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Special Issue "Adipose Stem Cells 2019"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is a continuation of our 2018 Special Issue, “Adipose Stem Cells”.

Adipose tissue is a complex organ and in this last years it has received great attention thanks to its high stem cell content: adipose stem cells (ASC).

By definition, a stem cell is characterized by its ability to undergo self-renewal and differentiation, and form terminally differentiated cells. Ideally, a stem cell for regenerative medicinal applications should meet the following set of criteria: (i) it should be found in abundant quantities (millions to billions of cells); (ii) it can be collected and harvested by a minimally invasive procedure; (iii) it can be differentiated along multiple cell lineage pathways in a reproducible manner; (iv) it can be safely and effectively transplanted to either an autologous or allogeneic host. Adipose tissue serves as an abundant, accessible and rich source of adult stem cells with multipotent properties suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medical applications.

The plasticity of ASC most often refers to the inherent ability retained within stem cells to cross lineage barriers and adopt the phenotypic, biochemical and functional properties of cells unique to other tissues.

There has been increased interest in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, biomaterial development and application, and with this in mind, the aim of the present Special Issue is the:

1) Characterization of the physiology of ASC;

2) Characterisation of the secretome activity of ASC;

3) Definition of transcriptional and non-transcriptional events related to their commitment; and

4) Application of ASC as a tool to test novel biomaterials for regenerative medicine

Prof. Dr. Hirofumi Noguchi
Prof. Dr. Barbara Zavan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Adult stem cells
  • Mesenchymal stem cell
  • Biomaterial
  • Tissue regeneration
  • Tissue engineering
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Implant surfaces
  • Bone regeneration
  • Osseointegration
  • Wound healing

