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Special Issue "Adipose Stem Cells 3.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Hirofumi Noguchi
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0215, Japan
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is a continuation of our 2019 Special Issue, “Adipose Stem Cells 2019”.

Adipose tissue is a complex organ and, in this last years, it has received considerable attention due to its high stem cell content of adipose stem cells (ASC).

By definition, a stem cell is characterized by its ability to undergo self-renewal and differentiation, and form terminally differentiated cells. Ideally, a stem cell for regenerative medicinal applications should meet the following set of criteria: (i) found in abundant quantities (millions to billions of cells), (ii) able to be collected and harvested by a minimally invasive procedure, (iii) can be differentiated along multiple cell lineage pathways in a reproducible manner, and (iv) can be safely and effectively transplanted to either an autologous or allogeneic host. Adipose tissue serves as an abundant, accessible, and rich source of adult stem cells with multipotent properties suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medical applications.

The plasticity of ASC most often refers to the inherent ability of stem cells to cross lineage barriers and adopt the phenotypic, biochemical, and functional properties of cells unique to other tissues.

Interest has increased in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, biomaterial development, and application. As such, the aim of the present Special Issue is the:

1) Characterization of the physiology of ASCs,

2) Characterization of the secretoma activity of ASCs,

3) Definition of transcriptional and non-transcriptional events related to their commitment, and

4) Application of ASCs as tools to test novel biomaterials for regenerative medicine.

Prof. Dr. Hirofumi Noguchi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • adult stem cells
  • mesenchymal stem cell
  • biomaterial
  • tissue regeneration
  • tissue engineering
  • regenerative medicine
  • implant surfaces
  • bone regeneration
  • osseointegration
  • wound healing

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
CD90 Is Dispensable for White and Beige/Brown Adipocyte Differentiation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 7907; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21217907 - 24 Oct 2020
Abstract
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ in rodents and humans. In mice, the transplantation of BAT has been successfully used to combat obesity and its comorbidities. While such beneficial properties of BAT are now evident, the developmental and cellular origins of [...] Read more.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ in rodents and humans. In mice, the transplantation of BAT has been successfully used to combat obesity and its comorbidities. While such beneficial properties of BAT are now evident, the developmental and cellular origins of brown, beige, and white adipocytes have remained only poorly understood, especially in humans. We recently discovered that CD90 is highly expressed in stromal cells isolated from human white adipose tissue (WAT) compared to BAT. Here, we studied whether CD90 interferes with brown or white adipogenesis or white adipocyte beiging. We applied flow cytometric sorting of human adipose tissue stromal cells (ASCs), a CRISPR/Cas9 knockout strategy in the human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocyte model system, as well as a siRNA approach in human approaches supports the hypothesis that CD90 affects brown or white adipogenesis or white adipocyte beiging in humans. Taken together, our findings call the conclusions drawn from previous studies, which claimed a central role of CD90 in adipocyte differentiation, into question. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 3.0)
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Open AccessArticle
IL-4 and SDF-1 Increase Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cell Ability to Improve Rat Skeletal Muscle Regeneration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3302; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21093302 - 07 May 2020
Abstract
Skeletal muscle regeneration depends on the satellite cells, which, in response to injury, activate, proliferate, and reconstruct damaged tissue. However, under certain conditions, such as large injuries or myopathies, these cells might not sufficiently support repair. Thus, other cell populations, among them adipose [...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle regeneration depends on the satellite cells, which, in response to injury, activate, proliferate, and reconstruct damaged tissue. However, under certain conditions, such as large injuries or myopathies, these cells might not sufficiently support repair. Thus, other cell populations, among them adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs), are tested as a tool to improve regeneration. Importantly, the pro-regenerative action of such cells could be improved by various factors. In the current study, we tested whether IL-4 and SDF-1 could improve the ability of ADSCs to support the regeneration of rat skeletal muscles. We compared their effect at properly regenerating fast-twitch EDL and poorly regenerating slow-twitch soleus. To this end, ADSCs subjected to IL-4 and SDF-1 were analyzed in vitro and also in vivo after their transplantation into injured muscles. We tested their proliferation rate, migration, expression of stem cell markers and myogenic factors, their ability to fuse with myoblasts, as well as their impact on the mass, structure and function of regenerating muscles. As a result, we showed that cytokine-pretreated ADSCs had a beneficial effect in the regeneration process. Their presence resulted in improved muscle structure and function, as well as decreased fibrosis development and a modulated immune response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 3.0)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Systematic Review: Allogenic Use of Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF) and Decellularized Extracellular Matrices (ECM) as Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMP) in Tissue Regeneration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 4982; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21144982 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) containing adipose stem cells (ASCs) has been used for many years in regenerative plastic surgery for autologous applications, without any focus on their potential allogenic role. Allogenic SVF transplants could be based on the possibility to use decellularized extracellular [...] Read more.
Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) containing adipose stem cells (ASCs) has been used for many years in regenerative plastic surgery for autologous applications, without any focus on their potential allogenic role. Allogenic SVF transplants could be based on the possibility to use decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) as a scaffold from a donor then re-cellularized by ASCs of the recipient, in order to develop the advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) in fully personalized clinical approaches. A systematic review of this field has been realized in accordance with the Preferred Reporting for Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-Protocols (PRISMA-P) guidelines. Multistep research of the PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, Pre-MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Clinicaltrials.gov, Scopus database, and Cochrane databases has been conducted to identify articles and investigations on human allogenic ASCs transplant for clinical use. Of the 341 articles identified, 313 were initially assessed for eligibility on the basis of the abstract. Of these, only 29 met all the predetermined criteria for inclusion according to the PICOS (patients, intervention, comparator, outcomes, and study design) approach, and 19 have been included in quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis). Ninety-one percent of the studies previously screened (284 papers) were focused on the in vitro results and pre-clinical experiments. The allogenic use regarded the treatment of perianal fistulas, diabetic foot ulcers, knee osteoarthritis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, refractory rheumatoid arthritis, pediatrics disease, fecal incontinence, ischemic heart disease, autoimmune encephalomyelitis, lateral epicondylitis, and soft tissue defects. The information analyzed suggested the safety and efficacy of allogenic ASCs and ECM transplants without major side effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 3.0)
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Open AccessReview
Osteochondral Regeneration Using Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3589; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21103589 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major joint disease that promotes locomotor deficiency during the middle- to old-age, with the associated disability potentially decreasing quality of life. Recently, surgical strategies to reconstruct both articular cartilage and subchondral bone for OA have been diligently investigated for [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major joint disease that promotes locomotor deficiency during the middle- to old-age, with the associated disability potentially decreasing quality of life. Recently, surgical strategies to reconstruct both articular cartilage and subchondral bone for OA have been diligently investigated for restoring joint structure and function. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs), which maintain pluripotency and self-proliferation ability, have recently received attention as a useful tool to regenerate osteocartilage for OA. In this review, several studies were described related to AT-MSC spheroids, with scaffold and scaffold-free three-dimensional (3D) constructs produced using “mold” or “Kenzan” methods for osteochondral regeneration. First, several examples of articular cartilage regeneration using AT-MSCs were introduced. Second, studies of osteochondral regeneration (not only cartilage but also subchondral bone) using AT-MSCs were described. Third, examples were presented wherein spheroids were produced using AT-MSCs for cartilage regeneration. Fourth, osteochondral regeneration following autologous implantation of AT-MSC scaffold-free 3D constructs, fabricated using the “mold” or “Kenzan” method, was considered. Finally, prospects of osteochondral regeneration by scaffold-free 3D constructs using AT-MSC spheroids were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipose Stem Cells 3.0)
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