03 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1060
Abstract
Prior studies have found that exercise has a positive effect on depressive symptoms in the general population. For older individuals, however, the association between exercise and depressive symptoms is conclusive. We examined whether regular exercise is related to depressive symptoms in 5379 Korean [...] Read more.
Prior studies have found that exercise has a positive effect on depressive symptoms in the general population. For older individuals, however, the association between exercise and depressive symptoms is conclusive. We examined whether regular exercise is related to depressive symptoms in 5379 Korean adults aged ≥55 years using data from a 2016 survey administered in the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. We used the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression scale to assess depressive symptoms. We performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis to investigate the relationship between regular exercise and depressive symptoms, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, self-rated health, number of chronic diseases, body mass index, hand-grip strength, physical disability, cognitive impairment, and health behavior. Interaction terms, including regular exercise and health-related factors, were also added. We found that a lack of regular exercise was significantly related to an increased frequency of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.03–1.35). Moreover, hand-grip strength may increase the effect of regular exercise on depressive symptoms in individuals 65 years and older (OR = 1.01 vs. 1.70, 95% CI = 1.05–1.96). Our results suggest that it is important to encourage older individuals to exercise regularly as a means of relieving depressive symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise and Chronic Diseases Prevention)
Article
Factors Associated with Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Patients with Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9008; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17239008 - 03 Dec 2020
Viewed by 582
Abstract
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease, which is associated with low levels of physical activity (PA). However, the factors related to low physical activity levels have rarely been studied. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 70 seropositive RA patients were included. [...] Read more.
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease, which is associated with low levels of physical activity (PA). However, the factors related to low physical activity levels have rarely been studied. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 70 seropositive RA patients were included. Physical activity was objectively assessed with an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer. In addition, body mass index, smoking status, work ability, and clinical parameters (functional disabilities, disease activity, disease duration, pain, and inflammation parameters) were measured. Results: RA patients performed a mean of 215.2 (SD: 136.6) min a week of moderate physical activity and 9.1 (SD: 26.3) min of vigorous physical activity. The total amount of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was associated with BMI, and functional disabilities. In addition, non-smokers and patients with better work ability did more MVPA. No association could be seen with disease activity, disease duration, pain, and inflammatory markers. After mutual adjusting of all the variables, only BMI showed a significant relationship with MVPA. Conclusions: RA patients perform de facto no physical activity with vigorous intensity. Factors related to low physical activity are BMI, functional disabilities, workability and smoking status, whereas due to the study design no causal and temporal link could be made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise and Chronic Diseases Prevention)
Article
Physical Activity as Part of an Intramural Health Promotion Programme for People with and without Chronic Diseases. A New Tool in Health Care Run by a Public Social Health Insurance
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7491; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17207491 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 624
Abstract
Background: Regular physical activity is a corner stone for healthy living, and preventing the onset or progression of diseases. The Social Insurance Fund for Public Service, Railway and Mining Industries is building an intramural health promotion facility in Austria with the aim to [...] Read more.
Background: Regular physical activity is a corner stone for healthy living, and preventing the onset or progression of diseases. The Social Insurance Fund for Public Service, Railway and Mining Industries is building an intramural health promotion facility in Austria with the aim to provide a comprehensive evidence-based health promotion programme for their insured. The target group are all people who, regardless of their health status and the presence of diseases, are ready to make their lifestyle more health-oriented. The health promotion facility offers health promotion measures in five areas: promoting physical training, optimizing nutritional patterns, managing everyday stress, increasing social capital, and improving health literacy. The focus is on increasing resources and on overcoming barriers. Depending on age, previous illnesses, range of motion, stress level, body weight and personal aims and expectations, the measures are individually tailored. The stay is divided into a two-week initial stay and a follow-up week. A comprehensive scientific evaluation concept of all measures and the entire stay is an integral part of the design. Conclusion: This project combines the advantages of comprehensive active health promotion, and an intramural stay. It is a pioneering social insurance project for sustainable health promotion and integrated care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise and Chronic Diseases Prevention)
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Article
Physical Activity on Prescription in Routine Health Care: 1-Year Follow-Up of Patients with and without Counsellor Support
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5679; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17165679 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
The effectiveness of counsellor support in addition to physical activity on prescription (PAP) from health care professionals has rarely been evaluated. This observational follow-up study investigated differences in physical activity levels and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) one year after PAP regarding patients’ [...] Read more.
