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Special Issue "Cell Signaling in Model Plants"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Parviz Heidari
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran
Interests: signal transduction; plant hormone; bioinformatics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants as sessile organisms are not able to move and must respond to adverse environmental conditions/stress such as high salinity, heat, cold, drought, oxidative stress, and pathogen attack. Signal transduction is a complex network of interactions that signal elements (physical and chemical) are transmitted through the plant cell to respond to environmental stimuli. Receptors, protein kinases, transcription factors, intracellular calcium, ROS, and hormones are the main components of signal transduction pathway that regulate or stimulate other cell signal components.

This Special Issue explores the role of signaling components in model plants, such as Antirrhinum, Arabidopsis thaliana, Lotus japonicas, Medicago truncatula, rice, tobacco, and Zea mays, which have led to adaptation and resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses, including but not limited to functional analysis of key genes, hormone contents, signal transduction networks, gene expression profiling, and post-translation modifications.

Dr. Jen-Tsung Chen
Dr. Parviz Heidari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • hormones profiling
  • cell receptors
  • abiotic stress
  • biotic stress
  • transcription factors
  • micro RNA
  • regulatory elements
  • protein kinases
  • protein–protein interaction
  • cellular responses
  • functional genomics
  • gene expression
  • enzyme activity
  • computational biology

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Cell Signaling in Model Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6062; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21176062 - 23 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 757
Abstract
Plants as sessile organisms are not able to move and must cope with adverse environmental conditions and stresses such as extreme temperatures, drought, high soil salinity, oxidative stress, pathogen attack, and so on [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)

Research

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Article
Generation and Transcriptome Profiling of Slr1-d7 and Slr1-d8 Mutant Lines with a New Semi-Dominant Dwarf Allele of SLR1 Using the CRISPR/Cas9 System in Rice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5492; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21155492 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
The rice SLR1 gene encodes the DELLA protein (protein with DELLA amino acid motif), and a loss-of-function mutation is dwarfed by inhibiting plant growth. We generate slr1-d mutants with a semi-dominant dwarf phenotype to target mutations of the DELLA/TVHYNP domain using CRISPR/Cas9 genome [...] Read more.
The rice SLR1 gene encodes the DELLA protein (protein with DELLA amino acid motif), and a loss-of-function mutation is dwarfed by inhibiting plant growth. We generate slr1-d mutants with a semi-dominant dwarf phenotype to target mutations of the DELLA/TVHYNP domain using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in rice. Sixteen genetic edited lines out of 31 transgenic plants were generated. Deep sequencing results showed that the mutants had six different mutation types at the target site of the TVHYNP domain of the SLR1 gene. The homo-edited plants selected individuals without DNA (T-DNA) transcribed by segregation in the T1 generation. The slr1-d7 and slr1-d8 plants caused a gibberellin (GA)-insensitive dwarf phenotype with shrunken leaves and shortened internodes. A genome-wide gene expression analysis by RNA-seq indicated that the expression levels of two GA-related genes, GA20OX2 (Gibberellin oxidase) and GA3OX2, were increased in the edited mutant plants, suggesting that GA20OX2 acts as a convert of GA12 signaling. These mutant plants are required by altering GA responses, at least partially by a defect in the phytohormone signaling system process and prevented cell elongation. The new mutants, namely, the slr1-d7 and slr1-d8 lines, are valuable semi-dominant dwarf alleles with potential application value for molecule breeding using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)
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Article
Cloning and Functional Analysis of Dwarf Gene Mini Plant 1 (MNP1) in Medicago truncatula
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 4968; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21144968 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
Plant height is a vital agronomic trait that greatly determines crop yields because of the close relationship between plant height and lodging resistance. Legumes play a unique role in the worldwide agriculture; however, little attention has been given to the molecular basis of [...] Read more.
