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Special Issue "Adipokines, Myokines and Physical Exercise in Health and Disease"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 April 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Tomasz Brzozowski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31-531 Krakow, Poland
Interests: brain–gut axis; experimental colitis; intestinal permeability; inflammatory bowel diseases; proinflammatory cytokines; adipokines; myokines; lipopolysaccharide; microbiota; obesity
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Jan Bilski
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomechanics and Kinesiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Grzegórzecka, Poland
Interests: inflammatory bowel diseases; colitis; intestinal permeability; leaky gut; intestinal alkaline phosphatase; physical exercise; muscle fat crosstalk; myokines; adipokines
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Exercise has been shown to have a great impact on human life expectancy due to improved metabolic parameters mainly in obese individuals. However, whether exercises affect the course of various diseases in humans is very intriguing and should be further defined. In this context, physical activity and nutrition seem to be important components in optimizing human health benefits. Both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle are considered hormonal organs because of their ability to produce and secrete several bioactive peptides (e.g., myokines and adipokines). Recently, the protective activity of myokines, such as irisin, and adipokines, such as adiponectin or resistin, has been underlined. In addition, the beneficial effect of exercise of varying intensity may depend on adipokines released from adipose tissue and myokines released from working skeletal muscles, which corresponds to their therapeutic effects against various disorders associated not only with metabolic diseases, but also with other body systems, including cardiovascular and pulmonary systems, digestive tract, and nervous system. Although it is well accepted that exercise can induce changes in the composition and functioning of the intestinal microflora that are associated with the appearance of several pathological disorders, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer, the contribution of microbiota to the regulation of the myokine-adipokine profile and the function of these peptides remains largely unknown and requires further research in experimental animal models and humans.

Thus, this Special Issue entitled 'Adipokines, Myokines, and Exercise in Health and Disease' will publish experimental data and reviews on this innovative approach to this topic. Topics related to both original and reviewed articles on the impact of exercise on disease and health presented in experimental and clinical studies with an emphasis on physiological mediators and pharmacological agents are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Tomasz Brzozowski
Prof. Dr. Jan Bilski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Article
C1q/TNF-Related Protein 3 (CTRP-3) Deficiency of Adipocytes Affects White Adipose Tissue Mass but Not Systemic CTRP-3 Concentrations
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1670; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22041670 - 07 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 773
Abstract
CTRP-3 (C1q/TNF-related protein-3) is an adipokine with endocrine and immunological function. The impact of adipocyte CTRP-3 production on systemic CTRP-3 concentrations and on adipocyte biology is unknown. A murine model of adipocyte CTRP-3 knockout (KO) was established (via the Cre/loxP system). Serum adipokine [...] Read more.
CTRP-3 (C1q/TNF-related protein-3) is an adipokine with endocrine and immunological function. The impact of adipocyte CTRP-3 production on systemic CTRP-3 concentrations and on adipocyte biology is unknown. A murine model of adipocyte CTRP-3 knockout (KO) was established (via the Cre/loxP system). Serum adipokine levels were quantified by ELISA and adipose tissue (AT) gene expression by real-time PCR. Preadipocytes were isolated from AT and differentiated into adipocytes. Comparative transcriptome analysis was applied in adipocytes and liver tissue. Body weight and AT mass were reduced in CTRP-3 KO mice together with decreased serum leptin. In primary cells from visceral AT of KO mice, expression of adiponectin, progranulin, and resistin was induced, while peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) was decreased. M1/M2 macrophage polarization markers were shifted to a more anti-inflammatory phenotype. CTRP-3 expression in AT did not contribute to serum concentrations. AT and liver morphology remained unaffected by CTRP-3 KO. Myelin transcription factor 1-like (Myt1l) was identified as a highly upregulated gene. In conclusion, adipocyte CTRP-3 has a role in adipogenesis and AT weight gain whereas adipocyte differentiation is not impaired by CTRP-3 deficiency. Since no effects on circulating CTRP-3 levels were observed, the impact of adipocyte CTRP-3 KO is limited to adipose tissue. Modified AT gene expression indicates a rather anti-inflammatory phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipokines, Myokines and Physical Exercise in Health and Disease)
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Review

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Review
Physical Exercise-Induced Myokines in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5795; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115795 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1589
Abstract
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Huntington’s disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of the nervous system. Currently, there is no disease-modifying treatments for most NDs. Meanwhile, numerous studies conducted on [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Huntington’s disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of the nervous system. Currently, there is no disease-modifying treatments for most NDs. Meanwhile, numerous studies conducted on human and animal models over the past decades have showed that exercises had beneficial effects on NDs. Inter-tissue communication by myokine, a peptide produced and secreted by skeletal muscles during exercise, is thought to be an important underlying mechanism for the advantages. Here, we reviewed studies about the effects of myokines regulated by exercise on NDs and their mechanisms. Myokines could exert beneficial effects on NDs through a variety of regulatory mechanisms, including cell survival, neurogenesis, neuroinflammation, proteostasis, oxidative stress, and protein modification. Studies on exercise-induced myokines are expected to provide a novel strategy for treating NDs, for which there are no adequate treatments nowadays. To date, only a few myokines have been investigated for their effects on NDs and studies on mechanisms involved in them are in their infancy. Therefore, future studies are needed to discover more myokines and test their effects on NDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipokines, Myokines and Physical Exercise in Health and Disease)
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