Special Issue "Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS"

A special issue of ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information (ISSN 2220-9964).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Fabio Dell'Acqua
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical, Computer, Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, Italy - Ticinum Aerospace s.r.l., Pavia, Italy
Interests: remote sensing; Earth observation; risk management
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Space-borne and air-borne remote sensing represent a major source of urban data, still underexploited to some extent. One of the main causes for such underuse is likely to reside in the difficulties involved in correcting, analyzing and interpreting data produced on urban areas. Indeed, despite having a clear, distinct informative sense to the human being, they probably represent the most inhomogeneous type of land cover on the Earth surface, both in spectral and in spatial terms. Yet, it is crucial to keep them monitored, as urban areas host an increasing fraction of Earth’s inhabitants, consume an increasing fraction of the total resources, and the weight of urban processes in determining the future evolution of the planet is also steadily increasing. Recent years have seen a progressive integration of remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) technology in urban and regional mapping and monitoring, as a means to combine their respective strengths and build a clearer picture of the situation and trends of urban environments. This convergence is complemented by an increasing involvement of citizens in the process of collecting and sharing geospatial data and information on urban areas, as well as in decisional processes regarding their management; given the potential personal nature of the data contributed, this involvement also raises privacy and security issues.

In the context outlined above, this Special Issue is devoted to providing an overview of remote sensing and GIS research in their applications to urban areas, as well as to exploring future trends of concepts, methods, implementations, validations, and applications. We call for original papers from researchers around the world that focus on one or more of the topics introduced above, including citizen participation processes and related data management and processing issues. Manuscripts describing research results, as well as methods and applications related to all types of remote sensing, GIS, WebGIS, citizen involvement in the context of urban areas, are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Fabio Dell'Acqua
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Urban areas
  • Remote Sensing
  • Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
  • WebGIS, mobile GIS, distributed GIS
  • Data and information fusion
  • Citizen participation
  • Interoperability
  • Mapping and monitoring
  • Geospatial data security and privacy

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

Article
Urban Growth Modeling and Future Scenario Projection Using Cellular Automata (CA) Models and the R Package Optimx
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(10), 387; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi7100387 - 25 Sep 2018
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2588
Abstract
Cellular automata (CA) is a spatially explicit modeling tool that has been shown to be effective in simulating urban growth dynamics and in projecting future scenarios across scales. At the core of urban CA models are transition rules that define land transformation from [...] Read more.
Cellular automata (CA) is a spatially explicit modeling tool that has been shown to be effective in simulating urban growth dynamics and in projecting future scenarios across scales. At the core of urban CA models are transition rules that define land transformation from non-urban to urban. Our objective is to compare the urban growth simulation and prediction abilities of different metaheuristics included in the R package optimx. We applied five metaheuristics in optimx to near-optimally parameterize CA transition rules and construct CA models for urban simulation. One advantage of metaheuristics is their ability to optimize complexly constrained computational problems, yielding objective parameterization with strong predictive power. From these five models, we selected conjugate gradient-based CA (CG-CA) and spectral projected gradient-based CA (SPG-CA) to simulate the 2005–2015 urban growth and to project future scenarios to 2035 with four strategies for Su-Xi-Chang Agglomeration in China. The two CA models produced about 86% overall accuracy with standard Kappa coefficient above 69%, indicating their good ability to capture urban growth dynamics. Four alternative scenarios out to the year 2035 were constructed considering the overall effect of all candidate influencing factors and the enhanced effects of county centers, road networks and population density. These scenarios can provide insight into future urban patterns resulting from today’s urban planning and infrastructure, and can inform future development strategies for sustainable cities. Our proposed metaheuristic CA models are also applicable in modeling land-use and urban growth in other rapidly developing areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
Assessing the Impacts of Streamside Ordinance Protection on the Spatial and Temporal Variability in Urban Riparian Vegetation
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(7), 282; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi7070282 - 23 Jul 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1496
Abstract
Preserving riparian vegetation is important for maintaining water quality and riparian functions. Streamside protection ordinances have been widely established in many rapidly urbanizing areas, however, there has been a lack of assessment of the effectiveness of such ordinances. A study was conducted to [...] Read more.