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Article
In Vitro Vascular Network Modified to Function as Culture Platform and Angiogenic Induction Potential Test for Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1833; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21051833 - 06 Mar 2020
Viewed by 1187
Abstract
Drug treatments have been designed to inhibit tumor angiogenesis in hope of stopping tumor growth. However, not all tumor types respond to this type of treatment. A screening method which identifies angiogenesis inducing cancer types would help predict the efficacy of angiogenesis-inhibiting drugs [...] Read more.
Drug treatments have been designed to inhibit tumor angiogenesis in hope of stopping tumor growth. However, not all tumor types respond to this type of treatment. A screening method which identifies angiogenesis inducing cancer types would help predict the efficacy of angiogenesis-inhibiting drugs for the patients. Our goal is to develop (1) a cell assay to assess the angiogenic induction potential of patient-derived tumor cells, and (2) a protocol for culturing cancer cells on a vascular platform. We optimized the media composition and seeding density of cells (hASC, HUVEC, and cancer cells) to 48-, 96-, and even 384-well plate sizes to allow vascular formation and cancer cell proliferation and subsequent analysis with high throughput. The angiogenic induction potential of patient-derived cancer cells was investigated by quantifying the formation of tubular structures and the drug response of cancer cells grown on a vascular platform was evaluated using gene expression and cell viability (WST-1) assay. Immunocytochemistry was performed with von Willebrand factor, collagen IV, CD44, cytokeratin 19 and ALDH1A1. The angiogenic induction potential test was shown to be responsive to the induction of angiogenesis by cancer cells. The responses of cancer cells were different when grown on a vascular platform or on plastic, seen in gene expression level and viability results. These two protocols are promising novel tools for aiding the selection of efficient cancer drugs for personalized medicine and as an alternative cancer cell culture platform. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 2019)
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Article
Secretome of Senescent Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Negatively Regulates Angiogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1802; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21051802 - 05 Mar 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2206
Abstract
Nowadays, paracrine regulation is considered as a major tool of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) involvement in tissue repair and renewal in adults. Aging results in alteration of tissue homeostasis including neovascularization. In this study, we examined the influence of replicative senescence on the [...] Read more.
Nowadays, paracrine regulation is considered as a major tool of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) involvement in tissue repair and renewal in adults. Aging results in alteration of tissue homeostasis including neovascularization. In this study, we examined the influence of replicative senescence on the angiogenic potential of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs). Angiogenic activity of conditioned medium (CM) from senescent and “young” ASCs was evaluated in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay in ovo using Japanese quail embryos. Also, the formation of capillary-like tubes by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in 3D basement membrane matrix “Matrigel” and HUVEC migration capacity were analyzed. Multiplex, dot-blot and gene expression analysis were performed to characterize transcription and production of about 100 angiogenesis-associated proteins. The results point to decreased angiogenic potential of senescent ASC secretome in ovo. A number of angiogenesis-associated proteins demonstrated elevation in CM after long-term cultivation. Meanwhile, VEGF (key positive regulator of angiogenesis) did not change transcription level and concentration in CM. Increasing both pro- (FGF-2, uPA, IL-6, IL-8 etc.) and antiangiogenic (IL-4, IP-10, PF4, Activin A, DPPIV etc.) factors was observed. Some proangiogenic genes were downregulated (IGF1, MMP1, TGFB3, PDGFRB, PGF). Senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) modifications after long-term cultivation lead to attenuation of angiogenic potential of ASC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 2019)
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Article
Evolution of ASC Immunophenotypical Subsets During Expansion In Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1408; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21041408 - 19 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1125
Abstract
Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are currently being considered for clinical use for a number of indications. In order to develop standardized clinical protocols, it is paramount to have a full characterization of the stem cell preparations. The surface marker expression of ASCs has [...] Read more.
Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are currently being considered for clinical use for a number of indications. In order to develop standardized clinical protocols, it is paramount to have a full characterization of the stem cell preparations. The surface marker expression of ASCs has previously been characterized in multiple studies. However, most of these studies have provided a cross-sectional description of ASCs in either earlier or later passages. In this study, we evaluate the dynamic changes of 15 different surface molecules during culture. Using multichromatic flow cytometry, ASCs from three different donors each in passages 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 were analyzed for their co-expression of markers associated with mesenchymal stem cells, wound healing, immune regulation, ASC markers, and differentiation capacity, respectively. We confirmed that at an early stage, ASC displayed a high heterogeneity with a plethora of subpopulations, which by culturing became more homogeneous. After a few passages, virtually all ASCs expressed CD29, CD166 and CD201, in addition to canonical markers CD73, CD90, and CD105. However, even at passage 8, there were several predominant lineages that differed with respect to the expression of CD34, CD200 and CD271. Although the significance of remaining subpopulations still needs to be elucidated, our results underscore the necessity to fully characterize ASCs prior to clinical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 2019)
