Editor's Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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Article
Exploring Allometric Scaling Relations between Fractal Dimensions of Metro Networks and Economic, Environmental and Social Indicators: A Case Study of 26 Cities in China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(7), 429; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10070429 - 23 Jun 2021
Abstract
Allometric scaling originates in biology, where it refers to scaling relations between the size of a body part and the size of the whole body when an organism grows. In cities, various allometric relations have also been discovered, such as those between the [...] Read more.
Allometric scaling originates in biology, where it refers to scaling relations between the size of a body part and the size of the whole body when an organism grows. In cities, various allometric relations have also been discovered, such as those between the complexity of traffic networks and urban quantities. Metro networks are typical traffic networks in cities. However, whether allometric relations with metro networks exist is still uncertain. In this study, “fractal dimension” was employed as the complexity measure of metro networks, and potential allometric relations between fractal dimensions and urban indicators in 26 main cities in China were explored. It was found that fractal dimensions of metro networks had positive allometric relations with gross domestic product (GDP), population, particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), the road congestion index and the average price of second-hand housing (with Spearman’s R of 0.789, 0.806, 0.273, 0.625 and 0.335, respectively) but inverse allometric relations with sulfur dioxide (SO2) and residential satisfaction (with Spearman’s R of −0.270 and −0.419, respectively). Such discoveries imply that allometric relations do exist with metro networks, which is helpful in deepening our understanding of how metro systems interact with urban quantities in the self-organized evolution of cities. Full article
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Article
A Spatially Highly Resolved Ground Mounted and Rooftop Potential Analysis for Photovoltaics in Austria
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(6), 418; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10060418 - 16 Jun 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Austria aims to meet 100% of its electricity demand from domestic renewable sources by 2030 which means, that an additional 27 TWh/a of renewable electricity generation are required, thereof 11 TWh/a from photovoltaic. While some [...] Read more.
Austria aims to meet 100% of its electricity demand from domestic renewable sources by 2030 which means, that an additional 27 TWh/a of renewable electricity generation are required, thereof 11 TWh/a from photovoltaic. While some federal states and municipalities released a solar rooftop cadastre, there is lacking knowledge on the estimation of the potential of both, ground mounted installations and rooftop modules, on a national level with a high spatial resolution. As a first, in this work data on agricultural land-use is combined with highly resolved data on buildings on a national level. Our results show significant differences between urban and rural areas, as well as between the Alpine regions and the Prealpine- and Easter Plain areas. Rooftop potential concentrates in the big urban areas, but also in densely populated areas in Lower- and Upper Austria, Styria and the Rhine valley of Vorarlberg. The ground mounted photovoltaic potential is highest in Eastern Austria. This potential is geographically consistent with the demand and allows for a production close to the consumer. In theory, the goal of meeting 11 TWh/a in 2030 can be achieved solely with the rooftop PV potential. However, considering the necessary installation efforts, the associated costs of small and dispersed production units and finally the inherent uncertainty with respect to the willingness of tens of thousands of individual households to install PV systems, installing the necessary solar PV on buildings alone is constrained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Spatial and Temporal Modelling of Renewable Energy Systems)
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Article
Emojis as Contextual Indicants in Location-Based Social Media Posts
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(6), 407; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10060407 - 12 Jun 2021
Abstract
The presented study aims to investigate the relationship between the use of emojis in location-based social media and the location of the corresponding post in terms of perceived objects and conducted activities connected to this place. The basis for this is not a [...] Read more.
The presented study aims to investigate the relationship between the use of emojis in location-based social media and the location of the corresponding post in terms of perceived objects and conducted activities connected to this place. The basis for this is not a purely frequency-based assessment, but a specifically introduced measure called typicality. To evaluate the typicality measure and examine the assumption that emojis are contextual indicants, a dataset of worldwide geotagged posts from Instagram relating to sunset and sunrise events is used, converted to a privacy-aware version based on a Hyperloglog approach. Results suggest that emojis can often provide more nuanced information about user activities and the surrounding environment than is possible with hashtags. Thus, emojis may be suitable for identifying less obvious characteristics and the sense of a place. Emojis are already explored in research, but mainly for sentiment analysis, for semantic studies or as part of emoji prediction. In contrast, this work provides novel insights into the user’s spatial or activity context by applying the typicality measure and therefore considers emojis contextual indicants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Computing for Geographic Information Science)
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Article
Automatic Delineation of Urban Growth Boundaries Based on Topographic Data Using Germany as a Case Study
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 353; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050353 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) is a growth management policy that designates specific areas where growth should be concentrated in order to avoid urban sprawl. The objective of such a boundary is to protect agricultural land, open spaces and the natural environment, as well [...] Read more.
Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) is a growth management policy that designates specific areas where growth should be concentrated in order to avoid urban sprawl. The objective of such a boundary is to protect agricultural land, open spaces and the natural environment, as well as to use existing infrastructure and public services more efficiently. Due to the inherent heterogeneity and complexity of settlements, UGBs in Germany are currently created manually by experts. Therefore, every dataset is linked to a specific area, investigation period and dedicated use. Clearly, up-to-date, homogeneous, meaningful and cost-efficient delineations created automatically are needed to avoid this reliance on manually or semi-automatically generated delineations. Here, we present an aggregative method to produce UGBs using building footprints and generally available topographic data as inputs. It was applied to study areas in Frankfurt/Main, the Hanover region and rural Brandenburg while taking full account of Germany’s planning and legal framework for spatial development. Our method is able to compensate for most of the weaknesses of available UGB data and to significantly raise the accuracy of UGBs in Germany. Therefore, it represents a valuable tool for generating basic data for future studies. Application elsewhere is also conceivable by regionalising the employed parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information Science in Planning and Development of Smart Cities)
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Article
What Is the Shape of Geographical Time-Space? A Three-Dimensional Model Made of Curves and Cones
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 340; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050340 - 17 May 2021
Abstract
Geographical time-spaces exhibit a series of properties, including space inversion, that turns any representation effort into a complex task. In order to improve the legibility of the representation and leveraging the advances of three-dimensional computer graphics, the aim of the study is to [...] Read more.
Geographical time-spaces exhibit a series of properties, including space inversion, that turns any representation effort into a complex task. In order to improve the legibility of the representation and leveraging the advances of three-dimensional computer graphics, the aim of the study is to propose a new method extending time-space relief cartography introduced by Mathis and L’Hostis. The novelty of the model resides in the use of cones to describing the terrestrial surface instead of graph faces, and in the use of curves instead of broken segments for edges. We implement the model on the Chinese space. The Chinese geographical time-space of reference year 2006 is produced by the combination and the confrontation of the fast air transport system and of the 7.5-times slower road transport system. Slower, short range flights are represented as curved lines above the earth surface with longer length than the geodesic, in order to account for a slower speed. The very steep slope of cones expresses the relative difficulty of crossing terrestrial time-space, as well as the comparably extreme efficiency of long-range flights for moving between cities. Finally, the whole image proposes a coherent representation of the geographical time-space where fast city-to-city transport is combined with slow terrestrial systems that allow one to reach any location. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatio-Temporal Models and Geo-Technologies)
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Article
Vector Map Encryption Algorithm Based on Double Random Position Permutation Strategy
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(5), 311; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10050311 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Encryption of vector maps, used for copyright protection, is of importance in the community of geographic information sciences. However, some studies adopt one-to-one mapping to scramble vertices and permutate the coordinates one by one according to the coordinate position in a plain map. [...] Read more.
Encryption of vector maps, used for copyright protection, is of importance in the community of geographic information sciences. However, some studies adopt one-to-one mapping to scramble vertices and permutate the coordinates one by one according to the coordinate position in a plain map. An attacker can easily obtain the key values by analyzing the relationship between the cipher vector map and the plain vector map, which will lead to the ineffectiveness of the scrambling operation. To solve the problem, a vector map encryption algorithm based on a double random position permutation strategy is proposed in this paper. First, the secret key sequence is generated using a four-dimensional quadratic autonomous hyperchaotic system. Then, all coordinates of the vector map are encrypted using the strategy of double random position permutation. Lastly, the encrypted coordinates are reorganized according to the vector map structure to obtain the cipher map. Experimental results show that: (1) one-to-one mapping between the plain vector map and cipher vector map is prevented from happening; (2) scrambling encryption between different map objects is achieved; (3) hackers cannot obtain the permutation key value by analyzing the pairs of the plain map and cipher map. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cartographic Communication of Big Data)
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Article
Context-Specific Point-of-Interest Recommendation Based on Popularity-Weighted Random Sampling and Factorization Machine
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(4), 258; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10040258 - 11 Apr 2021
Abstract
Point-Of-Interest (POI) recommendation not only assists users to find their preferred places, but also helps businesses to attract potential customers. Recent studies have proposed many approaches to the POI recommendation. However, the lack of negative samples and the complexities of check-in contexts limit [...] Read more.
