Special Issue "Physical Activity and Exercise for Cardiovascular Health"

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Łukasz Małek
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Epidemiology, Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, National Institute of Cardiology in Warsaw, Poland
Interests: sports cardiology; cardiovascular disease prevention; health promotion; cardiac magnetic resonance
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Tomas Vetrovsky
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University, Prague, Czechia
Interests: physical activity and health; behavioral interventions; healthy aging; cardiovascular rehabilitation; telerehabilitation; mHealth; ecological momentary assessment; just-in-time adaptive interventions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Physical activity and exercise are the main components of cardiovascular disease prevention and health promotion. To improve public health and combat noncommunicable diseases, regular physical activity should be promoted and implemented from early childhood. Other efforts should be directed at finding efficient ways to sustain physical activity and limit sedentary lifestyle across the lifespan. A safe environment for most active individuals, including competitive athletes, through preparticipation screening and periodic monitoring, should also be provided. These tasks require a cross-disciplinary approach combining data from epidemiological studies, new technological discoveries, and basic or clinical research on physical activity and cardiology. All research related to the described area, including systematic reviews and meta-analyses, original research, or short communications on important basic science and clinical findings, expert opinions, as well as comprehensive case reports are highly welcomed for submission.

Dr. Łukasz Małek
Dr. Tomas Vetrovsky
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • physical activity
  • cardiovascular disease prevention
  • health promotion
  • epidemiology
  • diagnostics
  • cardiology
  • sports cardiology
  • heart disease
  • cardiac rehabilitation
  • lifestyle interventions

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Alterations in Circulating MicroRNAs and the Relation of MicroRNAs to Maximal Oxygen Consumption and Intima–Media Thickness in Ultra-Marathon Runners
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7234; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147234 - 06 Jul 2021
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Abstract
The impact of long-term training on cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not clear. Carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT) test is recommended as a useful measure to diagnose the early stages of atherosclerosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are altered due to endurance exercise and can be promising biomarkers [...] Read more.
The impact of long-term training on cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not clear. Carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT) test is recommended as a useful measure to diagnose the early stages of atherosclerosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are altered due to endurance exercise and can be promising biomarkers of pathophysiological changes. We aimed to evaluate the association of circulating miRNAs with physical fitness and markers of atherosclerosis in ultra-marathon runners. Ultra-marathon runners had 28-fold upregulation of miR-125a-5p expressions compared to control individuals (p = 0.002), whereas let-7e and miR-126 did not differ statistically between ultra-marathon runners and controls. In the ultra-marathon runners’ group, negative correlations were observed between VO2max/kg and relative expression of miR-125a-5p and miR-126 (r = −0.402, p = 0.028; r = −0.438, p = 0.032, respectively). Positive correlations were observed between CIMT and miR-125a-5p and miR-126 (r = 0.388, p = 0.050; r = 0.504, p = 0.023, respectively) in ultra-marathon runners. Individuals with the highest quartile of VO2max/kg had 23-fold lower miR-126 expression in comparison to subgroups with lower VO2max/kg (p = 0.017). Our results may indicate that both miRNAs may serve as a biomarker for early pathological changes leading to atherosclerosis burden in athletes. Furthermore, the association between miRNAs and traditional risk factors for CVD indicate a possible use of these molecules as early biomarkers of future cardiovascular health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Exercise for Cardiovascular Health)
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Article
Associations between Physical Activity, Sunshine Duration and Osteoporosis According to Obesity and Other Lifestyle Factors: A Nested Case–Control Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(9), 4437; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18094437 - 22 Apr 2021
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Abstract
(1) Background: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the associations between physical activity (PA), sunshine duration (SD) and the occurrence of osteoporosis according to lifestyle status. (2) Methods: Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) collected from [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the associations between physical activity (PA), sunshine duration (SD) and the occurrence of osteoporosis according to lifestyle status. (2) Methods: Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC) collected from 2009 to 2015 were used. Osteoporosis (n = 19,351) and control (n = 38,702) participants were matched in a 1:2 ratio according to age, sex, income, and region of residence. PA was classified as moderate- to high-intensity PA (MHPA) or low-intensity PA (LPA) based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). SD was classified as short (≤6 h) or long (>6 h). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of MHPA and long SD for the occurrence of osteoporosis. Subgroup analyses were performed according to SD (or PA), obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. (3) The adjusted OR of MHPA for osteoporosis was 0.90 (95% CI = 0.87–0.94). The results were consistent in the age/sex, SD, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption subgroups, but not the <60-year-old male and underweight subgroups. The adjusted OR of long SD for osteoporosis was 0.96 (95% CI = 0.93–1.00). The findings were consistent in the <60-year-old female, obese, nonsmoker, and <1 time a week alcohol consumption subgroups. (4) Conclusions: We suggest that both higher intensity of PA and long SD could decrease the risk of osteoporosis. Specifically, PA could decrease the risk of osteoporosis in individuals with most characteristics except male sex or underweight. Long SD could decrease the risk of osteoporosis in young females, obese individuals, nonsmokers, and individuals with lower alcohol consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Exercise for Cardiovascular Health)
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Article
Epicardial Adipose Tissue and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Ultra-Marathon Runners: A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18063136 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 907
Abstract
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data regarding the influence of extremely intensive training on CVD are scarce. We compared EAT volume among ultra-marathon runners and in the sedentary control group, and assessed the correlations between EAT and [...] Read more.
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data regarding the influence of extremely intensive training on CVD are scarce. We compared EAT volume among ultra-marathon runners and in the sedentary control group, and assessed the correlations between EAT and risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD). EAT volume around three main coronary vessels and right ventricle (RV) was measured in 30 healthy amateur ultrarunners and 9 sex- and age-matched sedentary controls using cardiac magnetic resonance. In addition, body composition, lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6) plasma concentration, and intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured as well. The EAT volume was lower in all measured locations in the ultrarunners’ group compared to control group (p < 0.001 for all). Ultrarunners had lower BMI and fat percentage (FAT%) and more favorable lipid profile compared to the control group (p < 0.05 for all). Ultrarunners had lower rate of pathologically high levels of plasma IL-6 (>1 pg/mL) compared to the control group (17% vs. 56%, p < 0.05). IMT was similar in both groups. In the ultrarunners’ group, there was a positive correlation between EAT surrounding left anterior descending artery, circumflex artery, and RV and FAT%, and between EAT around circumflex artery and LDL and non-HDL cholesterol (p < 0.05 for all). In summary, extremely intensive training may decrease the risk of cardiovascular events in adult population of amateur athletes by reducing the amount and pro-inflammatory activity of EAT. However, more research is needed to draw firm conclusions regarding the anti- and pro-inflammatory effects of intensive training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Exercise for Cardiovascular Health)
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