Plant height is a vital agronomic trait that greatly determines crop yields because of the close relationship between plant height and lodging resistance. Legumes play a unique role in the worldwide agriculture; however, little attention has been given to the molecular basis of their height. Here, we characterized the first dwarf mutant mini plant 1 (mnp1) of the model legume plant Medicago truncatula. Our study found that both cell length and the cell number of internodes were reduced in a mnp1 mutant. Using the forward genetic screening and subsequent whole-genome resequencing approach, we cloned the MNP1 gene and found that it encodes a putative copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) implicated in the first step of gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. MNP1 was highly homologous to Pisum sativum LS. The subcellular localization showed that MNP1 was located in the chloroplast. Further analysis indicated that GA3 could significantly restore the plant height of mnp1-1, and expression of MNP1 in a cps1 mutant of Arabidopsis partially rescued its mini-plant phenotype, indicating the conservation function of MNP1 in GA biosynthesis. Our results provide valuable information for understanding the genetic regulation of plant height in M. truncatula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)
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Article
Cytological and Gene Profile Expression Analysis Reveals Modification in Metabolic Pathways and Catalytic Activities Induce Resistance in Botrytis cinerea Against Iprodione Isolated From Tomato
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 4865; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21144865 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 876
Abstract
Grey mold is one of the most serious and catastrophic diseases, causing significant yield losses in fruits and vegetables worldwide. Iprodione is a broad spectrum agrochemical used as a foliar application as well as a seed protectant against many fungal and nematode diseases [...] Read more.
Grey mold is one of the most serious and catastrophic diseases, causing significant yield losses in fruits and vegetables worldwide. Iprodione is a broad spectrum agrochemical used as a foliar application as well as a seed protectant against many fungal and nematode diseases of fruits and vegetables from the last thirty years. The extensive use of agrochemicals produces resistance in plant pathogens and is the most devastating issue in food and agriculture. However, the molecular mechanism (whole transcriptomic analysis) of a resistant mutant of B. cinerea against iprodione is still unknown. In the present study, mycelial growth, sporulation, virulence, osmotic potential, cell membrane permeability, enzymatic activity, and whole transcriptomic analysis of UV (ultraviolet) mutagenic mutant and its wild type were performed to compare the fitness. The EC50 (half maximal effective concentration that inhibits the growth of mycelium) value of iprodione for 112 isolates of B. cinerea ranged from 0.07 to 0.87 µg/mL with an average (0.47 µg/mL) collected from tomato field of Guangxi Province China. Results also revealed that, among iprodione sensitive strains, only B67 strain induced two mutants, M0 and M1 after UV application. The EC50 of these induced mutants were 1025.74 μg/mL and 674.48 μg/mL, respectively, as compared to its wild type 1.12 μg/mL. Furthermore, mutant M0 showed higher mycelial growth sclerotia formation, virulence, and enzymatic activity than wild type W0 and M1 on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The bctubA gene in the mutant M0 replaced TTC and GAT codon at position 593 and 599 by TTA and GAA, resulting in replacement of phenyl alanine into leucine (transversion C/A) and aspartic acid into glutamic acid (transversion T/C) respectively. In contrast, in bctubB gene, GAT codon at position 646 is replaced by AAT and aspartic acid converted into asparagine (transition G/A). RNA sequencing of the mutant and its wild type was performed without (M0, W0) and with iprodione treatment (M-ipro, W-ipro). The differential gene expression (DEG) identified 720 unigenes in mutant M-ipro than W-ipro after iprodione treatment (FDR ≤ 0.05 and log2FC ≥ 1). Seven DEGs were randomly selected for quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction to validate the RNA sequencing genes expression (log fold 2 value). The gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto encyclopedia genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway functional analyses indicated that DEG’s mainly associated with lysophopholipase, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, catalytic activity, multifunctional genes (MFO), glutathione-S transferase (GST), drug sensitivity, and cytochrome P450 related genes are upregulated in mutant type (M0, M-ipro) as compared to its wild type (W0, W-ipro), may be related to induce resistant in mutants of B. cinerea against iprodione. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)
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Article
Ethylene Is Not Essential for R-Gene Mediated Resistance but Negatively Regulates Moderate Resistance to Some Aphids in Medicago truncatula
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4657; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21134657 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 840
Abstract
Ethylene is important for plant responses to environmental factors. However, little is known about its role in aphid resistance. Several types of genetic resistance against multiple aphid species, including both moderate and strong resistance mediated by R genes, have been identified in Medicago [...] Read more.