Preserving riparian vegetation is important for maintaining water quality and riparian functions. Streamside protection ordinances have been widely established in many rapidly urbanizing areas, however, there has been a lack of assessment of the effectiveness of such ordinances. A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of riparian vegetation preservation with and without ordinance protection. SPOT imagery was used to classify landscape changes over time (1992 through 2012) across multiple jurisdictions and pre- and post-ordinance implementation periods. Results indicated the spatial and temporal patterns of vegetation change differed by administrative areas and ordinance boundaries. The rate of tree loss and gains in developed lands in ordinance-protected areas generally increased following implementation of ordinances but at a lower rate than in non-ordinance areas. These findings suggest spatial and temporal monitoring of riparian ordinance implementation across adjacent jurisdictions is important to ensure the full effects of the ordinance protection on stream systems. Such monitoring and assessments can be used by local decision makers to adapt existing ordinances or in the development of new ordinances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
Mapping Creative Spaces in Omaha, NE: Resident Perceptions versus Creative Firm Locations
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(7), 263; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi7070263 - 04 Jul 2018
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2093
Abstract
In an era increasingly shaped by automation and globalization, industries that rely on creativity, innovation, and knowledge-generation are considered key drivers of economic growth in the U.S. and other advanced capitalist economies. This study examines the spatial distribution of creative firms and how [...] Read more.
In an era increasingly shaped by automation and globalization, industries that rely on creativity, innovation, and knowledge-generation are considered key drivers of economic growth in the U.S. and other advanced capitalist economies. This study examines the spatial distribution of creative firms and how they might align with perceptions of creativity in Omaha, Nebraska, a mid-sized U.S. urban area. Utilizing a survey, participant mapping exercise, and geospatial analyses, the primary goal was to identify formal and informal spaces of creative production and consumption, and determine to what extent the location of creative firms (both arts/media- and science/technology-focused) may shape perceptions of creativity across the urban landscape. The results suggest that local area residents primarily view dense, vibrant, mixed-use, and often historic urban neighborhoods as particularly creative, whether or not there exists a dense concentration of creative firms. Similarly, creative firms were more spatially diffuse than the clusters of “creative locations” identified by residents, and were more frequently found in suburban locations. Furthermore, while there was no discernible difference among “creative” and “non-creative” workers, science/technology firms were more likely than arts/media firms to be found in suburban locations, and less likely to be associated with perceptions of creativity in Omaha. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
Mapping Urban Land Use at Street Block Level Using OpenStreetMap, Remote Sensing Data, and Spatial Metrics
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(7), 246; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi7070246 - 22 Jun 2018
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 7899
Abstract
Up-to-date and reliable land-use information is essential for a variety of applications such as planning or monitoring of the urban environment. This research presents a workflow for mapping urban land use at the street block level, with a focus on residential use, using [...] Read more.
Up-to-date and reliable land-use information is essential for a variety of applications such as planning or monitoring of the urban environment. This research presents a workflow for mapping urban land use at the street block level, with a focus on residential use, using very-high resolution satellite imagery and derived land-cover maps as input. We develop a processing chain for the automated creation of street block polygons from OpenStreetMap and ancillary data. Spatial metrics and other street block features are computed, followed by feature selection that reduces the initial datasets by more than 80%, providing a parsimonious, discriminative, and redundancy-free set of features. A random forest (RF) classifier is used for the classification of street blocks, which results in accuracies of 84% and 79% for five and six land-use classes, respectively. We exploit the probabilistic output of RF to identify and relabel blocks that have a high degree of uncertainty. Finally, the thematic precision of the residential blocks is refined according to the proportion of the built-up area. The output data and processing chains are made freely available. The proposed framework is able to process large datasets, given that the cities in the case studies, Dakar and Ouagadougou, cover more than 1000 km2 in total, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 m. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
Extraction and Spatial–Temporal Evolution of Urban Fringes: A Case Study of Changchun in Jilin Province, China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(7), 241; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi7070241 - 22 Jun 2018
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
An urban fringe area, depicted as a typical ecotone, is a region where both social and environmental problems are concentrated. Identifying and evaluating the spatial–temporal characteristics of urban fringe areas is significant for future development. On the basis of the land use data [...] Read more.