Point-Of-Interest (POI) recommendation not only assists users to find their preferred places, but also helps businesses to attract potential customers. Recent studies have proposed many approaches to the POI recommendation. However, the lack of negative samples and the complexities of check-in contexts limit their effectiveness significantly. This paper focuses on the problem of context-specific POI recommendation based on the check-in behaviors recorded by Location-Based Social Network (LBSN) services, which aims at recommending a list of POIs for a user to visit at a given context (such as time and weather). Specifically, a bidirectional influence correlativity metric is proposed to measure the semantic feature of user check-in behavior, and a contextual smoothing method to effectively alleviate the problem of data sparsity. In addition, the check-in probability is computed based on the geographical distance between the user’s home and the POI. Furthermore, to handle the problem of no negative feedback in LBSN, a weighted random sampling method is proposed based on contextual popularity. Finally, the recommendation results is obtained by utilizing Factorization Machine with Bayesian Personalized Ranking (BPR) loss. Experiments on a real dataset collected from Foursquare show that the proposed approach has better performance than others. Full article
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Article
Comparing World City Networks by Language: A Complex-Network Approach
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(4), 219; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10040219 - 01 Apr 2021
Abstract
City networks are multiplex and diverse rather than being regarded as part of a single universal model that is valid worldwide. This study contributes to the debate on multiple globalizations by distinguishing multiscale structures of world city networks (WCNs) reflected in the Internet [...] Read more.
City networks are multiplex and diverse rather than being regarded as part of a single universal model that is valid worldwide. This study contributes to the debate on multiple globalizations by distinguishing multiscale structures of world city networks (WCNs) reflected in the Internet webpage content in English, German, and French. Using big data sets from web crawling, we adopted a complex-network approach with both macroscale and mesoscale analyses to compare global and grouping properties in varying WCNs, by using novel methods such as the weighted stochastic block model (WSBM). The results suggest that at the macro scale, the rankings of city centralities vary across languages due to the uneven geographic distribution of languages and the variant levels of globalization of cities perceived in different languages. At the meso scale, the WSBMs infer different grouping patterns in the WCNs by language, and the specific roles of many world cities vary with language. The probability-based comparative analyses reveal that the English WCN looks more globalized, while the French and German worlds appear more territorial. Using the mesoscale structure detected in the English WCN to comprehend the city networks in other languages may be biased. These findings demonstrate the importance of scrutinizing multiplex WCNs in different cultures and languages as well as discussing mesoscale structures in comparative WCN studies. Full article
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Article
Empirical Insights from a Study on Outlier Preserving Value Generalization in Animated Choropleth Maps
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(4), 208; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10040208 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Time series animation of choropleth maps easily exceeds our perceptual limits. In this empirical research, we investigate the effect of local outlier preserving value generalization of animated choropleth maps on the ability to detect general trends and local deviations thereof. Comparing generalization in [...] Read more.
Time series animation of choropleth maps easily exceeds our perceptual limits. In this empirical research, we investigate the effect of local outlier preserving value generalization of animated choropleth maps on the ability to detect general trends and local deviations thereof. Comparing generalization in space, in time, and in a combination of both dimensions, value smoothing based on a first order spatial neighborhood facilitated the detection of local outliers best, followed by the spatiotemporal and temporal generalization variants. We did not find any evidence that value generalization helps in detecting global trends. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
Consideration of Uncertainty Information in Accessibility Analyses for an Effective Use of Urban Infrastructures
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 171; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10030171 - 16 Mar 2021
Abstract
Accessibility analyses are an essential step in the evaluation and planning of urban infrastructures such as transport or pipeline networks. However, these studies generally produce sharply defined lines (called isovarones) or areas (called isovarone areas) that represent the same or similar accessibility. Uncertainties [...] Read more.
Accessibility analyses are an essential step in the evaluation and planning of urban infrastructures such as transport or pipeline networks. However, these studies generally produce sharply defined lines (called isovarones) or areas (called isovarone areas) that represent the same or similar accessibility. Uncertainties in the input data are usually not taken into account. The aim of this contribution is, therefore, to set up a structured framework that describes the integration of uncertainty information for accessibility analyses. This framework takes uncertainties in the input data, in the processing step, in the target variables, and in the final visualization into account. Particular attention is paid, on the one hand, to the impact of the uncertainties in the target values, as these are key factors for reasoning and decision making. On the other hand, the visualization component is emphasized by applying a dichotomous classification of uncertainty visualization methods. This framework leads to a large set of possible combinations of uncertainty categories. Five selected examples that have been generated with a new software tool and that cover important combinations are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information for Developing Urban Infrastructures)
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Article
The Role of Spatio-Temporal Information to Govern the COVID-19 Pandemic: A European Perspective
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 166; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10030166 - 14 Mar 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The Covid-19 pandemic put a heavy burden on member states in the European Union. To govern the pandemic, having access to reliable geo-information is key for monitoring the spatial distribution of the outbreak over time. This study aims to analyze the role of [...] Read more.
The Covid-19 pandemic put a heavy burden on member states in the European Union. To govern the pandemic, having access to reliable geo-information is key for monitoring the spatial distribution of the outbreak over time. This study aims to analyze the role of spatio-temporal information in governing the pandemic in the European Union and its member states. The European Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) system and selected national dashboards from member states were assessed to analyze which spatio-temporal information was used, how the information was visualized and whether this changed over the course of the pandemic. Initially, member states focused on their own jurisdiction by creating national dashboards to monitor the pandemic. Information between member states was not aligned. Producing reliable data and timeliness reporting was problematic, just like selecting indictors to monitor the spatial distribution and intensity of the outbreak. Over the course of the pandemic, with more knowledge about the virus and its characteristics, interventions of member states to govern the outbreak were better aligned at the European level. However, further integration and alignment of public health data, statistical data and spatio-temporal data could provide even better information for governments and actors involved in managing the outbreak, both at national and supra-national level. The Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe (INSPIRE) initiative and the NUTS system provide a framework to guide future integration and extension of existing systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatio-Temporal Models and Geo-Technologies)
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Article
Effectiveness of Memorizing an Animated Route—Comparing Satellite and Road Map Differences in the Eye-Tracking Study
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 159; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10030159 - 12 Mar 2021
Cited by 3
Abstract
There is no consensus on the importance of satellite images in the process of memorizing a route from a map image, especially if the route is displayed on the Internet using dynamic (animated) cartographic visualization. In modern dynamic maps built with JavaScript APIs, [...] Read more.
There is no consensus on the importance of satellite images in the process of memorizing a route from a map image, especially if the route is displayed on the Internet using dynamic (animated) cartographic visualization. In modern dynamic maps built with JavaScript APIs, background layers can be easily altered by map users. The animation attracts people’s attention better than static images, but it causes some perceptual problems. This study examined the influence of the number of turns on the effectiveness (correctness) and efficiency of memorizing the animated route on different cartographic backgrounds. The routes of three difficulty levels, based on satellite and road background, were compared. The results show that the satellite background was not a significant factor influencing the efficiency and effectiveness of route memorizing. Recordings of the eye movement confirmed this. The study reveals that there were intergroup differences in participants’ visual behavior. Participants who described their spatial abilities as “very good” performed better (in terms of effectiveness and efficiency) in route memorizing tasks. For future research, there is a need to study route variability and its impact on participants’ performance. Moreover, future studies should involve differences in route visualization (e.g., without and with ephemeral or permanent trail). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
Effects of Virtual Reality Locomotion Techniques on Distance Estimations
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 150; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10030150 - 08 Mar 2021
Cited by 13
Abstract
Mental representations of geographic space are based on knowledge of spatial elements and the spatial relation between these elements. Acquiring such mental representations of space requires assessing distances between pairs of spatial elements. In virtual reality (VR) applications, locomotion techniques based on real-world [...] Read more.
Mental representations of geographic space are based on knowledge of spatial elements and the spatial relation between these elements. Acquiring such mental representations of space requires assessing distances between pairs of spatial elements. In virtual reality (VR) applications, locomotion techniques based on real-world movement are constrained by the size of the available room and the used room scale tracking system. Therefore, many VR applications use additional locomotion techniques such as artificial locomotion (continuous forward movement) or teleporting (“jumping” from one location to another). These locomotion techniques move the user through virtual space based on controller input. However, it has not yet been investigated how different established controller-based locomotion techniques affect distance estimations in VR. In an experiment, we compared distance estimations between artificial locomotion and teleportation before and after a training phase. The results showed that distance estimations in both locomotion conditions improved after the training. Additionally, distance estimations were found to be more accurate when teleportation locomotion was used. Full article
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Article
The Extended Concept of the Map in View of Modern Geoinformation Products
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 142; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10030142 - 05 Mar 2021
Abstract
In the face of strikingly intense technological development, there have been significant discrepancies in the understanding of the concept of the map; an understanding that is fundamental to cartography and, more broadly, GIScience. The development of electronic products based on geoinformation has caused [...] Read more.