Ethylene is important for plant responses to environmental factors. However, little is known about its role in aphid resistance. Several types of genetic resistance against multiple aphid species, including both moderate and strong resistance mediated by R genes, have been identified in Medicago truncatula. To investigate the potential role of ethylene, a M. truncatula ethylene- insensitive mutant, sickle, was analysed. The sickle mutant occurs in the accession A17 that has moderate resistance to Acyrthosiphon kondoi, A. pisum and Therioaphis trifolii. The sickle mutant resulted in increased antibiosis-mediated resistance against A. kondoi and T. trifolii but had no effect on A. pisum. When sickle was introduced into a genetic background carrying resistance genes, AKR (A. kondoi resistance), APR (A. pisum resistance) and TTR (T. trifolii resistance), it had no effect on the strong aphid resistance mediated by these genes, suggesting that ethylene signaling is not essential for their function. Interestingly, for the moderate aphid resistant accession, the sickle mutant delayed leaf senescence following aphid infestation and reduced the plant biomass losses caused by both A. kondoi and T. trifolii. These results suggest manipulation of the ethylene signaling pathway could provide aphid resistance and enhance plant tolerance against aphid feeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)
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Article
Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS C Homologs in Apple as a Model for Fruit Trees
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4562; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21124562 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1032
Abstract
To elucidate the molecular mechanism of juvenility and annual flowering of fruit trees, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), an integrator of flowering signals, was investigated in apple as a model. We performed sequence and expression analyses and transgenic experiments related to juvenility [...] Read more.
To elucidate the molecular mechanism of juvenility and annual flowering of fruit trees, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), an integrator of flowering signals, was investigated in apple as a model. We performed sequence and expression analyses and transgenic experiments related to juvenility with annual flowering to characterize the apple FLC homologs MdFLC. The phylogenetic tree analysis, which included other MADS-box genes, showed that both MdFLC1 and MdFLC3 belong to the same FLC group. MdFLC1c from one of the MdFLC1 splice variants and MdFLC3 contain the four conserved motives of an MIKC-type MADS protein. The mRNA of variants MdFLC1a and MdFLC1b contain intron sequences, and their deduced amino acid sequences lack K- and C-domains. The expression levels of MdFLC1a, MdFLC1b, and MdFLC1c decreased during the flowering induction period in a seasonal expression pattern in the adult trees, whereas the expression level of MdFLC3 did not decrease during that period. This suggests that MdFLC1 is involved in flowering induction in the annual growth cycle of adult trees. In apple seedlings, because phase change can be observed in individuals, seedlings can be used for analysis of expression during phase transition. The expression levels of MdFLC1b, MdFLC1c, and MdFLC3 were high during the juvenile phase and low during the transitional and adult phases. Because the expression pattern of MdFLC3 suggests that it plays a specific role in juvenility, MdFLC3 was subjected to functional analysis by transformation of Arabidopsis. The results revealed the function of MdFLC3 as a floral repressor. In addition, MdFT had CArG box-like sequences, putative targets for the suppression of flowering by MdFLC binding, in the introns and promoter regions. These results indicate that apple homologs of FLC, which might play a role upstream of the flowering signals, could be involved in juvenility as well as in annual flowering. Apples with sufficient genome-related information are useful as a model for studying phenomena unique to woody plants such as juvenility and annual flowering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)
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Article
Early Cellular Responses Induced by Sedimentary Calcite-Processed Particles in Bright Yellow 2 Tobacco Cultured Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4279; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21124279 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 828
Abstract
Calcite processed particles (CaPPs, Megagreen®) elaborated from sedimentary limestone rock, and finned by tribomecanic process were found to increase photosynthetic CO2 fixation grapevines and stimulate growth of various cultured plants. Due to their processing, the CaPPs present a jagged shape [...] Read more.
