Special Issue "Advances in GIS Hydrological Modeling"

A special issue of ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (ISSN 2220-9964).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Paolo Paron
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Water Resources and Ecosystem, IHE Delft, Insititute for Water Education, Westvest 7, 2611AX Delft, The Netherlands
Interests: remote sensing; drones; fluvial dynamics; sediment dynamics at the basin scale; field work in developing countries
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The twenty-first century brings with it significant challenges for managing our freshwater resources, including flood and drought prediction and mitigation, erosion and related chemical and radiological pollution, and provision of potable water in both urban and isolated environments. Among the more powerful tools to attack these challenges is the modern geographic information system (GIS) and its related technologies. This Special Issue brings together papers from a wide variety of GIS modeling specialists from traditional GIS modelers to big geo-data analysts, from remote sensors to field data collectors. It includes those who rely strictly on GIS technology, those who employ tightly coupled GIS and hydrological modeling scenarios, and those who prefer loosely coupled GIS and hydrological modeling scenarios. The papers, while focusing on GIS modeling of hydrological settings, deal with a considerable range of related topics. Encouraged are papers regarding new algorithms, or those demonstrating unique applications, articles linking land and shore interactions, those dealing with issues of data sparsity, others with data overload, papers focusing on anthropogenic cause-and-effect relationships, and others looking at modeling the impacts of climate change on surface and groundwater. Among the more critical modeling research is that of human impacts of water sparsity, flood and drought hazard prediction and abatement, community response modeling to flooding and drought conditions, reservoir impacts modeling, and many more. Reviews of research to date on the aforementioned topics are welcome, as are cutting-edge model implementation and testing papers. Evaluation of new remote sensing technologies and combinations of sensing technologies for GIS hydrological modeling are welcome as well. Evaluation of other new data sources, even hypothetical data for their modeling potential, should be considered for inclusion in this issue. Assessment of Citizen Science inputs into GIS and other type of modelling for water extremes are welcome. Comparative analyses of different software and/or different algorithms, especially those linked with ground verification, are encouraged for submission to this Special Issue. 

Dr. Paolo Paron
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Annual Actual Evapotranspiration Estimation via GIS Models of Three Empirical Methods Employing Remotely Sensed Data for the Peloponnese, Greece, and Comparison with Annual MODIS ET and Pan Evaporation Measurements
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 522; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080522 - 01 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 641
Abstract
Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) has been insufficiently investigated in Greece. This study aimed to estimate annual ETa by empirical methods (Turc, modified Turc, and Coutagne) for the Peloponnese, Greece, a Mediterranean testbed, between 2016–2019, four of the warmest years since the preindustrial era, and [...] Read more.
Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) has been insufficiently investigated in Greece. This study aimed to estimate annual ETa by empirical methods (Turc, modified Turc, and Coutagne) for the Peloponnese, Greece, a Mediterranean testbed, between 2016–2019, four of the warmest years since the preindustrial era, and compare them to MODIS ET. Furthermore, measurements of annual pan evaporation (Epan) were performed for two Class A pan stations in the Peloponnese with different reliefs and conditions. The empirical methods and statistical formulae (RMSD, MB, and NMB) were developed as models in ArcMap. The outcomes of the Turc method resembled MODIS ET ranges for all years, followed by those of Coutagne. The estimates by the modified Turc method were almost identical to MODIS ET. Therefore, the modified Turc method can be used as an alternative to MODIS ET (and vice versa) for the Peloponnese for 2016–2019. Moreover, the Epan at Patras University station (semiurban, low elevation) exhibited an upward trend resembling the trends of the empirical methods over the study years, whereas the Epan at Ladonas station (higher elevation, lakeside) required investigation on a monthly time scale. Additionally, the gradual decrease of pan-water icing at Ladonas in December (from 20 d in 2016 to 0 d in 2019) could imply an undergoing decrease in snowpack storage retention across the mountains of the Peloponnese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in GIS Hydrological Modeling)
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Article
Water Yield Modelling, Sensitivity Analysis and Validation: A Study for Portugal
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(8), 494; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10080494 - 21 Jul 2021
Viewed by 543
Abstract
The spatially explicit assessment of freshwater is key to introduce the ecosystem services (ES) concept into decision-making processes. Many tools are being developed to model water balance and to analyze the effects of meteorological conditions on water ES behaviors at multiple spatial scales. [...] Read more.