The effectiveness of counsellor support in addition to physical activity on prescription (PAP) from health care professionals has rarely been evaluated. This observational follow-up study investigated differences in physical activity levels and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) one year after PAP regarding patients’ use of counsellor support in addition to PAP in routine care. The study was conducted in a Swedish health care region in which all patients receiving PAP from health care professionals were offered counsellor support. Data were collected from medical records and questionnaires (baseline and follow-up). Of the 400 study participants, 37% used counsellor support. The group of counsellor users attained a higher level of physical activity one year after receiving PAP compared to the group of non-users (p < 0.001). The level of physical activity was measured by a validated index (score 3–19) calculated from weekly everyday activity and exercise training. Comparison of the change in scores between baseline and follow-up showed a significant difference between the two groups, (p < 0.001). The median difference in the PAP + C group was 2.0 (interquartile range, 7.0) and 0.0. among non-users (interquartile range, 4.0). Significant differences in HRQoL were due to positive improvements among counsellor users, with the main improvement in general health. The conclusion is that patients using counsellor support after receiving PAP from health care professionals had higher physical activity and better HRQoL one year after compared with patients who did not use this support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise and Chronic Diseases Prevention)
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Article
Bibliometric Analysis of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Research from 1999 to 2019
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5411; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17155411 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1181
Abstract
Research on chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has increased over the past two decades. However, few studies have statistically analyzed these publications. In this work, we conducted a bibliometric analysis of studies on CTE to track research trends and highlight current research hotspots. Relevant [...] Read more.
Research on chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has increased over the past two decades. However, few studies have statistically analyzed these publications. In this work, we conducted a bibliometric analysis of studies on CTE to track research trends and highlight current research hotspots. Relevant original articles were obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection database between 1999 and 2019. CiteSpace and VOSviewer software were used to perform analysis and visualization of scientific productivity and emerging trends. Our results show that the publications related to CTE dramatically increased from four publications in 1999 to 160 publications in 2019. The United States dominated this field with 732 publications (75.934%), followed by Canada with 88 publications (9.129%). Most of related publications were published in the journals with a focus on molecular biology, immunology, neurology, sports and ophthalmology, as represented by the dual-map overlay. A total of 11 major clusters were explored based on the reference co-citation analysis. In addition, three predominant research topics were summarized by clustering high-frequency keywords: epidemiological, clinical and pathological studies. The research frontiers were the diagnosis of diseases using new neuroimaging techniques, and the investigation of the molecular mechanism of tau aggregation. This study provides researchers with valuable guidance in the selection of research topics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise and Chronic Diseases Prevention)
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Article
Multicomponent Exercise Program Reduces Frailty and Inflammatory Biomarkers and Improves Physical Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3760; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17113760 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1554
Abstract
The efficacy of exercise to reverse frailty in the aging population has not been extensively investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a multicomponent exercise program (MCEP) on frailty, physical performance (handgrip strength, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go [...] Read more.
The efficacy of exercise to reverse frailty in the aging population has not been extensively investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a multicomponent exercise program (MCEP) on frailty, physical performance (handgrip strength, Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go test (TUG), and VO2Max), blood biomarkers (Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) in frail older adults. A randomized controlled trial using an allocation concealment method, included 64 older adults (77.78 ± 7.24 years), were divided into two parallel groups using block randomization: an MCEP group (n = 32) and a control group (n = 32). The combined center- and home-based MCEP training consisted of chair aerobic, resistance, and balance, which was carried out 3 days per week for 24 weeks. A mixed model repeated measure ANOVA demonstrated significant interaction effects of group x time for BBS, TUG and frailty scores (p < 0.001). Additionally, the post-hoc analysis revealed that the MCEP group showed significantly improved BBS, TUG, and frailty scores (p < 0.01), at both 12- and 24-weeks. When compared with controls at 12-weeks, the MCEP group decreased IL-6 and CRP levels (p < 0.05). The combined center- and home-based MCEP were effective in reversing frailty to pre-frailty and improving physical performance especially balance in the older population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise and Chronic Diseases Prevention)
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Article
Outcome Expectations for Exercise and Decisional Balance Questionnaires Predict Adherence and Efficacy of Exercise Programs in Dialysis Patients
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3175; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093175 - 02 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1074
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to define if Outcomes Expectations for Exercise (OEE) and Decisional Balance (DB) scales predict adherence to guided exercise programs and associate with the improvement in physical performance in the dialysis population. Participants (n = 40; age [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to define if Outcomes Expectations for Exercise (OEE) and Decisional Balance (DB) scales predict adherence to guided exercise programs and associate with the improvement in physical performance in the dialysis population. Participants (n = 40; age 63.6 ± 12.5 years) completed OEE and DB questionnaires before randomization to the experimental group (n = 20) and control group (n = 20) of a two-phased exercise program—the experimental group received eight weeks of supervised functional exercise and exercise counseling (1st phase) before commencing eight weeks of home-based exercise on non-dialysis days (2nd phase). Both groups performed intradialytic cycling on dialysis days during both study phases. Patients with above-median OEE and DB scores (>3.15 and >1.3, respectively) expressed significantly better adherence to intradialytic cycling (89% vs. 76%, 89% vs. 77%, respectively, p < 0.05). Experimental group patients with an above-median OEE (but not DB) score had significantly better adherence to supervised and home-based functional exercise (93% vs. 81% and 85% vs. 60%, respectively, p < 0.05). Baseline DB score predicted the final result in the hand-grip test and 6-min walk test. Low OEE and, to a lesser degree, low DB questionnaire scores associate with inferior adherence to dialysis bundled and home-based exercise programs and may help define patient subsets in need of intensified motivational input by exercise caregivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise and Chronic Diseases Prevention)
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Article
The Effect of Active Plus, a Computer-Tailored Physical Activity Intervention, on the Physical Activity of Older Adults with Chronic Illness(es)—A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2590; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072590 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1199
Abstract
eHealth interventions aimed at improving physical activity (PA) can reach large populations with few resources and demands on the population as opposed to centre-based interventions. Active Plus is a proven effective computer-tailored PA intervention for the older adult population focusing on PA in [...] Read more.