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Article
Shockwave Therapy Combined with Autologous Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Better than with Human Umbilical Cord Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Knee Osteoarthritis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1217; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21041217 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1332
Abstract
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to have chondroprotective effects in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we examined whether autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) and human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) increased the efficacy [...] Read more.
Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to have chondroprotective effects in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Here, we examined whether autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) and human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) increased the efficacy of ESWT in knee OA, and compared the efficacy of the two. The treatment groups exhibited significant improvement of knee OA according to pathological analysis, micro-computed tomography (CT), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. The ADMSCs and ESWT+ADMSCs groups exhibited increased trabecular thickness and bone volume as compared with the ESWT, WJMSCs, and ESWT+WJMSCs groups individually. According to the results of IHC staining, Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) activity and caspase-3 were significantly reduced in the ADMSCs and ESWT+ADMSCs groups as compared with the WJMSCs and ESWT+WJMSC groups. In mechanistic factor analysis, the synergistic effect of ESWT+ADMSCs was observed as being greater than the efficacies of other treatments in terms of expressions of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, runt-related transcription factor (RUNX)-2 and sex determining region Y-box (SOX)-9. The type II collagen was expressed at a higher level in the WJMSCs group than in the others. Furthermore, ESWT+ADMSCs reduced the expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4. Therefore, we demonstrated that ESWT+ADMSCs had a synergistic effect greater than that of ESWT+WJMSCs for the treatment of early knee OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 2019)
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Article
Differences in the Inflammatory Response of White Adipose Tissue and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 1086; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21031086 - 06 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1057
Abstract
The application of liposuctioned white adipose tissue (L-WAT) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) as a novel immunomodulatory treatment option is the currently subject of various clinical trials. Because it is crucial to understand the underlying therapeutic mechanisms, the latest studies focused on the [...] Read more.
The application of liposuctioned white adipose tissue (L-WAT) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) as a novel immunomodulatory treatment option is the currently subject of various clinical trials. Because it is crucial to understand the underlying therapeutic mechanisms, the latest studies focused on the immunomodulatory functions of L-WAT or ADSCs. However, studies that examine the specific transcriptional adaptation of these treatment options to an extrinsic inflammatory stimulus in an unbiased manner are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the gene expression profile of L-WAT and ADSCs, when subjected to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and to identify key factors that might be therapeutically relevant when using L-WAT or ADSCs as an immuno-modulator. Fat tissue was harvested by liposuction from five human donors. ADSCs were isolated from the same donors and shortly subjected to expansion culture. L-WAT and ADSCs were treated with human recombinant TNFα, to trigger a strong inflammatory response. Subsequently, an mRNA deep next-generation sequencing was performed to evaluate the different inflammatory responses of L-WAT and ADSCs. We found significant gene expression changes in both experimental groups after TNFα incubation. However, ADSCs showed a more homogenous gene expression profile by predominantly expressing genes involved in immunomodulatory processes such as CCL19, CCL5, TNFSF15 and IL1b when compared to L-WAT, which reacted rather heterogeneously. As RNA sequencing between L-WAT and ADSCS treated with TNFα revealed that L-WAT responded very heterogeneously to TNFα treatment, we therefore conclude that ADSCs are more reliable and predictable when used therapeutically. Our study furthermore yields insight into potential biological processes regarding immune system response, inflammatory response, and cell activation. Our results can help to better understand the different immunomodulatory effects of L-WAT and ADSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 2019)
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Article
Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrospheroids Cultured in Hypoxia and a 3D Porous Chitosan/Chitin Nanocrystal Scaffold as a Platform for Cartilage Tissue Engineering
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 1004; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21031004 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
Articular cartilage degeneration is one of the most common causes of pain and disability in middle-aged and older people. Tissue engineering (TE) has shown great therapeutic promise for this condition. The design of cartilage regeneration constructs must take into account the specific characteristics [...] Read more.