In the face of strikingly intense technological development, there have been significant discrepancies in the understanding of the concept of the map; an understanding that is fundamental to cartography and, more broadly, GIScience. The development of electronic products based on geoinformation has caused a growing need for the systematization of basic concepts, including defining what a map is. In particular, the modification of the idea of the map may profoundly influence the future development of cartography. The comprehensive and innovative use of maps, for example, in location-based service (LBS) applications, may contribute to more in-depth analyses in this area. This article examines how the concept of how the map is used in technological or scientific literature about the latest geoinformation applications, as well as analyzing the survey results that confirm the change in social perception of the concept of the map in cartography. The article also refers to the role of the map in the process of indirect cognition and understanding of geographical space—cognition realized through maps. A social understanding of mapping concepts is evolving and covers the entire spectrum of geoinformation products. It seems that the latest geoinformation solutions, such as navigation applications and, in particular, applications supporting the movement of autonomous vehicles (e.g., self-driving cars), have had a particular impact on the concept of the map. This is confirmed by the results of a survey conducted by the authors on a group of nearly 900 respondents from a variety of countries. The vast majority of users are convinced that the contemporary understanding of the concept of the map is a long way from the classic definition of this concept. Therefore, in the opinion of the authors of this article, it is worth undertaking research that will become a starting point for a discussion about the broader definition of the map in GIScience. Full article
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Article
A Unified Methodology for the Generalisation of the Geometry of Features
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 107; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10030107 - 25 Feb 2021
Abstract
The development of generalisation (simplification) methods for the geometry of features in digital cartography in most cases involves the improvement of existing algorithms without their validation with respect to the similarity of feature geometry before and after the process. It also consists of [...] Read more.
The development of generalisation (simplification) methods for the geometry of features in digital cartography in most cases involves the improvement of existing algorithms without their validation with respect to the similarity of feature geometry before and after the process. It also consists of the assessment of results from the algorithms, i.e., characteristics that are indispensable for automatic generalisation. The preparation of a fully automatic generalisation for spatial data requires certain standards, as well as unique and verifiable algorithms for particular groups of features. This enables cartographers to draw features from these databases to be used directly on the maps. As a result, collected data and their generalised unique counterparts at various scales should constitute standardised sets, as well as their updating procedures. This paper proposes a solution which consists in contractive self-mapping (contractor for scale s = 1) that fulfils the assumptions of the Banach fixed-point theorem. The method of generalisation of feature geometry that uses the contractive self-mapping approach is well justified due to the fact that a single update of source data can be applied to all scales simultaneously. Feature data at every scale s < 1 are generalised through contractive mapping, which leads to a unique solution. Further generalisation of the feature is carried out on larger scale spatial data (not necessarily source data), which reduces the time and cost of the new elaboration. The main part of this article is the theoretical presentation of objectifying the complex process of the generalisation of the geometry of a feature. The use of the inherent characteristics of metric spaces, narrowing mappings, Lipschitz and Cauchy conditions, Salishchev measures, and Banach theorems ensure the uniqueness of the generalisation process. Their application to generalisation makes this process objective, as it ensures that there is a single solution for portraying the generalised features at each scale. The present study is dedicated to researchers concerned with the theory of cartography. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Optimization and GIS)
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Article
Digital Graphic Documentation and Architectural Heritage: Deformations in a 16th-Century Ceiling of the Pinelo Palace in Seville (Spain)
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(2), 85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10020085 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Suitable graphic documentation is essential to ascertain and conserve architectural heritage. For the first time, accurate digital images are provided of a 16th-century wooden ceiling, composed of geometric interlacing patterns, in the Pinelo Palace in Seville. Today, this ceiling suffers from significant deformation. [...] Read more.
Suitable graphic documentation is essential to ascertain and conserve architectural heritage. For the first time, accurate digital images are provided of a 16th-century wooden ceiling, composed of geometric interlacing patterns, in the Pinelo Palace in Seville. Today, this ceiling suffers from significant deformation. Although there are many publications on the digital documentation of architectural heritage, no graphic studies on this type of deformed ceilings have been presented. This study starts by providing data on the palace history concerning the design of geometric interlacing patterns in carpentry according to the 1633 book by López de Arenas, and on the ceiling consolidation in the 20th century. Images were then obtained using two complementary procedures: from a 3D laser scanner, which offers metric data on deformations; and from photogrammetry, which facilitates the visualisation of details. In this way, this type of heritage is documented in an innovative graphic approach, which is essential for its conservation and/or restoration with scientific foundations and also to disseminate a reliable digital image of the most beautiful ceiling of this Renaissance palace in southern Europe. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Modeling and GIS for Historical Sites Reconstruction)
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Article
A National Examination of the Spatial Extent and Similarity of Offenders’ Activity Spaces Using Police Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(2), 47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10020047 - 23 Jan 2021
Cited by 2
Abstract
It is well established that offenders’ routine activity locations (nodes) shape their crime locations, but research examining the geography of offenders’ routine activity spaces has to date largely been limited to a few core nodes such as homes and prior offense locations, and [...] Read more.
It is well established that offenders’ routine activity locations (nodes) shape their crime locations, but research examining the geography of offenders’ routine activity spaces has to date largely been limited to a few core nodes such as homes and prior offense locations, and to small study areas. This paper explores the utility of police data to provide novel insights into the spatial extent of, and overlap between, individual offenders’ activity spaces. It includes a wider set of activity nodes (including relatives’ homes, schools, and non-crime incidents) and broadens the geographical scale to a national level, by comparison to previous studies. Using a police dataset including n = 60,229 burglary, robbery, and extra-familial sex offenders in New Zealand, a wide range of activity nodes were present for most burglary and robbery offenders, but fewer for sex offenders, reflecting sparser histories of police contact. In a novel test of the criminal profiling assumptions of homology and differentiation in a spatial context, we find that those who offend in nearby locations tend to share more activity space than those who offend further apart. However, in finding many offenders’ activity spaces span wide geographic distances, we highlight challenges for crime location choice research and geographic profiling practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geographic Crime Analysis)
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Article
Identifying Complex Junctions in a Road Network
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10010004 - 24 Dec 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Automated generalization of road network data is of great concern to the map generalization community because of the importance of road data and the difficulty involved. Complex junctions are where roads meet and join in a complicated way and identifying them is a [...] Read more.
Automated generalization of road network data is of great concern to the map generalization community because of the importance of road data and the difficulty involved. Complex junctions are where roads meet and join in a complicated way and identifying them is a key issue in road network generalization. In addition to their structural complexity, complex junctions don’t have regular geometric boundary and their representation in spatial data is scale-dependent. All these together make them hard to identify. Existing methods use geometric and topological statistics to characterize and identify them, and are thus error-prone, scale-dependent and lack generality. More significantly, they cannot ensure the integrity of complex junctions. This study overcomes the obstacles by clarifying the topological boundary of a complex junction, which provides the basis for straightforward identification of them. Test results show the proposed method can find and isolate complex junctions in a road network with their integrity and is able to handle different road representations. The integral identification achieved can help to guarantee connectivity among roads when simplifying complex junctions, and greatly facilitate the geometric and semantic simplification of them. Full article
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Article
The Land Use Mapping Techniques (Including the Areas Used by Pedestrians) Based on Low-Level Aerial Imagery
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(12), 754; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9120754 - 16 Dec 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Traditionally, chorochromatic maps with a qualitative measurement level are used for land use presentations. Along with the use of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), it became possible to register dynamic phenomena in a small space. We analyze the application of qualitative and quantitative mapping [...] Read more.
Traditionally, chorochromatic maps with a qualitative measurement level are used for land use presentations. Along with the use of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), it became possible to register dynamic phenomena in a small space. We analyze the application of qualitative and quantitative mapping methods to visualize land use in a dynamic context thanks to cyclically obtained UAV imaging. The aim of the research is to produce thematic maps showing the actual land use of the small area urbanized by pedestrians. The research was based on low-level aerial imagery that recorded the movement of pedestrians in the research area. Additionally, based on the observation of pedestrian movement, researchers pointed out the areas of land that pedestrians used incorrectly. For this purpose, the author will present his own concept of the point-to-polygon transformation of pedestrians’ representation. The research was an opportunity to demonstrate suitable mapping techniques to effectively convey the information on land use by pedestrians. The results allowed the authors of this article to draw conclusions on the choice of suitable mapping techniques during the process of thematic land use map design and to specify further areas for research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
Form Follows Content: An Empirical Study on Symbol-Content (In)Congruences in Thematic Maps
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(12), 719; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9120719 - 02 Dec 2020
Abstract
Through signs and symbols, maps represent geographic space in a generalized and abstracted way. Cartographic research is, therefore, concerned with establishing a mutually shared set of signs and semiotic rules to communicate geospatial information successfully. While cartographers generally strive for cognitively congruent maps, [...] Read more.
Through signs and symbols, maps represent geographic space in a generalized and abstracted way. Cartographic research is, therefore, concerned with establishing a mutually shared set of signs and semiotic rules to communicate geospatial information successfully. While cartographers generally strive for cognitively congruent maps, empirical research has only started to explore the different facets and levels of correspondences between external cartographic representations and processes of human cognition. This research, therefore, draws attention to the principle of contextual congruence to study the correspondences between shape symbols and different geospatial content. An empirical study was carried out to explore the (in)congruence of cartographic point symbols with respect to positive, neutral, and negative geospatial topics in monothematic maps. In an online survey, 72 thematic maps (i.e., 12 map topics × 6 symbols) were evaluated by 116 participants in a between-groups design. The point symbols comprised five symmetric shapes (i.e., Circle, Triangle, Square, Rhomb, Star) and one Asymmetric Star shape. The study revealed detailed symbol-content congruences for each map topic as well as on an aggregated level, i.e., by positive, neutral, and negative topic clusters. Asymmetric Star symbols generally showed to be highly incongruent with positive and neutral topics, while highly congruent with negative map topics. Symmetric shapes, on the other hand, emerged to be of high congruence with positive and neutral map topics, whilst incongruent with negative topics. As the meaning of point symbols showed to be susceptible to context, the findings lead to the conclusion that cognitively congruent maps require profound context-specific considerations when designing and employing map symbols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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Article
Developing Versatile Graphic Map Load Metrics
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(12), 705; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9120705 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Graphic map load is a property of a map quantifying the amount of map content. It indicates the visual complexity of the map and helps cartographers to adapt maps and other geospatial visualizations to accomplish their purpose. Generally, map design needs to enable [...] Read more.