An urban fringe area, depicted as a typical ecotone, is a region where both social and environmental problems are concentrated. Identifying and evaluating the spatial–temporal characteristics of urban fringe areas is significant for future development. On the basis of the land use data extracted from remote sensing data, the Shannon diversity index (SHDI) of each unit can be calculated, and identifying the urban fringe area by the breakpoint method is reliable. By using the rapidly growing Changchun as example, this study identifies the urban fringe of Changchun in 1995, 2005, and 2015 by applying the breakpoint method. The expansion amount, change mode, direction of expansion, landscape, and influence factors are evaluated. Policy and planning are the main factors influencing the development direction of the Changchun fringe area. The urban fringe area of Changchun City is extended to the east, southeast, and north. From 1995 to 2005, the outlying expansion was the dominant type. The main change mode was the infilling type due to the reduction of available land, from 2005 to 2015. In accordance with the landscape metrics, the landscape within the urban fringe transformed from fragmentation to regularization. The development of the urban fringe also transformed from a disorderly to an orderly manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
Mapping Spatiotemporal Patterns and Multi-Perspective Analysis of the Surface Urban Heat Islands across 32 Major Cities in China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(6), 207; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi7060207 - 30 May 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2108
Abstract
As urban thermal environments are being caused by global climatic changes and urbanization is not uniform on diurnal, seasonal, or annual scales, the spatiotemporal patterns of surface urban heat islands (SUHI) similarly vary between cities across regions. This research assessed the spatiotemporal variations [...] Read more.
As urban thermal environments are being caused by global climatic changes and urbanization is not uniform on diurnal, seasonal, or annual scales, the spatiotemporal patterns of surface urban heat islands (SUHI) similarly vary between cities across regions. This research assessed the spatiotemporal variations in SUHI intensities (SUHII), and then revealed their spatiotemporal patterns and relationships that existed within 32 major cities in China using spatialization technologies, such as the self-organizing map (SOM) method and statistical methods. Results showed that the spatial patterns of the SUHII patterns in China were significantly affected by the climatic types, whereas human heat discharge also disturbed the patterns to a certain extent. Specifically, the daytime SUHIIs in China had much higher seasonal variations in North China than in South China. The nighttime SUHIIs were much weaker and more stable than the daytime SUHIIs, and had far more obvious spatial patterns with much higher values in North China than in South China. As for the temporal regimes, the temporal variation in the SUHIIs in one city was more related to the development of the urbanization. To be specific, not all cities were experiencing increasingly worse urban thermal environments with urbanization as reported by previous studies. This research not only proposes a spatiotemporal framework to study the SUHIIs patterns and their relationships, but also provides an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of SUHIIs in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
Suitability Evaluation of Urban Construction Land Based on an Approach of Vertical-Horizontal Processes
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(5), 198; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi7050198 - 20 May 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
Suitability evaluation of urban construction land is critical for both urban master planning and the proper utilization of land resources. Using the Beihu New District of Jining City, China, as a case study, this paper introduces a novel research approach for comprehensive suitability [...] Read more.
