Special Issue "Effects of Plant-based Diets on Human Health and the Environment"

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Mauro Lombardo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Human Sciences and Promotion of the Quality of Life, San Raffaele Roma Open University, 00166 Rome, Italy
Interests: mediterranean diet; dietary patterns; obesity; plant-based diets; body composition; energy expenditure; sport nutrition
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plant-based diets are dietary patterns that support a high consumption of plant-based foods as vegetables, whole grains, fruits, legumes, seeds, and nuts, and strongly reduce the consumption of most animal products. Examples of plant-based diets include traditional Mediterranean, flexitarian, vegetarian, and vegan diets. Recent studies have linked plant-based diets to lower rates of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. Increased consumption of plant-based foods could also have beneficial effects on the environment. The aim of this Special Issue will be to investigate the correlations between health and plant-based diets and to evaluate divergent plant-based dietary interventions in clinical practice.

Dr. Mauro Lombardo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • plant-based
  • Mediterranean
  • vegetarian
  • vegan
  • non-communicable diseases
  • cancer
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • diabetes

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

Article
Nutritional, Cardiovascular Health and Lifestyle Status of ‘Health Conscious’ Adult Vegans and Non-Vegans from Slovenia: A Cross-Sectional Self-Reported Survey
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5968; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115968 - 02 Jun 2021
Viewed by 737
Abstract
The study aim was to investigate differences in nutritional, cardiovascular and lifestyle status of ‘health conscious’ subjects. In a partial ‘lock-down’ during the COVID-19 pandemic period, we performed a web-based, cross-sectional study. We compared 80 self-selected subjects (51 vegans, 67% females, and 29 [...] Read more.
The study aim was to investigate differences in nutritional, cardiovascular and lifestyle status of ‘health conscious’ subjects. In a partial ‘lock-down’ during the COVID-19 pandemic period, we performed a web-based, cross-sectional study. We compared 80 self-selected subjects (51 vegans, 67% females, and 29 non-vegans, 55% females, p = 0.344). Nutritional status was assessed by bio-electrical impedance and standardized food frequency questionnaires (i.e., contribution of nutrients from foods and supplementation, combined and separate). Serum lipid concentrations and blood pressure (BP) were assessed from annual or initial examination reports, while sociodemographic, economic, and lifestyle statuses were obtained by standardized questionnaires. Finally, a multivariate linear regression model was used to estimate the relationship between total fiber and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol) values. The vegans had a significantly lower body mass index (22.8 ± 2.4 vs. 26.6 ± 3.6 kg/m2, p < 0.001) and body fat % (19.3 ± 7.3 vs. 25.8 ± 8.2%, p < 0.001) than the non-vegans. There were significant differences between vegans and non-vegans in energy intake, and most macronutrient (10/12) and micronutrient (15/23) intakes in units/day. Both diets were well designed, with high fiber and low SFA and free sugar intake but remained insufficient in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (for vegans), vitamin D, calcium, sodium (for vegans) and iodine. Vegans also had a significantly lower lipid profile and BP than non-vegans, except for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, both groups met targeted recommendations. Furthermore, fiber and SFA intake and age explained 47% of the variance in LDL cholesterol. In conclusion, ‘health conscious’ vegans and non-vegans with comparable lifestyle statuses had significant differences in dietary intake, body composition and cardiovascular health status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Plant-based Diets on Human Health and the Environment)
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