Graphic map load is a property of a map quantifying the amount of map content. It indicates the visual complexity of the map and helps cartographers to adapt maps and other geospatial visualizations to accomplish their purpose. Generally, map design needs to enable the user to quickly, comprehensively, and intuitively obtain the relevant spatial information from a map. Especially, this applies in cases like crisis management, immunology and military. However, there are no widely applicable metrics to assess the complexity of cartographic products. This paper evaluates seven simple metrics for graphic map load calculation based on image analytics using the set of 50 various maps on an easily understandable scale of 0–100%. The metrics are compared to values of user-perceived map load survey joined by 62 respondents. All the suggested metrics are designed for calculation with easy-accessible software and therefore suitable for use in any user environment. Metrics utilizing the principle of edge detection have been found suitable for a diversity of geospatial visualizations providing the best results among other metrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geovisualization and Map Design)
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Article
Worldwide Detection of Informal Settlements via Topological Analysis of Crowdsourced Digital Maps
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 685; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110685 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The recent growth of high-resolution spatial data, especially in developing urban environments, is enabling new approaches to civic activism, urban planning and the provision of services necessary for sustainable development. A special area of great potential and urgent need deals with urban expansion [...] Read more.
The recent growth of high-resolution spatial data, especially in developing urban environments, is enabling new approaches to civic activism, urban planning and the provision of services necessary for sustainable development. A special area of great potential and urgent need deals with urban expansion through informal settlements (slums). These neighborhoods are too often characterized by a lack of connections, both physical and socioeconomic, with detrimental effects to residents and their cities. Here, we show how a scalable computational approach based on the topological properties of digital maps can identify local infrastructural deficits and propose context-appropriate minimal solutions. We analyze 1 terabyte of OpenStreetMap (OSM) crowdsourced data to create worldwide indices of street block accessibility and local cadastral maps and propose infrastructure extensions with a focus on 120 Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) in the Global South. We illustrate how the lack of physical accessibility can be identified in detail, how the complexity and costs of solutions can be assessed and how detailed spatial proposals are generated. We discuss how these diagnostics and solutions provide a multiscalar set of new capabilities—from individual neighborhoods to global regions—that can coordinate local community knowledge with political agency, technical capability, and further research. Full article
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Article
Exploring Travel Patterns during the Holiday Season—A Case Study of Shenzhen Metro System During the Chinese Spring Festival
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 651; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110651 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Research has shown that the growing holiday travel demand in modern society has a significant influence on daily travel patterns. However, few studies have focused on the distinctness of travel patterns during a holiday season and as a specified case, travel behavior studies [...] Read more.
Research has shown that the growing holiday travel demand in modern society has a significant influence on daily travel patterns. However, few studies have focused on the distinctness of travel patterns during a holiday season and as a specified case, travel behavior studies of the Chinese Spring Festival (CSF) at the city level are even rarer. This paper adopts a text-mining model (latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)) to explore the travel patterns and travel purposes during the CSF season in Shenzhen based on the metro smart card data (MSC) and the points of interest (POIs) data. The study aims to answer two questions—(1) how to use MSC and POIs inferring travel purpose at the metro station level without the socioeconomic backgrounds of the cardholders? (2) What are the overall inner-city mobility patterns and travel activities during the Spring Festival holiday-week? The results show that six features of the CSF travel behavior are found and nine (three broad categories) travel patterns and trip activities are inferred. The activities in which travelers engaged during the CSF season are mainly consumption-oriented events, visiting relatives and friends and traffic-oriented events. This study is beneficial to metro corporations (timetable management), business owners (promotion strategy), researchers (travelers’ social attribute inference) and decision-makers (examine public service). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Methods in Social and Behavioral Sciences)
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Article
Urban Population Distribution Mapping with Multisource Geospatial Data Based on Zonal Strategy
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 654; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110654 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Mapping population distribution at fine resolutions with high accuracy is crucial to urban planning and management. This paper takes Guangzhou city as the study area, illustrates the gridded population distribution map by using machine learning methods based on zoning strategy with multisource geospatial [...] Read more.
Mapping population distribution at fine resolutions with high accuracy is crucial to urban planning and management. This paper takes Guangzhou city as the study area, illustrates the gridded population distribution map by using machine learning methods based on zoning strategy with multisource geospatial data such as night light remote sensing data, point of interest data, land use data, and so on. The street-level accuracy evaluation results show that the proposed approach achieved good overall accuracy, with determinant coefficient (R2) being 0.713 and root mean square error (RMSE) being 5512.9. Meanwhile, the goodness of fit for single linear regression (LR) model and random forest (RF) regression model are 0.0039 and 0.605, respectively. For dense area, the accuracy of the random forest model is better than the linear regression model, while for sparse area, the accuracy of the linear regression model is better than the random forest model. The results indicated that the proposed method has great potential in fine-scale population mapping. Therefore, it is advised that the zonal modeling strategy should be the primary choice for solving regional differences in the population distribution mapping research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measuring, Mapping, Modeling, and Visualization of Cities)
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Article
Personalized Legibility of an Indoor Environment for People with Motor Disabilities: A New Framework
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 649; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110649 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
A mental map refers to the personalized representation of spatial knowledge in the human brain and is based on the perceptions, experiences, and interactions of people with their environment. For people with motor disabilities (PWMD) some perceptions and interactions with the environment during [...] Read more.
A mental map refers to the personalized representation of spatial knowledge in the human brain and is based on the perceptions, experiences, and interactions of people with their environment. For people with motor disabilities (PWMD) some perceptions and interactions with the environment during their mobility occur in different ways and consequently lead to different mental maps. For example, these people perceive and interact differently with elevators, escalators, and steps during their mobility. Hence, their perceptions of the level of complexity and the legibility of an environment may be different. Legibility of an environment is an indicator that measures the level of complexity and the ease of understanding of that environment by a person. In the literature, legibility is mostly estimated based on the environmental factors such as visibility, connectivity, and layout complexity for a given space. However, the role of personal factors (e.g., capacities) is rarely considered in the legibility assessment, which complicates its personalization. This paper aims at studying the influence of personal factors on the evaluation of the legibility of indoor environments for PWMD. In addition to the visibility, the connectivity, and the complexity of indoor environments, we also integrate the influence of the level of accessibility (i.e., presence of facilitators and obstacles) in the legibility assessment process. The Quebec City Convention Centre is selected as our study area and the legibility of this building is quantified. We show how the integration of the above-mentioned factors can influence the legibility for PWMD and hence their mobility performance in those environments. Full article
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Article
Using Flickr Geotagged Photos to Estimate Visitor Trajectories in World Heritage Cities
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 646; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110646 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
World tourism dynamics are in constant change, as well as they are deeply shaping the trajectories of cities. The “call effect” for having the World Heritage status has boosted tourism in many cities. The large number of visitors and the side effects, such [...] Read more.
World tourism dynamics are in constant change, as well as they are deeply shaping the trajectories of cities. The “call effect” for having the World Heritage status has boosted tourism in many cities. The large number of visitors and the side effects, such as the overcrowding of central spaces, are arousing the need to develop and protect heritage assets. Hence, the analysis of tourist spatial behaviour is critical for tackling the needs of touristified cities correctly. In this article, individual visitor spatiotemporal trajectories are reconstructed along with the urban network using thousands of geotagged Flickr photos taken by visitors in the historic centre of the World Heritage City of Toledo (Spain). A process of trajectory reconstruction using advanced GIS techniques has been implemented. The spatial behaviour has been used to classify the tourist sites offered on the city’s official tourist map, as well as to identify the association with the land uses. Results bring new knowledge to understand visitor spatial behaviour and new visions about the influence of the urban environment and its uses on the visitor spatial behaviour. Our findings illustrate how tourist attractions and the location of mixed commercial and recreational uses shape the visitor spatial behaviour. Overflowed streets and shadow areas underexplored by visitors are pinpointed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Methods in Social and Behavioral Sciences)
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Article
Spatiotemporal Patterns and Driving Factors on Crime Changing During Black Lives Matter Protests
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 640; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110640 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
The death of George Floyd has brought a new wave of 2020 Black Lives Matter (BLM) protests into U.S. cities. Protests happened in a few cities accompanied by reports of violence over the first few days. The protests appear to be related to [...] Read more.
