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Special Issue "Molecular Mechanisms of Dementia—Application to Its Biomarkers"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Takashi Kudo
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Guest Editor
Department of Mental Health Promotion, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
Interests: plasma biomarkers; neuron-derived extracellular vesicles; liquid biopsy
Dr. Shoshin Akamine
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Guest Editor Assistant
Division of Psychiatry, Osaka University, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, the molecular mechanisms of dementia are gradually becoming clearer. Among them, for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the "amyloid cascade hypothesis" has been proposed and has been supported by many researchers. Based on this hypothesis, diagnostic biomarkers for AD have been established. The main ones are amyloid PET and the measurement of Aβ40, Aβ42, and phosphorylated tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, amyloid PET is expensive, and CSF collection has invasive problems, leaving doubts about its clinical applicability. The amyloid hypothesis is also leading AD-modifying agents such as amyloid vaccine therapy to clinical use. Because it has been pointed out that such interventions cannot be expected to be effective unless they are performed very early in the disease, early diagnosis is becoming more important. Against this background, the establishment of blood biomarkers for AD that can be easily measured is an urgent issue.

On the other hand, clinical trials of these AD-modifying agents have been struggling, and questions have been raised as to whether the amyloid hypothesis is correct. Therefore, a paradigm shift may be necessary for the hypothesis of the molecular mechanisms of dementia.

In this Special Issue, we would like to introduce the molecular mechanisms of dementia, including the "amyloid cascade hypothesis," and introduce their application to biomarkers of dementia.

Prof. Takashi Kudo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • plasma
  • serum
  • phosphorylated tau
  • neurofilament L
  • Aβ40
  • Aβ42
  • extracellular vesicles
  • exosome

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Article
Discovery of a Metabolic Signature Predisposing High Risk Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment to Converting to Alzheimer’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 10903; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms222010903 - 09 Oct 2021
Viewed by 185
Abstract
Assessing dementia conversion in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains challenging owing to pathological heterogeneity. While many MCI patients ultimately proceed to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a subset of patients remain stable for various times. Our aim was to characterize the plasma metabolites [...] Read more.
Assessing dementia conversion in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains challenging owing to pathological heterogeneity. While many MCI patients ultimately proceed to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a subset of patients remain stable for various times. Our aim was to characterize the plasma metabolites of nineteen MCI patients proceeding to AD (P-MCI) and twenty-nine stable MCI (S-MCI) patients by untargeted metabolomics profiling. Alterations in the plasma metabolites between the P-MCI and S-MCI groups, as well as between the P-MCI and AD groups, were compared over the observation period. With the help of machine learning-based stratification, a 20-metabolite signature panel was identified that was associated with the presence and progression of AD. Furthermore, when the metabolic signature panel was used for classification of the three patient groups, this gave an accuracy of 73.5% using the panel. Moreover, when specifically classifying the P-MCI and S-MCI subjects, a fivefold cross-validation accuracy of 80.3% was obtained using the random forest model. Importantly, indole-3-propionic acid, a bacteria-generated metabolite from tryptophan, was identified as a predictor of AD progression, suggesting a role for gut microbiota in AD pathophysiology. Our study establishes a metabolite panel to assist in the stratification of MCI patients and to predict conversion to AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Dementia—Application to Its Biomarkers)
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Review

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Review
Alzheimer’s Disease Animal Models: Elucidation of Biomarkers and Therapeutic Approaches for Cognitive Impairment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5549; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115549 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 967
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It is widely accepted that AD is mainly caused by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid β (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tau tangles. Aβ begins to accumulate years before the onset of cognitive impairment, [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It is widely accepted that AD is mainly caused by the accumulation of extracellular amyloid β (Aβ) and intracellular neurofibrillary tau tangles. Aβ begins to accumulate years before the onset of cognitive impairment, suggesting that the benefit of currently available interventions would be greater if they were initiated in the early phases of AD. To understand the mechanisms of AD pathogenesis, various transgenic mouse models with an accelerated accumulation of Aβ and tau tangles have been developed. However, none of these models exhibit all pathologies present in human AD. To overcome these undesirable phenotypes, APP knock-in mice, which were presented with touchscreen-based tasks, were developed to better evaluate the efficacy of candidate therapeutics in mouse models of early-stage AD. This review assesses several AD mouse models from the aspect of biomarkers and cognitive impairment and discusses their potential as tools to provide novel AD therapeutic approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Dementia—Application to Its Biomarkers)
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