Suitability evaluation of urban construction land is critical for both urban master planning and the proper utilization of land resources. Using the Beihu New District of Jining City, China, as a case study, this paper introduces a novel research approach for comprehensive suitability evaluation based on vertical-horizontal processes. First, by considering both the land development potential and ecological constraint resistance, the potential-resistance (PR) model was developed and used to analyze the suitability for urban construction of vertical processes. Then, given the results of the vertical suitability analysis, the current urban built-up areas were selected as the sources of urban expansion, and the minimum cumulative resistance (MCR) model was applied to evaluate the suitability for urban development in terms of horizontal processes. The study area was regionalized into four categories—priority, suitable, restricted, and prohibited areas—which were defined based on the development threshold. The results showed that restricted and prohibited areas for urban construction occupied most of the study area. Totally, 648.51 km2 was categorized as restricted or prohibited, accounting for 12.89% and 54.75% of the total area, respectively. Priority and suitable areas for urban construction covered a total area of 310.37 km2, accounting for 16.55% and 15.81% of the total area, respectively. These areas were mainly distributed around urban centers and urban built-up areas. These findings reflect the substantial potential for future urban development and construction in the study area. The newly developed principles and methods of suitability evaluation for urban construction land presented in this paper provide more appropriate scales and spatial location for urban development and an ecological baseline for future urban growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
Land Use/Land Cover Dynamics and Modeling of Urban Land Expansion by the Integration of Cellular Automata and Markov Chain
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(4), 154; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi7040154 - 19 Apr 2018
Cited by 88 | Viewed by 5491
Abstract
This study explored the past and present land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes and urban expansion pattern for the cities of the Kathmandu valley and their surroundings using Landsat satellite images from 1988 to 2016. For a better analysis, LULC change information was grouped into seven [...] Read more.
This study explored the past and present land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes and urban expansion pattern for the cities of the Kathmandu valley and their surroundings using Landsat satellite images from 1988 to 2016. For a better analysis, LULC change information was grouped into seven time-periods (1988–1992, 1992–1996, 1996–2000, 2000–2004, 2004–2008, 2008–2013, and 2013–2016). The classification was conducted using the support vector machines (SVM) technique. A hybrid simulation model that combined the Markov-Chain and Cellular Automata (MC-CA) was used to predict the future urban sprawl existing by 2024 and 2032. Research analysis explored the significant expansion in urban cover which was manifested at the cost of cultivated land. The urban area totaled 40.53 km2 in 1988, which increased to 144.35 km2 in 2016 with an average annual growth rate of 9.15%, an overall increase of 346.85%. Cultivated land was the most affected land-use from this expansion. A total of 91% to 98% of the expanded urban area was sourced from cultivated land alone. Future urban sprawl is likely to continue, which will be outweighed by the loss of cultivated land as in the previous decades. The urban area will be expanded to 200 km2 and 238 km2 and cultivated land will decline to 587 km2 and 555 km2 by 2024 and 2032. Currently, urban expansion is occurring towards the west and south directions; however, future urban growth is expected to rise in the southern and eastern part of the study area, dismantling the equilibrium of environmental and anthropogenic avenues. Since the study area is a cultural landscape and UNESCO heritage site, balance must be found not only in developing a city, but also in preserving the natural environment and maintaining cultural artifacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
The Role of Social Factors in the Accessibility of Urban Areas for People with Motor Disabilities
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(4), 131; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi7040131 - 24 Mar 2018
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3582
Abstract
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities recognizes the right of people with disabilities to attain full social participation without discrimination on the basis of disability. Furthermore, mobility is one of the most important life habits for achieving such [...] Read more.