The death of George Floyd has brought a new wave of 2020 Black Lives Matter (BLM) protests into U.S. cities. Protests happened in a few cities accompanied by reports of violence over the first few days. The protests appear to be related to rising crime. This study uses newly collected crime data in 50 U.S. cities/counties to explore the spatiotemporal crime changes under BLM protests and to estimate the driving factors of burglary induced by the BLM protest. Four spatial and statistic models were used, including the Average Nearest Neighbor (ANN), Hotspot Analysis, Least Absolute Shrinkage, and Selection Operator (LASSO), and Binary Logistic Regression. The results show that (1) crime, especially burglary, has risen sharply in a few cities/counties, yet heterogeneity exists across cities/counties; (2) the volume and spatial distribution of certain crime types changed under BLM protest, the activity of burglary clustered in certain regions during protests period; (3) education, race, demographic, and crime rate in 2019 are related with burglary changes during BLM protests. The findings from this study can provide valuable information for ensuring the capabilities of the police and governmental agencies to deal with the evolving crisis. Full article
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Article
A Feasibility Study of Map-Based Dashboard for Spatiotemporal Knowledge Acquisition and Analysis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 636; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110636 - 27 Oct 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Map-based dashboards are among the most popular tools that support the viewing and understanding of a large amount of geo-data with complex relations. In spite of many existing design examples, little is known about their impacts on users and whether they match the [...] Read more.
Map-based dashboards are among the most popular tools that support the viewing and understanding of a large amount of geo-data with complex relations. In spite of many existing design examples, little is known about their impacts on users and whether they match the information demand and expectations of target users. The authors first designed a novel map-based dashboard to support their target users’ spatiotemporal knowledge acquisition and analysis, and then conducted an experiment to assess the feasibility of the proposed dashboard. The experiment consists of eye-tracking, benchmark tasks, and interviews. A total of 40 participants were recruited for the experiment. The results have verified the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed map-based dashboard in supporting the given tasks. At the same time, the experiment has revealed a number of aspects for improvement related to the layout design, the labeling of multiple panels and the integration of visual analytical elements in map-based dashboards, as well as future user studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimedia Cartography)
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Article
Investigating the Relationship between the Built Environment and Relative Risk of COVID-19 in Hong Kong
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 624; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110624 - 25 Oct 2020
Cited by 14
Abstract
Understanding the relationship between the built environment and the risk of COVID-19 transmission is essential to respond to the pandemic. This study explores the relationship between the built environment and COVID-19 risk using the confirmed cases data collected in Hong Kong. Using the [...] Read more.
Understanding the relationship between the built environment and the risk of COVID-19 transmission is essential to respond to the pandemic. This study explores the relationship between the built environment and COVID-19 risk using the confirmed cases data collected in Hong Kong. Using the information on the residential buildings and places visited for each case from the dataset, we assess the risk of COVID-19 and explore their geographic patterns at the level of Tertiary Planning Unit (TPU) based on incidence rate (R1) and venue density (R2). We then investigate the associations between several built-environment variables (e.g., nodal accessibility and green space density) and COVID-19 risk using global Poisson regression (GPR) and geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) models. The results indicate that COVID-19 risk tends to be concentrated in particular areas of Hong Kong. Using the incidence rate as an indicator to assess COVID-19 risk may underestimate the risk of COVID-19 transmission in some suburban areas. The GPR and GWPR models suggest a close and spatially heterogeneous relationship between the selected built-environment variables and the risk of COVID-19 transmission. The study provides useful insights that support policymakers in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic and future epidemics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Methods in Social and Behavioral Sciences)
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Article
Generation of Spatiotemporally Resolved Power Production Data of PV Systems in Germany
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 621; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110621 - 24 Oct 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Photovoltaics, as one of the most important renewable energies in Germany, have increased significantly in recent years and cover up to 50% of the German power provision on sunny days. To investigate the manifold effects of increasing renewables, spatiotemporally disaggregated data on the [...] Read more.
Photovoltaics, as one of the most important renewable energies in Germany, have increased significantly in recent years and cover up to 50% of the German power provision on sunny days. To investigate the manifold effects of increasing renewables, spatiotemporally disaggregated data on the power generation from photovoltaic (PV) systems are often mandatory. Due to strict data protection regulations, such information is not freely available for Germany. To close this gap, numerical simulations using publicly accessible plant and weather data can be applied to determine the required spatiotemporal electricity generation. For this, the sunlight-to-power conversion is modeled with the help of the open-access web tool of the Photovoltaic Geographical Information System (PVGIS). The presented simulations are carried out for the year 2016 and consider nearly 1.612 million PV systems in Germany, which have been aggregated into municipal areas before performing the calculations. The resulting hourly resolved time series of the entire plant ensemble are converted into a time series with daily resolution and compared with measured feed-in data to validate the numerical simulations that show a high degree of agreement. Such power production data can be used to monitor and optimize renewable energy systems on different spatiotemporal scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Spatial and Temporal Modelling of Renewable Energy Systems)
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Article
A Flexible Framework for Covering and Partitioning Problems in Indoor Spaces
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 618; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110618 - 23 Oct 2020
Abstract
Utilizing indoor spaces has become important with the progress of localization and positioning technologies. Covering and partitioning problems play an important role in managing, indexing, and analyzing spatial data. In this paper, we propose a multi-stage framework for indoor space partitioning, each stage [...] Read more.
Utilizing indoor spaces has become important with the progress of localization and positioning technologies. Covering and partitioning problems play an important role in managing, indexing, and analyzing spatial data. In this paper, we propose a multi-stage framework for indoor space partitioning, each stage of which can be flexibly adjusted according to target applications. One of the main features of our framework is the parameterized constraint, which characterizes the properties and restrictions of unit geometries used for the covering and partitioning tasks formulated as the binary linear programs. It enables us to apply the proposed method to various problems by simply changing the constraint parameter. We present basic constraints that are widely used in many covering and partitioning problems regarding the indoor space applications along with several techniques that simplify the computation process. We apply it to particular applications, device placement and route planning problems, in order to give examples of the use of our framework in the perspective on how to design a constraint and how to use the resulting partitions. We also demonstrate the effectiveness with experimental results compared to baseline methods. Full article
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Article
How Urban Factors Affect the Spatiotemporal Distribution of Infectious Diseases in Addition to Intercity Population Movement in China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 615; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110615 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 6
Abstract
The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has attracted global attention. During the Chinese New Year holiday, population outflow from Wuhan induced the spread of the epidemic to other cities in China. This study analyzed massive intercity movement data from Baidu and [...] Read more.
The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has attracted global attention. During the Chinese New Year holiday, population outflow from Wuhan induced the spread of the epidemic to other cities in China. This study analyzed massive intercity movement data from Baidu and epidemic data to study how intercity population outflows affected the spatiotemporal spread of the epidemic. This study further investigated how urban factors influenced the spatiotemporal spread of COVID-19. The analysis indicates that intercity movement was an important factor in the spread of the epidemic in China, and the impact of intercity movement on the spread was heterogeneous across different classes of cities. The spread of the epidemic also varied among cities and was affected by urban factors including the total population, population density, and gross domestic product (GDP). The findings have implications for public health management. Mega-cities should consider tougher measures to contain the spread of the epidemic compared with other cities. It is of great significance for policymakers in any nation to assess the potential risk of epidemics and make cautious plans ahead of time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Methods in Social and Behavioral Sciences)
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Article
A 3D Geodatabase for Urban Underground Infrastructures: Implementation and Application to Groundwater Management in Milan Metropolitan Area
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 609; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100609 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The recent rapid increase in urbanization has led to the inclusion of underground spaces in urban planning policies. Among the main subsurface resources, a strong interaction between underground infrastructures and groundwater has emerged in many urban areas in the last few decades. Thus, [...] Read more.
The recent rapid increase in urbanization has led to the inclusion of underground spaces in urban planning policies. Among the main subsurface resources, a strong interaction between underground infrastructures and groundwater has emerged in many urban areas in the last few decades. Thus, listing the underground infrastructures is necessary to structure an urban conceptual model for groundwater management needs. Starting from a municipal cartography (Open Data), thus making the procedure replicable, a GIS methodology was proposed to gather all the underground infrastructures into an updatable 3D geodatabase (GDB) for the metropolitan city of Milan (Northern Italy). The underground volumes occupied by three categories of infrastructures were included in the GDB: (a) private car parks, (b) public car parks and (c) subway lines and stations. The application of the GDB allowed estimating the volumes lying below groundwater table in four periods, detected as groundwater minimums or maximums from the piezometric trend reconstructions. Due to groundwater rising or local hydrogeological conditions, the shallowest, non-waterproofed underground infrastructures were flooded in some periods considered. This was evaluated in a specific pilot area and qualitatively confirmed by local press and photographic documentation reviews. The methodology emerged as efficient for urban planning, particularly for urban conceptual models and groundwater management plans definition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measuring, Mapping, Modeling, and Visualization of Cities)
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Article
Accurate Road Marking Detection from Noisy Point Clouds Acquired by Low-Cost Mobile LiDAR Systems
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 608; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100608 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Road markings that provide instructions for unmanned driving are important elements in high-precision maps. In road information collection technology, multi-beam mobile LiDAR scanning (MLS) is currently adopted instead of traditional mono-beam LiDAR scanning because of the advantages of low cost and multiple fields [...] Read more.