Calcite processed particles (CaPPs, Megagreen®) elaborated from sedimentary limestone rock, and finned by tribomecanic process were found to increase photosynthetic CO2 fixation grapevines and stimulate growth of various cultured plants. Due to their processing, the CaPPs present a jagged shape with some invaginations below the micrometer size. We hypothesised that CaPPs could have a nanoparticle (NP)-like effects on plants. Our data show that CaPPs spontaneously induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in liquid medium. These ROS could in turn induce well-known cellular events such as increase in cytosolic Ca2+, biotic ROS generation and activation of anion channels indicating that these CaPPs could activate various signalling pathways in a NP-like manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)
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Article
Internalization of miPEP165a into Arabidopsis Roots Depends on both Passive Diffusion and Endocytosis-Associated Processes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2266; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21072266 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
MiPEPs are short natural peptides encoded by microRNAs in plants. Exogenous application of miPEPs increases the expression of their corresponding miRNA and, consequently, induces consistent phenotypical changes. Therefore, miPEPs carry huge potential in agronomy as gene regulators that do not require genome manipulation. [...] Read more.
MiPEPs are short natural peptides encoded by microRNAs in plants. Exogenous application of miPEPs increases the expression of their corresponding miRNA and, consequently, induces consistent phenotypical changes. Therefore, miPEPs carry huge potential in agronomy as gene regulators that do not require genome manipulation. However, to this end, it is necessary to know their mode of action, including where they act and how they enter the plants. Here, after analyzing the effect of Arabidopsis thaliana miPEP165a on root and aerial part development, we followed the internalization of fluorescent-labelled miPEP165a into roots and compared its uptake into endocytosis-altered mutants to that observed in wild-type plants treated or not with endocytosis inhibitors. The results show that entry of miPEP165a involves both a passive diffusion at the root apex and endocytosis-associated internalization in the differentiation and mature zones. Moreover, miPEP165a is unable to enter the central cylinder and does not migrate from the roots to the aerial part of the plant, suggesting that miPEPs have no systemic effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)
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Communication
GAI Functions in the Plant Response to Dehydration Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 819; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21030819 - 27 Jan 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1259
Abstract
DELLA (GAI/RGA/RGL1/RGL2/RGL3) proteins are key negative regulators in GA (gibberellin) signaling and are involved in regulating plant growth as a response to environmental stresses. It has been shown that the DELLA protein PROCERA (PRO) in tomato promotes drought tolerance, but its molecular mechanism [...] Read more.
DELLA (GAI/RGA/RGL1/RGL2/RGL3) proteins are key negative regulators in GA (gibberellin) signaling and are involved in regulating plant growth as a response to environmental stresses. It has been shown that the DELLA protein PROCERA (PRO) in tomato promotes drought tolerance, but its molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here, we showed that the gai-1 (gibberellin insensitive 1) mutant (generated from the gai-1 (Ler) allele (with a 17 amino acid deletion within the DELLA domain of GAI) by backcrossing gai-1 (Ler) with Col-0 three times), the gain-of-function mutant of GAI (GA INSENSITIVE) in Arabidopsis, increases drought tolerance. The stomatal density of the gai-1 mutant was increased but its stomatal aperture was decreased under abscisic acid (ABA) treatment conditions, suggesting that the drought tolerance of the gai-1 mutant is a complex trait. We further tested the interactions between DELLA proteins and ABF2 (abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive element (ABRE)-binding transcription factors) and found that there was a strong interaction between DELLA proteins and ABF2. Our results provide new insight into DELLA proteins and their role in drought stress tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)
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Review

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Review
Linking Brassinosteroid and ABA Signaling in the Context of Stress Acclimation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 5108; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21145108 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
The important regulatory role of brassinosteroids (BRs) in the mechanisms of tolerance to multiple stresses is well known. Growing data indicate that the phenomenon of BR-mediated drought stress tolerance can be explained by the generation of stress memory (the process known as ‘priming’ [...] Read more.
