Special Issue "Understanding and Prevention of Suicide"

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Daniel Pratt
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Psychology and Mental Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Interests: suicide prevention; psychology of suicide; psychotherapy; prisoners

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Each year, 800,000 people die by suicide across the world. Suicide is a leading cause of preventable death and for every fatal outcome, approximately 20 people attempt to take their own life. Understanding the vulnerability factors and acute states that trigger suicide and related behaviours is vital in improving suicide prevention efforts and initiatives. Recent years have seen a welcome increase in theoretical and empirical reports seeking to further our understanding of suicide and how this outcome can be prevented. So, for this Special Issue, we are particularly interested in receiving high-quality papers that seek to advance theoretical accounts and explanations of suicide, investigate the mechanisms and responsible pathways that take an individual closer towards or further away from suicidal ideation and behaviour, conduct ecologically valid, real-time measurement of suicide outcomes and associated mechanisms (e.g., micro-longitudinal or experience sample methodologies), as well as treatment development and evaluation studies (case series, feasibility studies, randomized controlled trials). Furthermore, we would also welcome reports from qualitative enquiries into the lived experiences of suicide outcomes, from the perspectives of the individual or their families and carers. In addition to original research, reports on systematic reviews and meta-analyses, conceptual analysis, and opinion are invited from the fields of public health, medicine, psychology, psychiatry, and sociology.

Dr. Daniel Pratt
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Suicide
  • Suicidal behavior
  • Suicide ideation
  • Mechanisms
  • Pathways
  • Treatment
  • Intervention

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
Impacts of Dual-Income Household Rate on Suicide Mortalities in Japan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5670; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18115670 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 755
Abstract
To explore impact of enhancing social advancement of females in Japan, this study determined the effects of the dual-income household rate on suicide mortalities disaggregated by attributes of gender, age, and motives between 2009 and 2017 in Japan. This study analysed impact of [...] Read more.
To explore impact of enhancing social advancement of females in Japan, this study determined the effects of the dual-income household rate on suicide mortalities disaggregated by attributes of gender, age, and motives between 2009 and 2017 in Japan. This study analysed impact of dual-income household rate, other household-related factors (savings, liabilities and yearly incomes per household, minors and elderly rate per household), and social/employment factors (complete unemployment rate, employment rate, temporary male and female employment rates and certification rate of long-term care insurance) on suicide mortalities disaggregated by attributes of gender, age, and motives using hierarchical linear-regression model. Dual-income household rate was significantly/negatively related to suicide mortality of the working-age female population, but significantly/positively related to that of the elderly female population. Suicide mortalities of the working-age male population and the elderly male population were significantly/positively related to dual-income household rate. Male suicide mortalities caused by family-, health-, economy- and employment-related motives were significantly/positively related to dual-income household rate; however, the dual-income household rate was significantly/positively related to female suicide mortalities caused by family-, health-, economy- and school-related motives, but significantly/negatively related to suicide mortalities caused by romance-related motives. Dual-income households suppress social-isolation and develop economical/psychological independence of females, leading to reduced suicide mortality in working-age females. However, elderly and school-age populations, who are supported by the working-age female, suffer from isolation. Working-age males also suffer from inability to adapt from the traditional concept of work–life and work–family balances to the novel work–family balance concept adapted to dual-income households. These results suggest occurrence of new social/family problems in the 21st century due to vulnerability of traditional Japanese culture and life–working–family balance concepts as well as novel sociofamilial disturbances induced by declining birth rate and ageing population in Japan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding and Prevention of Suicide)
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Article
Attachment Security and Suicide Ideation and Behaviour: The Mediating Role of Reflective Functioning
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3090; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18063090 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 637
Abstract
Background: To understand why attachment difficulties predispose individuals to suicidal thinking (suicide ideation) and behaviour, a leading cause of death, we need to explore the role of pertinent psychological mechanisms. Attachment processes are closely linked to the development of mentalisation capabilities, or reflective [...] Read more.
Background: To understand why attachment difficulties predispose individuals to suicidal thinking (suicide ideation) and behaviour, a leading cause of death, we need to explore the role of pertinent psychological mechanisms. Attachment processes are closely linked to the development of mentalisation capabilities, or reflective functioning; the ability to understand and interpret self and other behaviour as an expression of mental states. Interventions designed to improve mentalisation have been associated with a reduction in suicidal behaviour, yet reflective functioning has not been directly investigated in relation to suicidal ideation and behaviour. Aim: We aim to further verify the link between adult attachment security and suicidal ideation and examine whether deficits in reflective functioning mediate this relationship. Methods: Sixty-seven participants who experienced suicidal ideation within the past 12 months completed self-report measures of adult attachment, current suicidal ideation, reflective functioning, depressive symptomology and hopelessness. Partial correlations, mediation analyses and group comparisons were conducted to explore relationships between these factors. Results: Findings did not support a mediational role for reflective functioning in the relationship between attachment security and suicidal ideation. A direct relationship was established between attachment avoidance and suicidal ideation, after controlling for age, gender and depressive symptoms. However, participants with a history of attempted suicide were higher in anxious attachment compared to participants with no such history. Conclusions: This study shows that the attachment dimensions of attachment anxiety and avoidance may play differential roles in increasing risk for suicidal attempts versus ideation. This has important implications for tailoring interventions. Those aimed at reducing suicide attempts should focus on reducing attachment anxiety by helping people develop skills in emotional regulation. Interventions aimed at reducing suicidal ideation should focus on reducing attachment avoidance by helping people develop closer relationships with significant others. However, longitudinal and experimental designs are required to verify causality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding and Prevention of Suicide)
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Review

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Review
Suicide and Associations with Air Pollution and Ambient Temperature: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(14), 7699; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18147699 - 20 Jul 2021
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Given health threats of climate change, a comprehensive review of the impacts of ambient temperature and ar pollution on suicide is needed. We performed systematic literature review and meta-analysis of suicide risks associated with short-term exposure to ambient temperature and air pollution. Pubmed, [...] Read more.
Given health threats of climate change, a comprehensive review of the impacts of ambient temperature and ar pollution on suicide is needed. We performed systematic literature review and meta-analysis of suicide risks associated with short-term exposure to ambient temperature and air pollution. Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for English-language publications using relevant keywords. Observational studies assessing risks of daily suicide and suicide attempts associated with temperature, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10) and ≤2.5 mm (PM2.5), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) were included. Data extraction was independently performed in duplicate. Random-effect meta-analysis was applied to pool risk ratios (RRs) for increases in daily suicide per interquartile range (IQR) increase in exposure. Meta-regression analysis was applied to examine effect modification by income level based on gross national income (GNI) per capita, national suicide rates, and average level of exposure factors. In total 2274 articles were screened, with 18 studies meeting inclusion criteria for air pollution and 32 studies for temperature. RRs of suicide per 7.1 °C temperature was 1.09 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.13). RRs of suicide per IQR increase in PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.05), 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.03), and 1.03 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.07). O3, SO2, and CO were not associated with suicide. RR of suicide was significantly higher in higher-income than lower-income countries (1.09, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.11 and 1.20, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.26 per 7.1 °C increased temperature, respectively). Suicide risks associated with air pollution did not significantly differ by income level, national suicide rates, or average exposure levels. Research gaps were found for interactions between air pollution and temperature on suicide risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Understanding and Prevention of Suicide)
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