Road markings that provide instructions for unmanned driving are important elements in high-precision maps. In road information collection technology, multi-beam mobile LiDAR scanning (MLS) is currently adopted instead of traditional mono-beam LiDAR scanning because of the advantages of low cost and multiple fields of view for multi-beam laser scanners; however, the intensity information scanned by multi-beam systems is noisy and current methods designed for road marking detection from mono-beam point clouds are of low accuracy. This paper presents an accurate algorithm for detecting road markings from noisy point clouds, where most nonroad points are removed and the remaining points are organized into a set of consecutive pseudo-scan lines for parallel and/or online processing. The road surface is precisely extracted by a moving fitting window filter from each pseudo-scan line, and a marker edge detector combining an intensity gradient with an intensity statistics histogram is presented for road marking detection. Quantitative results indicate that the proposed method achieves average recall, precision, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) levels of 90%, 95%, and 92%, respectively, showing excellent performance for road marking detection from multi-beam scanning point clouds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measuring, Mapping, Modeling, and Visualization of Cities)
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Article
Concept and Evaluation of Heating Demand Prediction Based on 3D City Models and the CityGML Energy ADE—Case Study Helsinki
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 602; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100602 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
This work presents a concept for heating demand and resulting CO2 emissions prediction based on a 3D city model in CityGML format in various scenarios under the consideration of a changing climate. In the case study of Helsinki, the Helsinki Energy and [...] Read more.
This work presents a concept for heating demand and resulting CO2 emissions prediction based on a 3D city model in CityGML format in various scenarios under the consideration of a changing climate. In the case study of Helsinki, the Helsinki Energy and Climate Atlas, that provides detailed information for individual buildings conducting the heating demand, is integrated into the 3D city model using the CityGML Energy Application Domain Extension (Energy ADE) to provide energy-relevant information based on a standardized data model stored in a CityGML database, called 3DCityDB. The simulation environment SimStadt is extended to retrieve the information stored within the Energy ADE schema, use it during simulations, and write simulation results back to the 3DCityDB. Due to climate change, a heating demand reduction of 4% per decade is predicted. By 2035, a reduction of 0.7 TWh is calculated in the normal and of 1.5 TWh in the advanced refurbishment scenario. Including the proposed improvements of the district heating network, heating CO2 emissions are predicted to be reduced by up to 82% by 2035 compared to 1990. The City of Helsinki’s assumed heating demand reduction through the modernization of 2.0 TWh/a by 2035 is not achieved with a 3% refurbishment rate. Furthermore, the reduction of CO2 emissions is mainly achieved through lower CO2 emission factors of the district heating network in Helsinki. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Applications of 3D-City Models in Urban Studies)
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Assessing Quality of Life Inequalities. A Geographical Approach
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 600; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100600 - 12 Oct 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
This study proposes an integrated methodology for evaluating and mapping quality of life (QoL) and the quality of a place as residence area, at local level. The QoL assessment was based on the development of composite criteria, using geographical variables that evaluate QoL, [...] Read more.
This study proposes an integrated methodology for evaluating and mapping quality of life (QoL) and the quality of a place as residence area, at local level. The QoL assessment was based on the development of composite criteria, using geographical variables that evaluate QoL, and geographic information systems. The composite criteria are related to the natural and the socioeconomic environment, the housing conditions, the infrastructure and services, and the cultural and recreational facilities. Each criterion was evaluated by a set of variables and each variable was weighted based on the residents’ preferences and the analytical hierarchy process. The criteria were also weighted and combined to assess overall QoL. The methodology was implemented in the Municipality of Katerini, Greece, and QoL mapping led to the zoning of the study area and the identification of areas with low and high QoL. The results revealed the highest level of overall QoL in three out of twenty-nine communities, which provide better housing conditions and access to public services and infrastructures, combining also qualitative natural environment, whereas five mountainous and remote communities scored the lowest level. Mapping QoL may support decision making strategies that target to improve human well-being, increase QoL levels and upgrade living conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS-Based Analysis for Quality of Life and Environmental Monitoring)
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Article
A Smooth Transition Algorithm for Adjacent Panoramic Viewpoints Using Matched Delaunay Triangular Patches
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 596; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100596 - 10 Oct 2020
Abstract
The unnatural panoramic image transition between two adjacent viewpoints reduces the immersion and interactive experiences of 360° panoramic walkthrough systems. In this paper, a dynamic panoramic image rendering and smooth transition algorithm for adjacent viewpoints is proposed. First, the feature points of adjacent [...] Read more.
The unnatural panoramic image transition between two adjacent viewpoints reduces the immersion and interactive experiences of 360° panoramic walkthrough systems. In this paper, a dynamic panoramic image rendering and smooth transition algorithm for adjacent viewpoints is proposed. First, the feature points of adjacent view images are extracted, a robust matching algorithm is used to establish adjacent point pairs, and the matching triangles are formed by using the homonymous points. Then, a dynamic transition model is formed by the simultaneous linear transitions of shape and texture for each control triangle. Finally, the smooth transition between adjacent viewpoints is implemented by overlaying the dynamic transition model with the 360° panoramic walkthrough scene. Experimental results show that this method has obvious advantages in visual representation with distinct visual movement. It can realize the smooth transition between two indoor panoramic stations with arbitrary station spacing, and its execution efficiency is up to 50 frames per second. It effectively enhances the interactivity and immersion of 360° panoramic walkthrough systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measuring, Mapping, Modeling, and Visualization of Cities)
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Article
A Comparative Study of Several Metaheuristic Algorithms to Optimize Monetary Incentive in Ridesharing Systems
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 590; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100590 - 08 Oct 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The strong demand on human mobility leads to excessive numbers of cars and raises the problems of serious traffic congestion, large amounts of greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and insufficient parking space in cities. Although ridesharing is a potential transport mode to solve [...] Read more.
The strong demand on human mobility leads to excessive numbers of cars and raises the problems of serious traffic congestion, large amounts of greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution and insufficient parking space in cities. Although ridesharing is a potential transport mode to solve the above problems through car-sharing, it is still not widely adopted. Most studies consider non-monetary incentive performance indices such as travel distance and successful matches in ridesharing systems. These performance indices fail to provide a strong incentive for ridesharing. The goal of this paper is to address this issue by proposing a monetary incentive performance indicator to improve the incentives for ridesharing. The objectives are to improve the incentive for ridesharing through a monetary incentive optimization problem formulation, development of a solution methodology and comparison of different solution algorithms. A non-linear integer programming optimization problem is formulated to optimize monetary incentive in ridesharing systems. Several discrete metaheuristic algorithms are developed to cope with computational complexity for solving the above problem. These include several discrete variants of particle swarm optimization algorithms, differential evolution algorithms and the firefly algorithm. The effectiveness of applying the above algorithms to solve the monetary incentive optimization problem is compared based on experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS in Sustainable Transportation)
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Article
A Built Heritage Information System Based on Point Cloud Data: HIS-PC
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 588; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100588 - 07 Oct 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
The digital management of an archaeological site requires to store, organise, access and represent all the information that is collected on the field. Heritage building information modelling, archaeological or heritage information systems now tend to propose a common framework where all the materials [...] Read more.
The digital management of an archaeological site requires to store, organise, access and represent all the information that is collected on the field. Heritage building information modelling, archaeological or heritage information systems now tend to propose a common framework where all the materials are managed from a central database and visualised through a 3D representation. In this research, we offer the development of a built heritage information system prototype based on a high-resolution 3D point cloud data set. The particularity of the approach is to consider a user-centred development methodology while avoiding meshing/down-sampling operations. The proposed system is initiated by a close collaboration between multi-modal users (managers, visitors, curators) and a development team (designers, developers, architects). The developed heritage information system permits the management of spatial and temporal information, including a wide range of semantics using relational along with NoSQL databases. The semantics used to describe the artifacts are subject to conceptual modelling. Finally, the system proposes a bi-directional communication with a 3D interface able to stream massive point clouds, which is a big step forward to provide a comprehensive site representation for stakeholders while minimising modelling costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM for Cultural Heritage (HBIM))
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Article
Evaluation of the Space Syntax Measures Affecting Pedestrian Density through Ordinal Logistic Regression Analysis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 589; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100589 - 07 Oct 2020
Abstract
This paper examines the relationship between pedestrian density and space syntax measures in a university campus using ordinal logistic regression analysis. The pedestrian density assumed as the dependent variable of regression analysis was categorised in low, medium, and high classes by using Jenks [...] Read more.
This paper examines the relationship between pedestrian density and space syntax measures in a university campus using ordinal logistic regression analysis. The pedestrian density assumed as the dependent variable of regression analysis was categorised in low, medium, and high classes by using Jenks natural break classification. The data elements of groups were derived from pedestrian counts performed in 22 gates 132 times. The counting period grouped in nominal categories was assumed as an independent variable. Another independent was one of the 15 derived measures of axial analysis and visual graphic analysis. The statistically significant model results indicated that the integration of axial analysis was the most reasonable measure that explained the pedestrian density. Then, the changes in integration values of current and master plan datasets were analysed using paired sample t-test. The calculated p-value of t-test proved that the master plan would change the campus morphology for pedestrians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measuring, Mapping, Modeling, and Visualization of Cities)
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Article
Supporting Policy Design for the Diffusion of Cleaner Technologies: A Spatial Empirical Agent-Based Model
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 581; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100581 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Renewable energy resources and energy-efficient technologies, as well as building retrofitting, are only some of the possible strategies that can achieve more sustainable cities and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Subsidies and incentives are often provided by governments to increase the number of people [...] Read more.