Articular cartilage degeneration is one of the most common causes of pain and disability in middle-aged and older people. Tissue engineering (TE) has shown great therapeutic promise for this condition. The design of cartilage regeneration constructs must take into account the specific characteristics of the cartilaginous matrix, as well as the avascular nature of cartilage and its cells’ peculiar arrangement in isogenic groups. Keeping these factors in mind, we have designed a 3D porous scaffold based on genipin-crosslinked chitosan/chitin nanocrystals for spheroid chondral differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) induced in hypoxic conditions. First, we demonstrated that, under low oxygen conditions, the chondrospheroids obtained express cartilage-specific markers including collagen type II (COL2A1) and aggrecan, lacking expression of osteogenic differentiation marker collagen type I (COL1A2). These results were associated with an increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, which positively directs COL2A1 and aggrecan expression. Finally, we determined the most suitable chondrogenic differentiation pattern when hASC spheroids were seeded in the 3D porous scaffold under hypoxia and obtained a chondral extracellular matrix with a high sulphated glycosaminoglycan content, which is characteristic of articular cartilage. These findings highlight the potential use of such templates in cartilage tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 2019)
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Article
The CCR4–NOT Deadenylase Complex Maintains Adipocyte Identity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5274; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20215274 - 24 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1443
Abstract
Shortening of poly(A) tails triggers mRNA degradation; hence, mRNA deadenylation regulates many biological events. In the present study, we generated mice lacking the Cnot1 gene, which encodes an essential scaffold subunit of the CCR4–NOT deadenylase complex in adipose tissues (Cnot1-AKO mice) [...] Read more.
Shortening of poly(A) tails triggers mRNA degradation; hence, mRNA deadenylation regulates many biological events. In the present study, we generated mice lacking the Cnot1 gene, which encodes an essential scaffold subunit of the CCR4–NOT deadenylase complex in adipose tissues (Cnot1-AKO mice) and we examined the role of CCR4–NOT in adipocyte function. Cnot1-AKO mice showed reduced masses of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating abnormal organization and function of those tissues. Indeed, Cnot1-AKO mice showed hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance and they could not maintain a normal body temperature during cold exposure. Muscle-like fibrous material appeared in both WAT and BAT of Cnot1-AKO mice, suggesting the acquisition of non-adipose tissue characteristics. Gene expression analysis using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) showed that the levels of adipose tissue-related mRNAs, including those of metabolic genes, decreased, whereas the levels of inflammatory response-related mRNAs increased. These data suggest that the CCR4–NOT complex ensures proper adipose tissue function by maintaining adipocyte-specific mRNAs at appropriate levels and by simultaneously suppressing mRNAs that would impair adipocyte function if overexpressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 2019)
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Article
Identification of Proteins Differentially Expressed by Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Immunodeficient Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(11), 2672; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20112672 - 30 May 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1767
Abstract
Although cell therapy using adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) regulates immunity, the degree to which cell quality and function are affected by differences in immunodeficiency of donors is unknown. We used liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS) to identify the proteins expressed by [...] Read more.
Although cell therapy using adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) regulates immunity, the degree to which cell quality and function are affected by differences in immunodeficiency of donors is unknown. We used liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS) to identify the proteins expressed by mouse AdMSCs (mAsMSCs) isolated from normal (C57BL/6) mice and mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). The protein expression profiles of each strain were 98%–100% identical, indicating that the expression levels of major proteins potentially associated with the therapeutic effects of mAdMSCs were highly similar. Further, comparable levels of cell surface markers (CD44, CD90.2) were detected using flow cytometry or LC MS/MS. MYH9, ACTN1, CANX, GPI, TPM1, EPRS, ITGB1, ANXA3, CNN2, MAPK1, PSME2, CTPS1, OTUB1, PSMB6, HMGB1, RPS19, SEC61A1, CTNNB1, GLO1, RPL22, PSMA2, SYNCRIP, PRDX3, SAMHD1, TCAF2, MAPK3, RPS24, and MYO1E, which are associated with immunity, were expressed at higher levels by the SCID mAdMSCs compared with the C57BL/6 mAdMSCs. In contrast, ANXA9, PCBP2, LGALS3, PPP1R14B, and PSMA6, which are also associated with immunity, were more highly expressed by C57BL/6 mAdMSCs than SCID mAdMSCs. These findings implicate these two sets of proteins in the pathogenesis and maintenance of immunodeficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 2019)
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Article
Knockdown of NANOG Reduces Cell Proliferation and Induces G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Adipose Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(10), 2580; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20102580 - 26 May 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2010
Abstract
The core components of regenerative medicine are stem cells with high self-renewal and tissue regeneration potentials. Adult stem cells can be obtained from many organs and tissues. NANOG, SOX2 and OCT4 represent the core regulatory network that suppresses differentiation-associated genes, maintaining the [...] Read more.