eHealth interventions aimed at improving physical activity (PA) can reach large populations with few resources and demands on the population as opposed to centre-based interventions. Active Plus is a proven effective computer-tailored PA intervention for the older adult population focusing on PA in daily life. This manuscript describes the effects of the Active Plus intervention (N = 260) on PA of older adults with chronic illnesses (OACI), compared to a waiting list control group (N = 325). It was part of a larger randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the effects of the Active Plus intervention on cognitive functioning. OACI (≥65 years) with at least one chronic illness were allocated to one of the conditions. Intervention group participants received PA advice. Baseline and follow-up measurements were assessed after 6 and 12 months. Intervention effects on objectively measured light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) min/week were analysed with multilevel linear mixed-effects models adjusted for the clustered design. Intervention effects on self-reported MVPA min/week on common types of PA were analysed with two-part generalized linear mixed-effects models adjusted for the clustered design. The dropout rate was 19.1% after 6 months and 25.1% after 12 months. Analyses showed no effects on objectively measured PA. Active Plus increased the likelihood to perform self-reported cycling and gardening at six months and participants who cycled increased their MVPA min/week of cycling. Twelve months after baseline the intervention increased the likelihood to perform self-reported walking and participants who cycled at 12 months increased their MVPA min/week of cycling. Subgroup analyses showed that more vulnerable participants (higher degree of impairment, age or body mass index) benefitted more from the intervention on especially the lower intensity PA outcomes. In conclusion, Active Plus only increased PA behaviour to a limited extent in OACI 6 and 12 months after baseline measurements. The Active Plus intervention may yet be not effective enough by itself in OACI. A blended approach, where this eHealth intervention and face-to-face contact are combined, is advised to improve the effects of Active Plus on PA in this target group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise and Chronic Diseases Prevention)
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Article
Prospective Evaluation of Cardiovascular, Cardiorespiratory, and Metabolic Risk of German Office Workers in Comparison to International Data
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(5), 1590; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17051590 - 01 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Background: Employment in the administrative sector is characterized by prolonged sedentary work, which has been tied to increased morbidity and compromised health. The aim of this study was to determine cardiovascular, cardiorespiratory and metabolic risk parameters of German office workers (OWs) in comparison [...] Read more.
Background: Employment in the administrative sector is characterized by prolonged sedentary work, which has been tied to increased morbidity and compromised health. The aim of this study was to determine cardiovascular, cardiorespiratory and metabolic risk parameters of German office workers (OWs) in comparison to OWs from other nations. Material and Methods: A total of 46 male office workers from the North Rhine-Westphalia region (Germany) participated in the survey. Anthropometric measurements, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors, as well as laboratory parameters were taken. The 10-year cardiovascular risk was calculated by using the Framingham risk score. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. Cardiorespiratory status was assessed by exercise spirometry. Results: The analyzed group of OWs demonstrated a high prevalence of preobesity (Body Mass Index 26.4 ± 4 and waist circumference 97.3 ± 11.7 cm) and 58.7% of the OWs showed an abnormally large waist circumference. Cardiovascular risk was correspondingly elevated as compared with other international studies (9.7% ± 9.2%). High risk cardiovascular profiles were detected in 10.7% of the participants and 33% of the OWs in our study group were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. The oxygen uptake of the OWs was 34.1 ± 8.1 mL/kg−1·min−1. Conclusions: The German OWs show elevated cardiovascular risk assessed using the Framingham risk score and also a high tendency for metabolic syndrome. The OWs need to be made further aware of the cardiovascular risk and resulting health implications. Implementation of health promotion concepts such as corporate sports activities or nutrition courses should be taken into consideration to counteract cardiovascular risk factors and the subsequent development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise and Chronic Diseases Prevention)

Review

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Review
Are There Effective Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children and Young People? An Umbrella Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3528; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17103528 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1366
Abstract
Background: Obesity and physical inactivity among children and young people are public health concerns. While numerous interventions to promote physical activity are available, little is known about the most effective ones. This study aimed to summarize the existing evidence on interventions that [...] Read more.
