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Special Issue "Extracellular Vesicles in Allergy, Autoimmunity and Immune Regulation"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Krzysztof Bryniarski
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Immunology, The Jagiellonian University College of Medicine, Krakow, Poland
Interests: contact and delayed-type hypersensitivity; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; immune regulation; immune tolerance; mechanisms underlying hypersensitivity reactions; miRNAs; mouse models of allergy and autoimmunity
Prof. Phillip W. Askenase
Website
Guest Editor
Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States
Interests: allergy and asthma; autoimmune diseases; clinical immunology; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; immune regulation via miRNAs; immune-related disorders; mechanisms underlying hypersensitivity reactions
Dr. Katarzyna Nazimek
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Immunology, The Jagiellonian University College of Medicine, Krakow, Poland
Interests: contact and delayed-type hypersensitivity; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; immune regulation via miRNAs; immune tolerance; macrophages; mechanisms underlying hypersensitivity reactions; mouse models of allergy and autoimmunity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to introduce to you this Special Issue of Molecular Immunology Section of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, on “Extracellular Vesicles in Allergy, Autoimmunity and Immune Regulation”.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, receive special attention due to their involvement in systemic intercellular communication and capability of delivering various immune regulatory molecules, including non-coding RNAs. This EV-mediated transfer of genetically-encoded information is unprecedented and paradigm breaking. Increasing prevalence of allergic and autoimmune diseases urges researchers and clinicians to search for new and efficient treatments. Accordingly, recent advances in understanding complex functions of EVs in hypersensitivity reactions make them promising candidates for creating a new pathway in specific immunotherapy, firstly by complimenting the existing treatments to reduce the toxic side effects and increase the specificity, and secondly by altering the unwanted immune responses underlying allergic or autoimmune disorders.

Therefore, this Special Issue is aimed at presenting the comprehensive studies on the functions of EVs in allergies and autoimmune diseases, as well as in regulation of immune responses. We will also gladly accept the articles describing newly discovered EV-based mechanisms of induction of immune tolerance, and uncovering immunotherapeutic potential of EVs in allergies and autoimmunity.

We cordially invite all interested researchers to submit original and review articles covering relevant basic research findings and the clinical aspects of EVs’ functions to make the “Extracellular Vesicles in Allergy, Autoimmunity and Immune Regulation” Special Issue a platform for sharing experiences between researchers and clinicians.    

Please accept our sincere thanks in advance for choosing this publishing opportunity.

Prof. Krzysztof Bryniarski
Prof. Phillip W. Askenase
Dr. Katarzyna Nazimek
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Allergy
  • Autoimmune disease
  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Exosomes
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Immune modulation
  • Immune regulation
  • Immune tolerance
  • miRNA
  • Research models of allergy and autoimmunity

