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Special Issue "Molecular Mechanisms of Anti-inflammatory Phytochemicals"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Sanguine Byun
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea
Interests: bioactive compounds; functional food; cell signaling

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Inflammation is a normal biological process characterized by the activation of immune and non-immune cells to provide defense against infection and promote tissue repair. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that inflammation also plays a crucial role in the development and progression of many chronic diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, asthma, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases. This provides the rationale to develop agents that can target inflammation for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.

Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant-derived compounds that represent a large library of bioactive molecules. Due to their diverse structures and cellular targets, phytochemicals provide broad therapeutic opportunities. Recent studies have discovered the potential of phytochemicals to block key steps in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases.

This Special Issue, “Molecular Mechanisms of Anti-Inflammatory Phytochemicals” will include in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies on the anti-inflammatory effects and molecular mechanisms of phytochemicals, including therapeutic applications in chronic diseases, modes of action, target identification, structure-activity relationships, and identification and quantification of phytochemicals from new sources. Original research articles or reviews in this field are welcome.

Dr. Sanguine Byun
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • phytochemicals
  • inflammation
  • molecular mechanism
  • chronic diseases
  • inflammatory diseases
  • cell signaling
  • bioactivity

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Comparative Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Salix Cortex Extracts and Acetylsalicylic Acid in SARS-CoV-2 Peptide and LPS-Activated Human In Vitro Systems
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 6766; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22136766 - 23 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1128
Abstract
The usefulness of anti-inflammatory drugs as an adjunct therapy to improve outcomes in COVID-19 patients is intensely discussed. Willow bark (Salix cortex) has been used for centuries to relieve pain, inflammation, and fever. Its main active ingredient, salicin, is metabolized in the [...] Read more.
The usefulness of anti-inflammatory drugs as an adjunct therapy to improve outcomes in COVID-19 patients is intensely discussed. Willow bark (Salix cortex) has been used for centuries to relieve pain, inflammation, and fever. Its main active ingredient, salicin, is metabolized in the human body into salicylic acid, the precursor of the commonly used pain drug acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Here, we report on the in vitro anti-inflammatory efficacy of two methanolic Salix extracts, standardized to phenolic compounds, in comparison to ASA in the context of a SARS-CoV-2 peptide challenge. Using SARS-CoV-2 peptide/IL-1β- or LPS-activated human PBMCs and an inflammatory intestinal Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-culture, Salix extracts, and ASA concentration-dependently suppressed prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a principal mediator of inflammation. The inhibition of COX-2 enzyme activity, but not protein expression was observed for ASA and one Salix extract. In activated PBMCs, the suppression of relevant cytokines (i.e., IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10) was seen for both Salix extracts. The anti-inflammatory capacity of Salix extracts was still retained after transepithelial passage and liver cell metabolism in an advanced co-culture model system consisting of intestinal Caco-2/HT29-MTX cells and differentiated hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells. Taken together, our in vitro data suggest that Salix extracts might present an additional anti-inflammatory treatment option in the context of SARS-CoV-2 peptides challenge; however, more confirmatory data are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Anti-inflammatory Phytochemicals)
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Article
Lycopene Inhibits Oxidative Stress-Mediated Inflammatory Responses in Ethanol/Palmitoleic Acid-Stimulated Pancreatic Acinar AR42J Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22042101 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 595
Abstract
High alcohol intake results in the accumulation of non-oxidative ethanol metabolites such as fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas. High FAEE concentrations mediate pancreatic acinar cell injury and are associated with alcoholic pancreatitis. Treatment with ethanol and the fatty acid palmitoleic [...] Read more.
High alcohol intake results in the accumulation of non-oxidative ethanol metabolites such as fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas. High FAEE concentrations mediate pancreatic acinar cell injury and are associated with alcoholic pancreatitis. Treatment with ethanol and the fatty acid palmitoleic acid (EtOH/POA) increased the levels of palmitoleic acid ethyl ester and induced zymogen activation and cytokine expression in pancreatic acinar cells. EtOH/POA induces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and pancreatic acinar cell injury. Lycopene, a bright-red carotenoid, is a potent antioxidant due to its high number of conjugated double bands. This study aimed to investigate whether lycopene inhibits the EtOH/POA-induced increase in ROS production, zymogen activation, and expression of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in EtOH/POA-stimulated pancreatic acinar AR42J cells. EtOH/POA increased the ROS levels, NADPH oxidase and NF-κB activities, zymogen activation, IL-6 expression, and mitochondrial dysfunction, which were inhibited by lycopene. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and NADPH oxidase 1 inhibitor ML171 suppressed the EtOH/POA-induced increases in ROS production, NF-κB activation, zymogen activation, and IL-6 expression. Therefore, lycopene inhibits EtOH/POA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, zymogen activation, and IL-6 expression by suppressing NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production in pancreatic acinar cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Anti-inflammatory Phytochemicals)
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Article
5-O-Demethylnobiletin Alleviates CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Equilibrating ROS-Mediated Apoptosis and Autophagy Induction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1083; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031083 - 22 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1012
Abstract
Polymethoxyflavanoids (PMFs) have exhibited a vast array of therapeutic biological properties. 5-O-Demethylnobiletin (5-DN) is one such PMF having anti-inflammatory activity, yet its role in hepatoprotection has not been studied before. Results from in vitro study revealed that 5-DN did not exert a high [...] Read more.
Polymethoxyflavanoids (PMFs) have exhibited a vast array of therapeutic biological properties. 5-O-Demethylnobiletin (5-DN) is one such PMF having anti-inflammatory activity, yet its role in hepatoprotection has not been studied before. Results from in vitro study revealed that 5-DN did not exert a high level of cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells at 40 μM, and it was able to rescue HepG2 cell death induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Subsequently, we investigated acute liver injury on BALB/c mice induced by CCl4 through the intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL/kg CCl4 and co-administration of 5-DN at (1 and 2 mg/kg) by oral gavage for 15 days. The results illustrated that treatment with 5-DN attenuated CCl4-induced elevated serum aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio and significantly ameliorated severe hepatic damage such as inflammation and fibrosis evidenced through lesser aberrations in the liver histology of 5-DN dose groups. Additionally, 5-DN efficiently counteracted and equilibrated the production of ROS accelerated by CCl4 and dramatically downregulated the expression of CYP2E1 vitally involved in converting CCl4 to toxic free radicals and also enhanced the antioxidant enzymes. 5-DN treatment also inhibited cell proliferation and inflammatory pathway abnormally regulated by CCl4 treatment. Furthermore, the apoptotic response induced by CCl4 treatment was remarkably reduced by enhanced Bcl-2 expression and noticeable reduction in Bax, Bid, cleaved caspase 3, caspase 9, and apaf-1 expression. 5-DN treatment also induced the conversion of LC3 and promoted the autophagic flux. Conclusively, 5-DN exhibited hepatoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo and prevented liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Anti-inflammatory Phytochemicals)
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