The spatially explicit assessment of freshwater is key to introduce the ecosystem services (ES) concept into decision-making processes. Many tools are being developed to model water balance and to analyze the effects of meteorological conditions on water ES behaviors at multiple spatial scales. The current study uses the InVEST Annual Water Yield Model (WYM) to assess water availability in watersheds of the mainland of Portugal. The methodology included sensitivity analysis to test different parameters of the model and validation using the European Environment Agency (EEA) database on the quantity of Europe’s water resources. To evaluate the models’ sensitivity, Pearson’s correlation coefficients and statistical methods were calculated for each simulation. Results at the national level show a correlation coefficient of 0.803 with statistical significance for 0.01 one-tail. Water yield was underestimated by 56.5 mm/ha/year in the North of the country and overestimated by 58.1 mm/ha/year in the South. This difference was explained through the spatial-temporal assessment of the main climatic variables used as input. This study contributes to a methodology to assess the level of confidence in the WYM outputs and can be used to support the trustworthiness of water availability studies, using open-access data and software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in GIS Hydrological Modeling)
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Article
Examining the Impact of Different DEM Sources and Geomorphology on Flash Flood Analysis in Hyper-Arid Deserts
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(7), 431; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10070431 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 518
Abstract
Digital elevation models (DEMs) are the cornerstone for hydrological and geomorphological modeling. Herein, two Nile-tributary catchments (Wadi Al Rishrash and Wadi Atfeh) in Egypt are selected to examine the contribution of different DEMs to the accuracy of hydrological and geomorphological analyses in the [...] Read more.
Digital elevation models (DEMs) are the cornerstone for hydrological and geomorphological modeling. Herein, two Nile-tributary catchments (Wadi Al Rishrash and Wadi Atfeh) in Egypt are selected to examine the contribution of different DEMs to the accuracy of hydrological and geomorphological analyses in the hyper-arid Sahara. DEMs sources include: Advanced Land Observing Satellite-1 (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) (12.5 m resolution), ALOS World 3D with 30 m resolution (AW3D30), Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER DEM with 30 m resolution) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM with 30 and 90 m resolution), in addition to topographic map-derived DEM (90 m resolution). Using a hypothetical uniformly-distributed 10 mm rainfall event, the estimated parameters, including: flow duration, time to peak and peak discharge rates, are almost similar for the different DEMs and thus technical aspects related to sources and resolutions of the datasets impose insignificant control on quantitative flash-flood analyses. Conversely, variations in geological and geomorphological characteristics of the catchments show more significant control on the hydrograph magnitudes as indicated by the different parameters of the two catchments. These findings indicate that understanding the geological and hydrological evolution of the catchment is essential for integrated management strategies of floods especially in the Saharan–Arabian deserts and in similar conditions of hyper-aridity and scarce in situ data worldwide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in GIS Hydrological Modeling)
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Article
Identification of Groundwater Potential Zones Using GIS and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Techniques: A Case Study Upper Coruh River Basin (NE Turkey)
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(6), 396; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10060396 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 932
Abstract
In this study, geographic information system (GIS)-based, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) techniques were used to identify groundwater potential zones to provide insight to decisionmakers and local authorities for present and future planning. Ten different geo-environmental factors, such as slope, topographic wetness index, geomorphology, [...] Read more.