The core components of regenerative medicine are stem cells with high self-renewal and tissue regeneration potentials. Adult stem cells can be obtained from many organs and tissues. NANOG, SOX2 and OCT4 represent the core regulatory network that suppresses differentiation-associated genes, maintaining the pluripotency of mesenchymal stem cells. The roles of NANOG in maintaining self-renewal and undifferentiated status of adult stem cells are still not perfectly established. In this study we define the effects of downregulation of NANOG in maintaining self-renewal and undifferentiated state in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue (hASCs). hASCs were expanded and transfected in vitro with short hairpin Lentivirus targeting NANOG. Gene suppressions were achieved at both transcript and proteome levels. The effect of NANOG knockdown on proliferation after 10 passages and on the cell cycle was evaluated by proliferation assay, colony forming unit (CFU), qRT-PCR and cell cycle analysis by flow-cytometry. Moreover, NANOG involvement in differentiation ability was evaluated. We report that downregulation of NANOG revealed a decrease in the proliferation and differentiation rate, inducing cell cycle arrest by increasing p27/CDKN1B (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B) and p21/CDKN1A (Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A) through p53 and regulate DLK1/PREF1. Furthermore, NANOG induced downregulation of DNMT1, a major DNA methyltransferase responsible for maintaining methylation status during DNA replication probably involved in cell cycle regulation. Our study confirms that NANOG regulates the complex transcription network of plasticity of the cells, inducing cell cycle arrest and reducing differentiation potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 2019)
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Article
Identification of miRNA Reference Genes in Extracellular Vesicles from Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Studying Osteoarthritis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1108; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20051108 - 05 Mar 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 2386
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) leads to chronic pain and disability, and traditional conservative treatments are not effective in the long term. The intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is considered a novel therapy for OA whose efficacy mainly relies on the adaptive release of [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) leads to chronic pain and disability, and traditional conservative treatments are not effective in the long term. The intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is considered a novel therapy for OA whose efficacy mainly relies on the adaptive release of paracrine molecules which are either soluble or extracellular vesicles (EVs) embedded. The correct quantification of EV-miRNAs using reliable reference genes (RGs) is a crucial step in optimizing this future therapeutic cell-free approach. The purpose of this study is to rate the stabilities of literature-selected proposed RGs for EV-miRNAs in adipose derived-MSCs (ASCs). EVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation from ASCs cultured with or without inflammatory priming mimicking OA synovial fluid condition. Expression of putative RGs (let-7a-5p, miR-16-5p, miR-23a-3p, miR-26a-5p, miR-101-3p, miR-103a-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-423-5p, miR-425-5p, U6 snRNA) was scored by using the algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and ΔCt method. miR-16a-5p/miR-23a-3p yielded the most stable RGs, whereas let-7a-5p/miR-425-5p performed poorly. Outcomes were validated by qRT-PCR on miR-146a-5p, reported to be ASC-EVs enriched and involved in OA. Incorrect RG selection affected the evaluation of miR-146a-5p abundance and modulation by inflammation, with both values resulting strongly donor-dependent. Our findings demonstrated that an integrated approach of multiple algorithms is necessary to identify reliable, stable RGs for ASC-EVs miRNAs evaluation. A correct approach would increase the accuracy of embedded molecule assessments aimed to develop therapeutic strategies for the treatment of OA based on EVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 2019)
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Communication
ZNF521 Represses Osteoblastic Differentiation in Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 4095; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19124095 - 18 Dec 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1907
Abstract
Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) are multipotent mesenchymal cells that can differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. During osteoblastogenesis, the osteoprogenitor cells differentiate into mature osteoblasts and synthesize bone matrix components. Zinc finger protein 521 (ZNF521/Zfp521) is a transcription co-factor implicated in the [...] Read more.
Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) are multipotent mesenchymal cells that can differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteocytes. During osteoblastogenesis, the osteoprogenitor cells differentiate into mature osteoblasts and synthesize bone matrix components. Zinc finger protein 521 (ZNF521/Zfp521) is a transcription co-factor implicated in the regulation of hematopoietic, neural, and mesenchymal stem cells, where it has been shown to inhibit adipogenic differentiation. The present study is aimed at determining the effects of ZNF521 on the osteoblastic differentiation of hADSCs to clarify whether it can influence their osteogenic commitment. The enforced expression or silencing of ZNF521 in hADSCs was achieved by lentiviral vector transduction. Cells were cultured in a commercial osteogenic medium for up to 20 days. The ZNF521 enforced expression significantly reduced osteoblast development as assessed by the morphological and molecular criteria, resulting in reduced levels of collagen I, alkaline phosphatase, osterix, osteopontin, and calcium deposits. Conversely, ZNF521 silencing, in response to osteoblastic stimuli, induced a significant increase in early molecular markers of osteogenesis and, at later stages, a remarkable enhancement of matrix mineralization. Together with our previous findings, these results show that ZNF521 inhibits both adipocytic and osteoblastic maturation in hADSCs and suggest that its expression may contribute to maintaining the immature properties of hADSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 2019)
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Review