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities recognizes the right of people with disabilities to attain full social participation without discrimination on the basis of disability. Furthermore, mobility is one of the most important life habits for achieving such participation. Providing people with disabilities with information regarding accessible paths and accessible urban places therefore plays a vital role in achieving these goals. The accessibility of urban places and pedestrian networks depends, however, on the interaction between human capabilities and environmental factors, and may be subdivided into physical or social factors. An optimal analysis of accessibility requires both kinds of factors, social as well as physical. Although there has been considerable work concerning the physical aspects of the environment, social aspects have been largely neglected. In this paper, we highlight the importance of the social dimension of environments and consider a more integrated approach for accessibility assessment. We highlight the ways by which social factors such as policies can be incorporated into accessibility assessment of pedestrian networks for people with motor disabilities. Furthermore, we propose a framework to assess the accessibility of pedestrian network segments that incorporates the confidence level of people with motor disabilities. This framework is then used as a tool to investigate the influence of different policies on accessibility conditions of pedestrian networks. The methodology is implemented in the Saint-Roch neighborhood in Quebec City and the effectiveness of three policy actions is examined by way of illustration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
Impacts of Street-Visible Greenery on Housing Prices: Evidence from a Hedonic Price Model and a Massive Street View Image Dataset in Beijing
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(3), 104; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi7030104 - 14 Mar 2018
Cited by 53 | Viewed by 4175
Abstract
Street greenery is a component of urban green infrastructure. By forming foundational green corridors in urban ecological systems, street greenery provides vital ecological, social, and cultural functions, and benefits the wellbeing of citizens. However, because of the difficulty of quantifying people’s visual perceptions, [...] Read more.
Street greenery is a component of urban green infrastructure. By forming foundational green corridors in urban ecological systems, street greenery provides vital ecological, social, and cultural functions, and benefits the wellbeing of citizens. However, because of the difficulty of quantifying people’s visual perceptions, the impact of street-visible greenery on housing prices has not been fully studied. Using Beijing, which has a mature real estate market, as an example, this study evaluated 22,331 transactions in 2014 in 2370 private housing estates. We selected 25 variables that were classified into three categories—location, housing, and neighbourhood characteristics—and introduced an index called the horizontal green view index (HGVI) into a hedonic pricing model to measure the value of the visual perception of street greenery in neighbouring residential developments. The results show that (1) Beijing’s homebuyers would like to reside in residential units with a higher HGVI; (2) Beijing’s homebuyers favour larger lakes; and (3) Beijing’s housing prices were impacted by the spatial development patterns of the city centre and multiple business centres. We used computer vision to quantify the street-visible greenery and estimated the economic benefits that the neighbouring visible greenery would have on residential developments in Beijing. This study provides a scientific basis and reference for policy makers and city planners in road greening, and a tool for formulating street greening policy, studying housing price characteristics, and evaluating real estate values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
Evaluating the Societal Impact of Using Drones to Support Urban Upgrading Projects
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(3), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi7030091 - 10 Mar 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3736
Abstract
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have been gaining enormous popularity for many applications including informal settlement upgrading. Although UAVs can be used to efficiently collect highly detailed geospatial information, there are concerns regarding the ethical implications of its usage and the potential [...] Read more.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have been gaining enormous popularity for many applications including informal settlement upgrading. Although UAVs can be used to efficiently collect highly detailed geospatial information, there are concerns regarding the ethical implications of its usage and the potential misuse of data. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate the societal impacts of using UAVs for informal settlement mapping through two case studies in Eastern Africa. We discuss how the geospatial information they provide is beneficial from a technical perspective and analyze how the use of UAVs can be aligned with the values of: participation, empowerment, accountability, transparency, and equity. The local concept of privacy is investigated by asking citizens of the informal settlements to identify objects appearing in UAV images which they consider to be sensitive or private. As such, our research is an explicit example of how to increase citizen participation in the discussion of geospatial data security and privacy issues over urban areas and provides a framework of strategies illustrating how such issues can be addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
Evaluating and Optimizing Urban Green Spaces for Compact Urban Areas: Cukurova District in Adana, Turkey
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi7020070 - 22 Feb 2018
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2352
Abstract
In recent decades, the ever-decreasing number of green spaces have become insufficient to meet public demands in terms of accessibility, spatial distribution and the size of urban green areas. This is mainly due to increasing attention on the issue of accessibility to urban [...] Read more.