Background: Obesity and physical inactivity among children and young people are public health concerns. While numerous interventions to promote physical activity are available, little is known about the most effective ones. This study aimed to summarize the existing evidence on interventions that aim to increase physical activity. Methods: A systematic review of reviews was conducted. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses published from January 2010 until November 2017 were identified through PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed titles and abstracts, performed data extraction and quality assessment. Outcomes as level of physical activity and body mass index were collected in order to assess the efficacy of interventions. Results: A total 30 studies examining physical activity interventions met the inclusion criteria, 15 systematic reviews and 15 meta-analyses. Most studies (N = 20) were implemented in the school setting, three were developed in preschool and childcare settings, two in the family context, five in the community setting and one miscellaneous context. Results showed that eight meta-analyses obtained a small increase in physical activity level, out of which five were conducted in the school, two in the family and one in the community setting. Most promising programs had the following characteristics: included physical activity in the school curriculum, were long-term interventions, involved teachers and had the support of families. Conclusion: The majority of interventions to promote physical activity in children and young people were implemented in the school setting and were multicomponent. Further research is needed to investigate nonschool programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise and Chronic Diseases Prevention)

Other

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Case Report
Effectiveness of an Adapted Physical Activity Protocol for Upper Extremity Recovery and Quality of Life Improvement in a Case of Seroma after Breast Cancer Treatment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7727; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17217727 - 22 Oct 2020
Viewed by 650
Abstract
Growing evidence indicates that physical activity (PA) interventions may reduce upper limb function-limiting side effects of treatments and improve quality of life (QoL) of breast cancer (BC) survivors. However, the possible effectiveness of PA in cases developing seroma after BC treatment has yet [...] Read more.
Growing evidence indicates that physical activity (PA) interventions may reduce upper limb function-limiting side effects of treatments and improve quality of life (QoL) of breast cancer (BC) survivors. However, the possible effectiveness of PA in cases developing seroma after BC treatment has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we describe for the first time the impact of a structured PA pathway (i.e., two cycles of eight-week adapted PA followed by eight-week adapted fitness) on upper limb disability and QoL in a peculiar case of chronic seroma as complication of reconstructive plastic surgery after left breast mastectomy and lymphadenectomy. A 56-year-old female BC survivor underwent a functional test battery (i.e., shoulder–arm mobility, range of motion, back flexibility and indirect assessment of pectoralis minor muscle) at baseline, during and after ending the structured PA pathway. Upper limb and back pain intensity and QoL were evaluated by numerical rating scale and Short Form-12 questionnaire, respectively. A relevant seroma reduction, an improvement in upper limb mobility and pain perception, and an overall increase in QoL were achieved after the structured PA intervention. Our findings suggest that an adapted PA intervention may represent an effective strategy for seroma treatment in BC survivors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise and Chronic Diseases Prevention)
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Case Report
Long-Term Combined Training in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Case Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5091; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17145091 - 15 Jul 2020
Viewed by 890
Abstract
A supervised combined training program was applied to a sedentary 56-year-old man with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) along three years, until lung transplantation. It included: (a) aerobic continuous (CT) and interval training (IT), (b) high load resistance training (RT) and (c) inspiratory muscle [...] Read more.
A supervised combined training program was applied to a sedentary 56-year-old man with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) along three years, until lung transplantation. It included: (a) aerobic continuous (CT) and interval training (IT), (b) high load resistance training (RT) and (c) inspiratory muscle training (IMT). IT and IMT were applied for two years, while CT and RT could be maintained until transplantation using supplemental oxygen. Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) kept above 180 cm H2O and forced vital capacity (FVC) remained stable until lung transplantation. Peak oxygen uptake VO2 increased during 1.5 years before its decline, staying above the poor prognosis level two years. Finally, the patient maintained his walking capacity and independence for 2 years, before the decline due to the disease. After receiving a two-lung transplant, the patient remained intubated for 12 h, left the intensive care unit after 3.5 days and was discharged after 18 days (average values: 48 h, 7–10 days and 25–35 days, respectively). These results show that systematic and supervised combined training can be safety applied in an IPF patient to maintain functionality and quality of life. In addition, we show that RT can be maintained for as long as necessary without complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Exercise and Chronic Diseases Prevention)
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