The important regulatory role of brassinosteroids (BRs) in the mechanisms of tolerance to multiple stresses is well known. Growing data indicate that the phenomenon of BR-mediated drought stress tolerance can be explained by the generation of stress memory (the process known as ‘priming’ or ‘acclimation’). In this review, we summarize the data on BR and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling to show the interconnection between the pathways in the stress memory acquisition. Starting from brassinosteroid receptors brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1) and receptor-like protein kinase BRI1-like 3 (BRL3) and propagating through BR-signaling kinases 1 and 3 (BSK1/3) → BRI1 suppressor 1 (BSU1) ―‖ brassinosteroid insensitive 2 (BIN2) pathway, BR and ABA signaling are linked through BIN2 kinase. Bioinformatics data suggest possible modules by which BRs can affect the memory to drought or cold stresses. These are the BIN2 → SNF1-related protein kinases (SnRK2s) → abscisic acid responsive elements-binding factor 2 (ABF2) module; BRI1-EMS-supressor 1 (BES1) or brassinazole-resistant 1 protein (BZR1)–TOPLESS (TPL)–histone deacetylase 19 (HDA19) repressor complexes, and the BZR1/BES1 → flowering locus C (FLC)/flowering time control protein FCA (FCA) pathway. Acclimation processes can be also regulated by BR signaling associated with stress reactions caused by an accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)
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Review
Cyclic AMP: A Polyhedral Signalling Molecule in Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 4862; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21144862 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1289
Abstract
The cyclic nucleotide cAMP (3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is nowadays recognised as an important signalling molecule in plants, involved in many molecular processes, including sensing and response to biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. The validation of a functional cAMP-dependent signalling system in higher plants [...] Read more.
The cyclic nucleotide cAMP (3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is nowadays recognised as an important signalling molecule in plants, involved in many molecular processes, including sensing and response to biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. The validation of a functional cAMP-dependent signalling system in higher plants has spurred a great scientific interest on the polyhedral role of cAMP, as it actively participates in plant adaptation to external stimuli, in addition to the regulation of physiological processes. The complex architecture of cAMP-dependent pathways is far from being fully understood, because the actors of these pathways and their downstream target proteins remain largely unidentified. Recently, a genetic strategy was effectively used to lower cAMP cytosolic levels and hence shed light on the consequences of cAMP deficiency in plant cells. This review aims to provide an integrated overview of the current state of knowledge on cAMP’s role in plant growth and response to environmental stress. Current knowledge of the molecular components and the mechanisms of cAMP signalling events is summarised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)
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Review
Crosstalk between Hydrogen Sulfide and Other Signal Molecules Regulates Plant Growth and Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4593; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21134593 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 1367
Abstract
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), once recognized only as a poisonous gas, is now considered the third endogenous gaseous transmitter, along with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Multiple lines of emerging evidence suggest that H2S plays positive roles in [...] Read more.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), once recognized only as a poisonous gas, is now considered the third endogenous gaseous transmitter, along with nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). Multiple lines of emerging evidence suggest that H2S plays positive roles in plant growth and development when at appropriate concentrations, including seed germination, root development, photosynthesis, stomatal movement, and organ abscission under both normal and stress conditions. H2S influences these processes by altering gene expression and enzyme activities, as well as regulating the contents of some secondary metabolites. In its regulatory roles, H2S always interacts with either plant hormones, other gasotransmitters, or ionic signals, such as abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, auxin, CO, NO, and Ca2+. Remarkably, H2S also contributes to the post-translational modification of proteins to affect protein activities, structures, and sub-cellular localization. Here, we review the functions of H2S at different stages of plant development, focusing on the S-sulfhydration of proteins mediated by H2S and the crosstalk between H2S and other signaling molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)
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Review
Regulation of Three Key Kinases of Brassinosteroid Signaling Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4340; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21124340 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are important plant growth hormones that regulate a wide range of plant growth and developmental processes. The BR signals are perceived by two cell surface-localized receptor kinases, Brassinosteroid-Insensitive1 (BRI1) and BRI1-Associated receptor Kinase (BAK1), and reach the nucleus through two master [...] Read more.