In recent decades, the ever-decreasing number of green spaces have become insufficient to meet public demands in terms of accessibility, spatial distribution and the size of urban green areas. This is mainly due to increasing attention on the issue of accessibility to urban green spaces. This paper aims to quantify accessibility according to existing qualitative and quantitative characteristics of urban green spaces (UGS) in Çukurova district in Adana, Turkey. Firstly, qualitative and quantitative characteristics of UGS are divided into five main categories: area size, amenities of the UGS, transportation, focal points and population density. A set of 59 criteria are used by referring to the literature and expert views. Secondly, the Weighted Criteria Method was used to determine the significance of levels within these criteria and the existing situation of each park was identified and scored via field work. Thirdly, accounts of the distance of UGS service areas distance from people or users were optimized according to the total scores of existing UGS sites. Finally, the service areas of UGS were mapped by using Network Analysis tools. Results highlight some practical implications of optimizing accessibility for urban planning, for instance, specific land uses might be chosen for highly accessible UGS particularly those characterized by their high area size and equipment variety, low population density, and proximity to units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
Expansion Analysis of Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration Using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Imagery for 1993 to 2012
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 52; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi7020052 - 05 Feb 2018
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3003
Abstract
Investigating the characteristics of urban expansion is helpful in managing the relationship between urbanization and the ecological and environmental issues related to sustainable development. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Line-scan System (DMSP/OLS) collects visible and near-infrared light from the Earth’s surface at night [...] Read more.
Investigating the characteristics of urban expansion is helpful in managing the relationship between urbanization and the ecological and environmental issues related to sustainable development. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Line-scan System (DMSP/OLS) collects visible and near-infrared light from the Earth’s surface at night without moonlight. It generates effective time series data for mapping the dynamics of urban expansion. As a major urban agglomeration in the world, the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRDUA) is an important intersection zone of both the “Belt and Road Initiative” and the “Yangtze River Economic Belt” in China. Therefore, this paper analyses urban expansion characteristics of the YRDUA for 1993–2012 from urban extents extracted from the DMSP/OLS for 1993, 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012. First, calibration procedures are applied to DMSP/OLS data, including intercalibration, intra-annual composition, and inter-annual series correction procedures. Spatial extents are then extracted from the corrected DMSP/OLS data, and a threshold is determined via the spatial comparison method. Finally, three models are used to explore urban expansion characteristics of the YRDUA from expansion rates, expansion spatial patterns, and expansion evaluations. The results show that the urban expansion of the YRDUA occurred at an increasing rate from 1993–2007 and then declined after 2007 with the onset of the global financial crisis. The Suxichang and Ningbo metropolitan circles were seriously affected by the financial crisis, while the Hefei metropolitan circle was not. The urban expansion of the YRDUA moved from the northeast to the southwest over the 20-year period. Urban expansion involved internal infilling over the first 15 years and then evolved into external sprawl and suburbanization after 2007. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
Studying the Association between Green Space Characteristics and Land Surface Temperature for Sustainable Urban Environments: An Analysis of Beijing and Islamabad
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(2), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi7020038 - 24 Jan 2018
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 3186
Abstract
Increasing trends of urbanization lead to vegetation degradation in big cities and affect the urban thermal environment. This study investigated (1) the cooling effect of urban green space spatial patterns on Land Surface Temperature (LST); (2) how the surrounding environment influences the green [...] Read more.