Renewable energy resources and energy-efficient technologies, as well as building retrofitting, are only some of the possible strategies that can achieve more sustainable cities and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Subsidies and incentives are often provided by governments to increase the number of people adopting these sustainable energy efficiency actions. However, actual sales of green products are currently not as high as would be desired. The present paper applies a hybrid agent-based model (ABM) integrated with a Geographic Information System (GIS) to simulate a complex socio-economic-architectural adaptive system to study the temporal diffusion and the willingness of inhabitants to adopt photovoltaic (PV) systems. The San Salvario neighborhood in Turin (Italy) is used as an exemplary case study for testing consumer behavior associated with this technology, integrating social network theories, opinion formation dynamics and an adaptation of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Data/characteristics for both buildings and people are explicitly spatialized with the level of detail at the block scale. Particular attention is given to the comparison of the policy mix for supporting decision-makers and policymakers in the definition of the most efficient strategies for achieving a long-term vision of sustainable development. Both variables and outcomes accuracy of the model are validated with historical real-world data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information Science in Planning and Development of Smart Cities)
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Article
Improved Estimations of Nitrate and Sediment Concentrations Based on SWAT Simulations and Annual Updated Land Cover Products from a Deep Learning Classification Algorithm
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 576; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100576 - 30 Sep 2020
Abstract
The agricultural sector and natural resources are heavily interdependent, comprising a coherent but complex system. The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) is widely used in assessing these interdependencies for regional watershed management. However, long-term simulations of agricultural watersheds are considered as not [...] Read more.
The agricultural sector and natural resources are heavily interdependent, comprising a coherent but complex system. The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) is widely used in assessing these interdependencies for regional watershed management. However, long-term simulations of agricultural watersheds are considered as not realistic since they have often been performed assuming constant land use over time and are based on the coarse resolution of the existing global or national data. This work presents the first insights of the synergy among SWAT model and deep learning classification algorithms to provide annually updated and realistic model’s parameterization and simulations. The proposed hybrid modelling approach couples the physical process SWAT model with the versatility of Earth observation data-driven non-linear deep learning algorithms for land use classification (Overall Accuracy (OA) = 79.58% and Kappa = 0.79), giving a strong advantage to decision makers for efficient management planning. A validation case at an agricultural watershed located in Northern Greece is provided to demonstrate their synergistic use to estimate nitrate and sediment concentrations that load in Zazari Lake. The SWAT model has been implemented under two different simulations; one with the use of a static coarse land use map and the other with the use of the annual updated land use maps for three consecutive years (2017–2019). The results indicate that the land use changes affect the final estimations resulting to an enhanced prediction performance of 1% and 2% for sediment and nitrate, respectively, when the annual land use maps are incorporated into SWAT simulations. In this context, a hybrid approach could further contribute to addressing challenges and support a data-centric scheme for informed decision making with regard to environmental and agricultural issues on the river basin scale. Full article
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Article
Quantitative Evaluation of Spatial Differentiation for Public Open Spaces in Urban Built-Up Areas by Assessing SDG 11.7: A Case of Deqing County
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 575; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100575 - 30 Sep 2020
Abstract
Urban public open spaces refer to open space between architectural structures in a city or urban agglomeration that is open for urban residents to conduct public exchanges and hold various activities. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11.7 in the 2030 UN Agenda for Sustainable [...] Read more.
Urban public open spaces refer to open space between architectural structures in a city or urban agglomeration that is open for urban residents to conduct public exchanges and hold various activities. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 11.7 in the 2030 UN Agenda for Sustainable Development clearly states that the distribution characteristics of public open spaces are important indicators to measure the sustainable development of urban ecological society. In 2018, in order to implement the sustainable development agenda, China offered the example of Deqing to the world. Therefore, taking Deqing as an example, this paper uses geographic statistics and spatial analysis methods to quantitatively evaluate and visualize public open spaces in the built area in 2016 and analyzes the spatial pattern and relationship of the population. The results show that the public open spaces in the built-up area of Deqing have typical global and local spatial autocorrelation. The spatial pattern shows obvious differences in different parts of the built area and attributes of public open spaces. According to the results of correlation analysis, it can be seen that the decentralized characteristics of public open spaces have a significant relationship with the population agglomeration, and this correlation is also related to the types of public open spaces. The assessment results by SDG 11.7.1 indicate that the public open spaces in the built-up area of Deqing conform to the living needs of residents on the whole and have a humanized space design and good accessibility. However, the per capita public open spaces of towns and villages outside the built area are relatively low, and there is an imbalance in public open spaces. Therefore, more attention should be paid to constructing urban public open spaces fairly. Full article
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Article
Emergency Department Overcrowding: A Retrospective Spatial Analysis and the Geocoding of Accesses. A Pilot Study in Rome
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 579; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100579 - 30 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The overcrowding of first aid facilities creates considerable hardship and problems which have repercussions on patients’ wellbeing, the time needed for a diagnosis, and on the quality of the assistance. The basic objective of this contribution, based on the data collected by the [...] Read more.
The overcrowding of first aid facilities creates considerable hardship and problems which have repercussions on patients’ wellbeing, the time needed for a diagnosis, and on the quality of the assistance. The basic objective of this contribution, based on the data collected by the Hospital Policlinico Umberto I in Rome (Lazio region, Italy), is to carry out a territorial screening of the municipality using GIS applications and spatial analyses aimed at reducing—in terms of triage—code white (inappropriate) attendances, after having identified the areas of greatest provenance of improperly used emergency room access. Working in a GIS environment and using functions for geocoding, we have tested an experimental model aimed at giving a close-up geographical-sanitary look at the situation: recognizing the territorial sectors in Rome which contribute to amplifying the Policlinico Umberto I emergency room overcrowding; leading up to an improvement of the situation; promoting greater awareness and knowledge of the services available on the territory, a closer relationship between patient and regular doctor (general practitioner, GP) or Local Healthcare Unit and a more efficient functioning of the emergency room. In particular, we have elaborated a “source” map from which derive all the others and it is a dot map on which all the codes white have been geolocalized on a satellite image through geocoding. We have produced three sets made up of three digital cartographic elaborations each, constructed on the census sections, the census areas and the sub-municipal areas, according to data aggregation, for absolute and relative values, and using different templates. Finally, following the same methodology and steps, we elaborated another dot map about all the codes red to provide another kind of information and input for social utility. In the near future, this system could be tested on a platform that spatially analyzes the emergency department (ED) accesses in near-real-time in order to facilitate the identification of critical territorial issues and intervene in a shorter time to regulate the influx of patients to the ED. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Information Science in Planning and Development of Smart Cities)
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Evaluating the Performance of Three Popular Web Mapping Libraries: A Case Study Using Argentina’s Life Quality Index
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 563; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100563 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Recent Web technologies such as HTML5, JavaScript, and WebGL have enabled powerful and highly dynamic Web mapping applications executing on standard Web browsers. Despite the complexity for developing such applications has been greatly reduced by Web mapping libraries, developers face many choices to [...] Read more.
Recent Web technologies such as HTML5, JavaScript, and WebGL have enabled powerful and highly dynamic Web mapping applications executing on standard Web browsers. Despite the complexity for developing such applications has been greatly reduced by Web mapping libraries, developers face many choices to achieve optimal performance and network usage. This scenario is even more complex when considering different representations of geographical data (raster, raw data or vector) and variety of devices (tablets, smartphones, and personal computers). This paper compares the performance and network usage of three popular JavaScript Web mapping libraries for implementing a Web map using different representations for geodata, and executing on different devices. In the experiments, Mapbox GL JS achieved the best overall performance on mid and high end devices for displaying raster or vector maps, while OpenLayers was the best for raster maps on all devices. Vector-based maps are a safe bet for new Web maps, since performance is on par with raster maps on mid-end smartphones, with significant less network bandwidth requirements. Full article
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Article
A Method for 3D Reconstruction of the Ming and Qing Official-Style Roof Using a Decorative Components Template Library
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 570; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100570 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The ancient roof decorative components of the official-style architectures from the Ming and Qing dynasties in China hold both physical and symbolic significance. These roof structures are the essential objects in three-dimensional (3D) modeling of ancient architectures for traditional Chinese cultural preservation. Although [...] Read more.