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are important plant growth hormones that regulate a wide range of plant growth and developmental processes. The BR signals are perceived by two cell surface-localized receptor kinases, Brassinosteroid-Insensitive1 (BRI1) and BRI1-Associated receptor Kinase (BAK1), and reach the nucleus through two master transcription factors, bri1-EMS suppressor1 (BES1) and Brassinazole-resistant1 (BZR1). The intracellular transmission of the BR signals from BRI1/BAK1 to BES1/BZR1 is inhibited by a constitutively active kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive2 (BIN2) that phosphorylates and negatively regulates BES1/BZR1. Since their initial discoveries, further studies have revealed a plethora of biochemical and cellular mechanisms that regulate their protein abundance, subcellular localizations, and signaling activities. In this review, we provide a critical analysis of the current literature concerning activation, inactivation, and other regulatory mechanisms of three key kinases of the BR signaling cascade, BRI1, BAK1, and BIN2, and discuss some unresolved controversies and outstanding questions that require further investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)
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Review
Arabidopsis Transmembrane Receptor-Like Kinases (RLKs): A Bridge between Extracellular Signal and Intracellular Regulatory Machinery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 4000; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21114000 - 03 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1656
Abstract
Receptors form the crux for any biochemical signaling. Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are conserved protein kinases in eukaryotes that establish signaling circuits to transduce information from outer plant cell membrane to the nucleus of plant cells, eventually activating processes directing growth, development, stress responses, [...] Read more.
Receptors form the crux for any biochemical signaling. Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are conserved protein kinases in eukaryotes that establish signaling circuits to transduce information from outer plant cell membrane to the nucleus of plant cells, eventually activating processes directing growth, development, stress responses, and disease resistance. Plant RLKs share considerable homology with the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) of the animal system, differing at the site of phosphorylation. Typically, RLKs have a membrane-localization signal in the amino-terminal, followed by an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a solitary membrane-spanning domain, and a cytoplasmic kinase domain. The functional characterization of ligand-binding domains of the various RLKs has demonstrated their essential role in the perception of extracellular stimuli, while its cytosolic kinase domain is usually confined to the phosphorylation of their substrates to control downstream regulatory machinery. Identification of the several ligands of RLKs, as well as a few of its immediate substrates have predominantly contributed to a better understanding of the fundamental signaling mechanisms. In the model plant Arabidopsis, several studies have indicated that multiple RLKs are involved in modulating various types of physiological roles via diverse signaling routes. Here, we summarize recent advances and provide an updated overview of transmembrane RLKs in Arabidopsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)
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Review
An Overview of Hazardous Impacts of Soil Salinity in Crops, Tolerance Mechanisms, and Amelioration through Selenium Supplementation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21010148 - 24 Dec 2019
Cited by 92 | Viewed by 3531
Abstract
Soil salinization is one of the major environmental stressors hampering the growth and yield of crops all over the world. A wide spectrum of physiological and biochemical alterations of plants are induced by salinity, which causes lowered water potential in the soil solution, [...] Read more.
Soil salinization is one of the major environmental stressors hampering the growth and yield of crops all over the world. A wide spectrum of physiological and biochemical alterations of plants are induced by salinity, which causes lowered water potential in the soil solution, ionic disequilibrium, specific ion effects, and a higher accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). For many years, numerous investigations have been made into salinity stresses and attempts to minimize the losses of plant productivity, including the effects of phytohormones, osmoprotectants, antioxidants, polyamines, and trace elements. One of the protectants, selenium (Se), has been found to be effective in improving growth and inducing tolerance against excessive soil salinity. However, the in-depth mechanisms of Se-induced salinity tolerance are still unclear. This review refines the knowledge involved in Se-mediated improvements of plant growth when subjected to salinity and suggests future perspectives as well as several research limitations in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)
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Other

Erratum
Erratum: Tran et al. Early Cellular Responses Induced by Sedimentary Calcite-Processed Particles in Bright Yellow 2 Tobacco Cultured Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4279
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(13), 6863; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22136863 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 462
Abstract
The authors would like to remove the scientific consortium ‘Camille Nous’ from the author list and the Author Contributions section in the published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)
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