Increasing trends of urbanization lead to vegetation degradation in big cities and affect the urban thermal environment. This study investigated (1) the cooling effect of urban green space spatial patterns on Land Surface Temperature (LST); (2) how the surrounding environment influences the green space cool islands (GCI), and vice versa. The study was conducted in two Asian capitals: Beijing, China and Islamabad, Pakistan by utilizing Gaofen-1 (GF-1) and Landsat-8 satellite imagery. Pearson’s correlation and normalized mutual information (NMI) were applied to investigate the relationship between green space characteristics and LST. Landscape metrics of green spaces including Percentage of Landscape (PLAND), Patch Density (PD), Edge Density (ED), and Landscape Shape Index (LSI) were selected to calculate the spatial patterns of green spaces, whereas GCI indicators were defined by Green Space Range (GR), Temperature Difference (TD), and Temperature Gradient (TG). The results indicate that both vegetation composition and configuration influence LST distributions; however, vegetation composition appeared to have a slightly greater effect. The cooling effect can be produced more effectively by increasing green space percentage, planting trees in large patches with equal distribution, and avoiding complex-shaped green spaces. The GCI principle indicates that LST can be decreased by increasing the green space area, increasing the water body fraction, or by decreasing the fraction of impervious surfaces. GCI can also be strengthened by decreasing the fraction of impervious surfaces and increasing the fraction of water body or vegetation in the surrounding environment. The cooling effect of vegetation and water could be explained based on their thermal properties. Beijing has already enacted the green-wedge initiative to increase the vegetation canopy. While designing the future urban layout of Islamabad, the construction of artificial lakes within the urban green spaces would also be beneficial, as is the case with Beijing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
Exploring the Impact of Seasonality on Urban Land-Cover Mapping Using Multi-Season Sentinel-1A and GF-1 WFV Images in a Subtropical Monsoon-Climate Region
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi7010003 - 26 Dec 2017
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2247
Abstract
The objective of this research was to investigate the impact of seasonality on urban land-cover mapping and to explore better classification accuracy by using multi-season Sentinel-1A and GF-1 wide field view (WFV) images, and the combinations of both types of images in subtropical [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to investigate the impact of seasonality on urban land-cover mapping and to explore better classification accuracy by using multi-season Sentinel-1A and GF-1 wide field view (WFV) images, and the combinations of both types of images in subtropical monsoon-climate regions in Southeast China. We obtained multi-season Sentinel-1A and GF-1 WFV images, as well as the combinations of both data, by using a support vector machine (SVM) and a random forest (RF) classifier. The backscatter intensity, texture, and interference-coherence images were extracted from Sentinel-1A images, and different combinations of these Sentinel-1A-derived images were used to evaluate their ability to map urban land cover. The results showed that the performance of winter images was better than that of any other season, while the summer images performed the worst. Higher classification accuracy was achieved by using multi-season images, and satisfactory classification results were obtained when using Sentinel-1A images from only three seasons. The best classification result was achieved using a combination of all Sentinel-1A data from all four seasons and GF-1 WFV data from winter, with an overall accuracy of up to 96.02% and a kappa coefficient reaching 0.9502. The performance of textures was slightly better than that of the backscatter-intensity images. Although the coherence data performed the worst, it was still able to distinguish urban impervious surfaces well. In addition, the overall classification accuracy of RF was better than that of SVM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
Towards Sustainable Urban Planning Through Transit-Oriented Development (A Case Study: Tehran)
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(12), 402; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi6120402 - 11 Dec 2017
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3048
Abstract
Sustainable development is regarded as a pivotal factor for smart urban planning. Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) is a well-known land use transportation integration (LUTI) planning method, which can fulfill sustainable development objectives. In this study, a new spatial index is developed to measure TOD [...] Read more.