The ancient roof decorative components of the official-style architectures from the Ming and Qing dynasties in China hold both physical and symbolic significance. These roof structures are the essential objects in three-dimensional (3D) modeling of ancient architectures for traditional Chinese cultural preservation. Although ancient architectures can be surveyed by a 3D laser scanner, the complex geometry and diverse pattern of their roof decorative components make the 3D point cloud reconstruction challenging, or at some points, nearly impossible in a fully automated manner. In this paper, we propose a method to ensure that the 3D shape of each roof decorative component is accurately modeled. First, we establish a decorative components template library (or “template library” in short hereafter), which is the first of its kind for the roofs of Ming and Qing official-style architectures. The process of establishing the decorative components template library begins with a remote collection of survey data using a terrestrial laser scanner and digital camera. The next stage involves the design and construction of different 3D decorative components in the template library with reference to the manuscripts written in the Ming and Qing dynasties’ architectural pattern books. With the point cloud data collected on any Ming and Qing official-style architecture, we further propose a geo-registration mechanism to search for an optimal fitting of the decorative components from the template library on the collected point cloud automatically. Based on the experimental results, the accuracy of point cloud registration yields less than 0.02 m, which meets the accuracy of the 3D model at LoD 300 level. Time consumption is less than 5s and stable, for large volume computing capacity has good robustness. The proposed strategy provides a new way for the 3D modeling of large and clustered historical architectures, particularly with complex structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM for Cultural Heritage (HBIM))
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Article
Monitoring Wildfires in the Northeastern Peruvian Amazon Using Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 Imagery in the GEE Platform
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 564; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100564 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 8
Abstract
During the latest decades, the Amazon has experienced a great loss of vegetation cover, in many cases as a direct consequence of wildfires, which became a problem at local, national, and global scales, leading to economic, social, and environmental impacts. Hence, this study [...] Read more.
During the latest decades, the Amazon has experienced a great loss of vegetation cover, in many cases as a direct consequence of wildfires, which became a problem at local, national, and global scales, leading to economic, social, and environmental impacts. Hence, this study is committed to developing a routine for monitoring fires in the vegetation cover relying on recent multitemporal data (2017–2019) of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 imagery using the cloud-based Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. In order to assess the burnt areas (BA), spectral indices were employed, such as the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), Normalized Burn Ratio 2 (NBR2), and Mid-Infrared Burn Index (MIRBI). All these indices were applied for BA assessment according to appropriate thresholds. Additionally, to reduce confusion between burnt areas and other land cover classes, further indices were used, like those considering the temporal differences between pre and post-fire conditions: differential Mid-Infrared Burn Index (dMIRBI), differential Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR), differential Normalized Burn Ratio 2 (dNBR2), and differential Near-Infrared (dNIR). The calculated BA by Sentinel-2 was larger during the three-year investigation span (16.55, 78.50, and 67.19 km2) and of greater detail (detected small areas) than the BA extracted by Landsat-8 (16.39, 6.24, and 32.93 km2). The routine for monitoring wildfires presented in this work is based on a sequence of decision rules. This enables the detection and monitoring of burnt vegetation cover and has been originally applied to an experiment in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon. The results obtained by the two satellites imagery are compared in terms of accuracy metrics and level of detail (size of BA patches). The accuracy for Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 in 2017, 2018, and 2019 varied from 82.7–91.4% to 94.5–98.5%, respectively. Full article
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Article
An Application of Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, and GNSS Data for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 561; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100561 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
In this study, we used Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data to delineate post-earthquake landslides within an object-based image analysis (OBIA). We used our resulting landslide inventory map for training the data-driven model of the frequency ratio (FR) for landslide susceptibility modelling and mapping considering [...] Read more.
In this study, we used Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data to delineate post-earthquake landslides within an object-based image analysis (OBIA). We used our resulting landslide inventory map for training the data-driven model of the frequency ratio (FR) for landslide susceptibility modelling and mapping considering eleven conditioning factors of soil type, slope angle, distance to roads, distance to rivers, rainfall, normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), aspect, altitude, distance to faults, land cover, and lithology. A fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) also was used for the susceptibility mapping using expert knowledge. Then, we integrated the data-driven model of the FR with the knowledge-based model of the FAHP to reduce the associated uncertainty in each approach. We validated our resulting landslide inventory map based on 30% of the global positioning system (GPS) points of an extensive field survey in the study area. The remaining 70% of the GPS points were used to validate the performance of the applied models and the resulting landslide susceptibility maps using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Our resulting landslide inventory map got a precision of 94% and the AUCs (area under the curve) of the susceptibility maps showed 83%, 89%, and 96% for the F-AHP, FR, and the integrated model, respectively. The introduced methodology in this study can be used in the application of remote sensing data for landslide inventory and susceptibility mapping in other areas where earthquakes are considered as the main landslide-triggered factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Hazard Spatial Modelling and Mapping)
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Article
Glacial Lakes Mapping Using Multi Satellite PlanetScope Imagery and Deep Learning
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(10), 560; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9100560 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Glacial lakes mapping using satellite remote sensing data are important for studying the effects of climate change as well as for the mitigation and risk assessment of a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF). The 3U cubesat constellation of Planet Labs offers the capability [...] Read more.
Glacial lakes mapping using satellite remote sensing data are important for studying the effects of climate change as well as for the mitigation and risk assessment of a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF). The 3U cubesat constellation of Planet Labs offers the capability of imaging the whole Earth landmass everyday at 3–4 m spatial resolution. The higher spatial, as well as temporal resolution of PlanetScope imagery in comparison with Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2, makes it a valuable data source for monitoring the glacial lakes. Therefore, this paper explores the potential of the PlanetScope imagery for glacial lakes mapping with a focus on the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya (HKKH) region. Though the revisit time of the PlanetScope imagery is short, courtesy of 130+ small satellites, this imagery contains only four bands and the imaging sensors in these small satellites exhibit varying spectral responses as well as lower dynamic range. Furthermore, the presence of cast shadows in the mountainous regions and varying spectral signature of the water pixels due to differences in composition, turbidity and depth makes it challenging to automatically and reliably extract surface water in PlanetScope imagery. Keeping in view these challenges, this work uses state of the art deep learning models for pixel-wise classification of PlanetScope imagery into the water and background pixels and compares the results with Random Forest and Support Vector Machine classifiers. The deep learning model is based on the popular U-Net architecture. We evaluate U-Net architecture similar to the original U-Net as well as a U-Net with a pre-trained EfficientNet backbone. In order to train the deep neural network, ground truth data are generated by manual digitization of the surface water in PlanetScope imagery with the aid of Very High Resolution Satellite (VHRS) imagery. The created dataset consists of more than 5000 water bodies having an area of approx. 71km2 in eight different sites in the HKKH region. The evaluation of the test data show that the U-Net with EfficientNet backbone achieved the highest F1 Score of 0.936. A visual comparison with the existing glacial lake inventories is then performed over the Baltoro glacier in the Karakoram range. The results show that the deep learning model detected significantly more lakes than the existing inventories, which have been derived from Landsat OLI imagery. The trained model is further evaluated on the time series PlanetScope imagery of two glacial lakes, which have resulted in an outburst flood. The output of the U-Net is also compared with the GLakeMap data. The results show that the higher spatial and temporal resolution of PlanetScope imagery is a significant advantage in the context of glacial lakes mapping and monitoring. Full article
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Article
Visit Probability in Space–Time Prisms Based on Binomial Random Walk
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 555; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090555 - 18 Sep 2020
Abstract
Space–time prisms are used to model the uncertainty of space–time locations of moving objects between (for instance, GPS-measured) sample points. However, not all space–time points in a prism are equally likely and we propose a simple, formal model for the so-called “visit probability” [...] Read more.
Space–time prisms are used to model the uncertainty of space–time locations of moving objects between (for instance, GPS-measured) sample points. However, not all space–time points in a prism are equally likely and we propose a simple, formal model for the so-called “visit probability” of space–time points within prisms. The proposed mathematical framework is based on a binomial random walk within one- and two-dimensional space–time prisms. Without making any assumptions on the random walks (we do not impose any distribution nor introduce any bias towards the second anchor point), we arrive at the conclusion that binomial random walk-based visit probability in space–time prisms corresponds to a hypergeometric distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Dynamics Research in the Age of Smart and Intelligent Systems)
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Article
The City of Tomorrow from… the Data of Today
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 554; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090554 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
In urban planning, a common unit of measure for housing density is the number of households per hectare. However, the actual size of the physical space occupied by a household, i.e., a dwelling, is seldom considered, neither in 2D nor in 3D. This [...] Read more.
In urban planning, a common unit of measure for housing density is the number of households per hectare. However, the actual size of the physical space occupied by a household, i.e., a dwelling, is seldom considered, neither in 2D nor in 3D. This article proposes a methodology to estimate the average size of a dwelling in existing urban areas from available open data, and to use it as one of the design parameters for new urban-development projects. The proposed unit of measure, called “living space”, includes outdoor and indoor spaces. The idea is to quantitatively analyze the city of today to help design the city of tomorrow. First, the “typical”-dwelling size and a series of Key Performance Indicators are computed for all neighborhoods from a semantic 3D city model and other spatial and non-spatial datasets. A limited number of neighborhoods is selected based on their similarities with the envisioned development plan. The size of the living space of the selected neighborhoods is successively used as a design parameter to support the computer-assisted generation of several design proposals. Each proposal can be exported, shared, and visualized online. As a test case, a to-be-planned neighborhood in Amsterdam, called “Sloterdijk One”, has been chosen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Applications of 3D-City Models in Urban Studies)
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Social Sensing for Urban Land Use Identification
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(9), 550; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9090550 - 15 Sep 2020
Cited by 3