In this study, geographic information system (GIS)-based, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) techniques were used to identify groundwater potential zones to provide insight to decisionmakers and local authorities for present and future planning. Ten different geo-environmental factors, such as slope, topographic wetness index, geomorphology, drainage density, lithology, lineament density, rainfall, soil type, soil thickness, and land-use classes were selected as the decision criteria, and related GIS tools were used for creating, analysing and standardising the layers. The final groundwater potential zones map was delineated, using the weighted linear combination (WLC) aggregation method. The map was spatially classified into very high potential, high potential, moderate potential, low potential, and very low potential. The results showed that 21.5% of the basin area is characterised by high to very high groundwater potential. In comparison, the very low to low groundwater potential occupies 57.15%, and the moderate groundwater potential covers 21.4% of the basin area. Finally, the GWPZs map was investigated to validate the model, using discharges and depth to groundwater data related to 22 wells scattered over the basin. The validation results showed that GWPZs classes strongly overlap with the well discharges and groundwater depth located in the given area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in GIS Hydrological Modeling)
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Article
Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) Methods Implemented as ArcMap Models with Remote-Sensed and Ground-Based Inputs, Examined along with MODIS ET, for Peloponnese, Greece
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(6), 390; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10060390 - 05 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 809
Abstract
The present study develops ArcMap models to implement the following three methods: FAO-56 Penman–Monteith (FAO PM), Hargreaves–Samani (HS) and Hansen, with the former used as a reference. Moreover, three models implementing statistical indices (RMSD, MB, NMB) are also created. The purpose is threefold, [...] Read more.
The present study develops ArcMap models to implement the following three methods: FAO-56 Penman–Monteith (FAO PM), Hargreaves–Samani (HS) and Hansen, with the former used as a reference. Moreover, three models implementing statistical indices (RMSD, MB, NMB) are also created. The purpose is threefold, as follows: to investigate the variability in the daily mean reference evapotranspiration (ETo) for the Decembers and Augusts during 2016–2019, over Peloponnese, Greece. Furthermore, to investigate the agreement between the methods’ ETo estimates, and examine the former along with MODIS ET (daily) averaged products. The study area is a complex Mediterranean area. Meteorological data from sixty-two stations under the National Observatory of Athens (NOA), and MODIS Terra LST products, have been employed. FAO PM is found sensitive to wind speed and depicts interactions among climate parameters (T, evaporative demand and water availability) in the frame of climate change. The years 2016–2019 are four of the warmest since the preindustrial era. Hargreaves–Samani’s estimations for the Decembers of 2016–2019 were almost identical to MODIS ET, despite their different physical meaning. However, for the Augusts there are considerable discrepancies between the methods’ and MODIS’s estimates, attributed to the higher evaporative demand in the summertime. The GIS models are accurate, reliable, time-saving, and adjustable to any study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in GIS Hydrological Modeling)
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Article
Methodology of Sub-Catchment Division Considering Land Uses and Flow Directions
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2020, 9(11), 634; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi9110634 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 709
Abstract
Catchment division constitutes the foundation for urban water flood forecasting but represents a technically challenging task. The accurate division of catchments is significant for precisely forecasting urban waterlogging. However, existing catchment division methods usually lead to produce results that do not accurately reflect [...] Read more.
Catchment division constitutes the foundation for urban water flood forecasting but represents a technically challenging task. The accurate division of catchments is significant for precisely forecasting urban waterlogging. However, existing catchment division methods usually lead to produce results that do not accurately reflect the actual land-use distributions. In recent years, most research has been performed in smaller study areas (less than 10 km2), in residential areas, parks and campuses, and usually focused on a single landscape type. However, for large highly urbanized areas with complex land uses, due to the spatial heterogeneity and complexity of such areas in terms of building, traffic network and hydrology, etc., there is few studies on sub-catchment division. Moreover, the division results by using existing method usually have deviate with the actual land-type distributions. To address the above-mentioned issues, a sub-catchment division method was here proposed that accounts for land-use types and flow directions, and it is suitable for large urban areas by introducing an auto-adaptive threshold adjustment in a novel algorithm. First, the study area is divided into first- and second-level (FL and SL, respectively) catchments according to the macroscale features such as natural landforms, canals, and pipe network. Second, an amended DEM (Digital Elevation Model) and flow direction data are used to divide the SL catchments into third-level direction-based (D-B) catchments. Finally, a novel land use-based algorithm is proposed to divide the D-B catchments into the “smallest” catchments (S-catchments). A large-scale area (44 km2) in Dongying City of China was employed to validate the proposed method. The experiment showed that the proposed method is suitable for subcatchment divisions in large regions and can ensure that the subcatchments are consistent with the actual distribution of land uses and runoff directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in GIS Hydrological Modeling)
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