Sustainable development is regarded as a pivotal factor for smart urban planning. Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) is a well-known land use transportation integration (LUTI) planning method, which can fulfill sustainable development objectives. In this study, a new spatial index is developed to measure TOD levels in neighborhoods of Tehran, the capital of Iran. To develop the TOD index, several criteria and indicators are first computed using spatial analyses, before being aggregated using a fuzzy-analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy-AHP). The fuzzy-AHP method generates three types of factor maps: that are optimistic, pessimistic, and moderate. This process evaluates the sensitivity of the TOD index by determining the indicators’ weights from various views, or perspectives. The results of this sensitivity analysis show the robustness of results from various views. Furthermore, in order to assess the efficiency of the proposed method, the moderate TOD-level map is compared with both the level of public transit services and trip attraction in neighborhoods. This comparison shows that the TOD map has an accuracy of 77 percent in urban modeling, which verifies the efficiency of the proposed method for measuring TOD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
An Integrated Spatial Clustering Analysis Method for Identifying Urban Fire Risk Locations in a Network-Constrained Environment: A Case Study in Nanjing, China
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(11), 370; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi6110370 - 17 Nov 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2581
Abstract
The spatial distribution of urban geographical events is largely constrained by the road network, and research on spatial clusters of fire accidents at the city level plays a crucial role in emergency rescue and urban planning. For example, by knowing where and when [...] Read more.
The spatial distribution of urban geographical events is largely constrained by the road network, and research on spatial clusters of fire accidents at the city level plays a crucial role in emergency rescue and urban planning. For example, by knowing where and when fire accidents usually occur, fire enforcement can conduct more efficient aid measures and planning department can work out more reasonable layout optimization of fire stations. This article proposed an integrated method by combining weighted network-constrained kernel density estimation (NKDE) and network-constrained local Moran’s I (ILINCS) to detect spatial cluster pattern and identify higher-risk locations of fire accidents. The proposed NKDE-ILINCS weighted a set of crucial non-spatial attributes of point events and links, and considered the impact factors of road traffic states, intersection roads and fire severity in NKDE to reflect real urban environment. This method was tested using the fire data in 2015 in Nanjing, China. The results demonstrated that the method was appropriate to detect network-constrained fire cluster patterns and identify high–high road segments. Besides, the first 14 higher-risk road segments in Nanjing are listed. These findings of this case study enhance our knowledge to more accurately observe where fire accidents usually occur and provide a reference for fire departments to improve emergency rescue effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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Article
Exploring Determinants of Housing Prices in Beijing: An Enhanced Hedonic Regression with Open Access POI Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2017, 6(11), 358; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi6110358 - 15 Nov 2017
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4221
Abstract
The housing market in Chinese metropolises have become inflated significantly over the last decade. In addition to an economic upturn and housing policies that have potentially fueled the real estate bubble, factors that have contributed to the spatial heterogeneity of housing prices can [...] Read more.
The housing market in Chinese metropolises have become inflated significantly over the last decade. In addition to an economic upturn and housing policies that have potentially fueled the real estate bubble, factors that have contributed to the spatial heterogeneity of housing prices can be dictated by the amenity value in the proximity of communities, such as accessibility to business centers and transportation hubs. In the past, scholars have employed the hedonic pricing model to quantify the amenity value in relation to structural, locational, and environmental variables. These studies, however, are limited by two methodological obstacles that are relatively difficult to overcome. The first pertains to difficulty of data collection in regions where geospatial datasets are strictly controlled and limited. The second refers to the spatial autocorrelation effect inherent in the hedonic analysis. Using Beijing, China as a case study, we addressed these two issues by (1) collecting residential housing and urban amenity data in terms of Points of Interest (POIs) through web-crawling on open access platforms; and (2) eliminating the spatial autocorrelation effect using the Eigenvector Spatial Filtering (ESF) method. The results showed that the effects of nearby amenities on housing prices are mixed. In other words, while proximity to certain amenities, such as convenient parking, was positively correlated with housing prices, other amenity variables, such as supermarkets, showed negative correlations. This mixed finding is further discussed in relation to community planning strategies in Beijing. This paper provides an example of employing open access datasets to analyze the determinants of housing prices. Results derived from the model can offer insights into the reasons for housing segmentation in Chinese cities, eventually helping to formulate effective urban planning strategies and equitable housing policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Environment Mapping Using GIS)
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