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Review
Current Strategies to Enhance Adipose Stem Cell Function: An Update
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3827; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20153827 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 56 | Viewed by 3051
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) emerged as a promising therapeutic tool targeting a variety of inflammatory disorders due to their multiple remarkable properties, such as superior immunomodulatory function and tissue-regenerative capacity. Although bone marrow (BM) is a dominant source for adult MSCs, increasing evidence [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) emerged as a promising therapeutic tool targeting a variety of inflammatory disorders due to their multiple remarkable properties, such as superior immunomodulatory function and tissue-regenerative capacity. Although bone marrow (BM) is a dominant source for adult MSCs, increasing evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs), which can be easily obtained at a relatively high yield, have potent therapeutic advantages comparable with BM-MSCs. Despite its outstanding benefits in pre-clinical settings, the practical efficacy of ASCs remains controversial since clinical trials with ASC application often resulted in unsatisfactory outcomes. To overcome this challenge, scientists established several strategies to generate highly functional ASCs beyond the naïve cells, including (1) pre-conditioning of ASCs with various stimulants such as inflammatory agents, (2) genetic manipulation of ASCs and (3) modification of culture conditions with three-dimensional (3D) aggregate formation and hypoxic culture. Also, exosomes and other extracellular vesicles secreted from ASCs can be applied directly to recapitulate the beneficial performance of ASCs. This review summarizes the current strategies to improve the therapeutic features of ASCs for successful clinical implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 2019)
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Review
Secretome of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells (ASCs) as a Novel Trend in Chronic Non-Healing Wounds: An Overview of Experimental In Vitro and In Vivo Studies and Methodological Variables
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3721; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20153721 - 30 Jul 2019
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
Wound healing is a complex process with a linear development that involves many actors in a multistep timeline commonly divided into four stages: Hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Chronic non-healing wounds fail to progress beyond the inflammatory phase, thus precluding the next steps [...] Read more.
Wound healing is a complex process with a linear development that involves many actors in a multistep timeline commonly divided into four stages: Hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Chronic non-healing wounds fail to progress beyond the inflammatory phase, thus precluding the next steps and, ultimately, wound repair. Many intrinsic or extrinsic factors may contribute to such an occurrence, including patient health conditions, age-related diseases, metabolic deficiencies, advanced age, mechanical pressure, and infections. Great interest is being focused on the adipose tissue-derived stem cell’s (ASC) paracrine activity for its potential therapeutic impact on chronic non-healing wounds. In this review, we summarize the results of in vitro and in vivo experimental studies on the pro-wound healing effects of ASC-secretome and/or extracellular vesicles (EVs). To define an overall picture of the available literature data, experimental conditions and applied methodologies are described as well as the in vitro and in vivo models chosen in the reported studies. Even if a comparative analysis of the results obtained by the different groups is challenging due to the large variability of experimental conditions, the available findings are undoubtedly encouraging and fully support the use of cell-free therapies for the treatment of chronic non-healing wounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 2019)
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Review
Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Promising Tool in the Treatment of Musculoskeletal Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 3105; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20123105 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2972
Abstract
Chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) pain is one of the most common medical complaints worldwide and musculoskeletal injuries have an enormous social and economical impact. Current pharmacological and surgical treatments aim to relief pain and restore function; however, unsatiscactory outcomes are commonly reported. In order [...] Read more.
Chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) pain is one of the most common medical complaints worldwide and musculoskeletal injuries have an enormous social and economical impact. Current pharmacological and surgical treatments aim to relief pain and restore function; however, unsatiscactory outcomes are commonly reported. In order to find an accurate treatment to such pathologies, over the last years, there has been a significantly increasing interest in cellular therapies, such as adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs). These cells represent a relatively new strategy in regenerative medicine, with many potential applications, especially regarding MSK disorders, and preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated their efficacy in muscle, tendon, bone and cartilage regeneration. Nevertheless, several worries about their safety and side effects at long-term remain unsolved. This article aims to review the current state of AMSCs therapy in the treatment of several MSK diseases and their clinical applications in veterinary and human medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 2019)
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