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Topical Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Exosomes Alleviates the Imiquimod Induced Psoriasis-Like Inflammation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 720; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020720 - 13 Jan 2021
Abstract
Severe psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease is increasingly being effectively managed by targeted immunotherapy but long-term immunotherapy poses health risk and loss of response. Therefore, there is a need for alternative therapy strategies. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) exosomes are widely known for [...] Read more.
Severe psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease is increasingly being effectively managed by targeted immunotherapy but long-term immunotherapy poses health risk and loss of response. Therefore, there is a need for alternative therapy strategies. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) exosomes are widely known for their potent immunomodulatory properties. Here we investigated if topically applied MSC exosomes could alleviate psoriasis-associated inflammation. Topically applied fluorescent exosomes on human skin explants were confined primarily to the stratum corneum with <1% input fluorescence exiting the explant over a 24-h period. Nevertheless, topically applied MSC exosomes in a mouse model of imiquimod (IMQ) psoriasis significantly reduced IL-17 and terminal complement activation complex C5b-9 in the mouse skin. MSC exosomes were previously shown to inhibit complement activation, specifically C5b-9 complex formation through CD59. Infiltration of neutrophils into the stratum corneum is characteristic of psoriasis and neutrophils are a major cellular source of IL-17 in psoriasis through the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). We propose that topically applied MSC exosomes inhibit complement activation in the stratum corneum and this alleviates IL-17 release by NETS from neutrophils that accumulate in and beneath the stratum corneum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Allergy, Autoimmunity and Immune Regulation)
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Open AccessArticle
Orally Administered Exosomes Suppress Mouse Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity by Delivering miRNA-150 to Antigen-Primed Macrophage APC Targeted by Exosome-Surface Anti-Peptide Antibody Light Chains
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5540; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21155540 - 02 Aug 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
We previously discovered suppressor T cell-derived, antigen (Ag)-specific exosomes inhibiting mouse hapten-induced contact sensitivity effector T cells by targeting antigen-presenting cells (APCs). These suppressive exosomes acted Ag-specifically due to a coating of antibody free light chains (FLC) from Ag-activated B1a cells. Current studies [...] Read more.
We previously discovered suppressor T cell-derived, antigen (Ag)-specific exosomes inhibiting mouse hapten-induced contact sensitivity effector T cells by targeting antigen-presenting cells (APCs). These suppressive exosomes acted Ag-specifically due to a coating of antibody free light chains (FLC) from Ag-activated B1a cells. Current studies are aimed at determining if similar immune tolerance could be induced in cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to the protein Ag (ovalbumin, OVA). Intravenous administration of a high dose of OVA-coupled, syngeneic erythrocytes similarly induced CD3+CD8+ suppressor T cells producing suppressive, miRNA-150-carrying exosomes, also coated with B1a cell-derived, OVA-specific FLC. Simultaneously, OVA-immunized B1a cells produced an exosome subpopulation, originally coated with Ag-specific FLC, that could be rendered suppressive by in vitro association with miRNA-150. Importantly, miRNA-150-carrying exosomes from both suppressor T cells and B1a cells efficiently induced prolonged DTH suppression after single systemic administration into actively immunized mice, with the strongest effect observed after oral treatment. Current studies also showed that OVA-specific FLC on suppressive exosomes bind OVA peptides suggesting that exosome-coating FLC target APCs by binding to peptide-Ag-major histocompatibility complexes. This renders APCs capable of inhibiting DTH effector T cells. Thus, our studies describe a novel immune tolerance mechanism mediated by FLC-coated, Ag-specific, miRNA-150-carrying exosomes that act on the APC and are particularly effective after oral administration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Allergy, Autoimmunity and Immune Regulation)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Extracellular Vesicles in Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma and Laboratory Possibilities for Their Assessment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2273; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22052273 - 25 Feb 2021
Abstract
Currently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of many diseases, including lung disorders, with the possibility of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The analysis of EV in respiratory tract diseases faces many obstacles, including material collection from airways, standardization of isolation [...] Read more.
Currently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of many diseases, including lung disorders, with the possibility of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The analysis of EV in respiratory tract diseases faces many obstacles, including material collection from airways, standardization of isolation techniques, detection methods, the analysis of their content, etc. This review focuses on the role of extracellular vesicles in the pathogenesis of atopic respiratory diseases, especially asthma, with a special focus on their clinical applicability as a diagnostic tool. We also summarize available laboratory techniques that enable the detection of EVs in various biological materials, with particular emphasis on flow cytometry. The opportunities and limitations of detecting EV in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Allergy, Autoimmunity and Immune Regulation)
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Open AccessReview
Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes as New Remedy for the Treatment of Neurocognitive Disorders
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1433; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031433 - 01 Feb 2021
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes (MSC-Exo) are nano-sized extracellular vesicles enriched with MSC-sourced neuroprotective and immunomodulatory microRNAs, neural growth factors, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which attenuate neuro-inflammation, promote neo-vascularization, induce neurogenesis, and reduce apoptotic loss of neural cells. Accordingly, a large number of experimental [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes (MSC-Exo) are nano-sized extracellular vesicles enriched with MSC-sourced neuroprotective and immunomodulatory microRNAs, neural growth factors, and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which attenuate neuro-inflammation, promote neo-vascularization, induce neurogenesis, and reduce apoptotic loss of neural cells. Accordingly, a large number of experimental studies demonstrated MSC-Exo-dependent improvement of cognitive impairment in experimental animals. In this review article, we summarized current knowledge about molecular and cellular mechanisms that were responsible for MSC-Exo-based restoration of cognitive function, emphasizing therapeutic potential of MSC-Exos in the treatment of neurocognitive disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Allergy, Autoimmunity and Immune Regulation)
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Open AccessReview
Ancient Evolutionary Origin and Properties of Universally Produced Natural Exosomes Contribute to Their Therapeutic Superiority Compared to Artificial Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1429; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031429 - 31 Jan 2021
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, are newly recognized fundamental, universally produced natural nanoparticles of life that are seemingly involved in all biologic processes and clinical diseases. Due to their universal involvements, understanding the nature and also the potential therapeutic uses of these [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, are newly recognized fundamental, universally produced natural nanoparticles of life that are seemingly involved in all biologic processes and clinical diseases. Due to their universal involvements, understanding the nature and also the potential therapeutic uses of these nanovesicles requires innovative experimental approaches in virtually every field. Of the EV group, exosome nanovesicles and larger companion micro vesicles can mediate completely new biologic and clinical processes dependent on the intercellular transfer of proteins and most importantly selected RNAs, particularly miRNAs between donor and targeted cells to elicit epigenetic alterations inducing functional cellular changes. These recipient acceptor cells are nearby (paracrine transfers) or far away after distribution via the circulation (endocrine transfers). The major properties of such vesicles seem to have been conserved over eons, suggesting that they may have ancient evolutionary origins arising perhaps even before cells in the primordial soup from which life evolved. Their potential ancient evolutionary attributes may be responsible for the ability of some modern-day exosomes to withstand unusually harsh conditions, perhaps due to unique membrane lipid compositions. This is exemplified by ability of the maternal milk exosomes to survive passing the neonatal acid/enzyme rich stomach. It is postulated that this resistance also applies to their durable presence in phagolysosomes, thus suggesting a unique intracellular release of their contained miRNAs. A major discussed issue is the generally poorly realized superiority of these naturally evolved nanovesicles for therapies when compared to human-engineered artificial nanoparticles, e.g., for the treatment of diseases like cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Allergy, Autoimmunity and Immune Regulation)
Open AccessReview
Therapeutic Application of Exosomes in Inflammatory Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031144 - 24 Jan 2021
Abstract
Immunomodulation is on the cusp of being an important therapy for treating many diseases, due to the significant role of the immune system in defending the human body. Although the immune system is an essential defense system, overactivity can result in diverse sicknesses [...] Read more.
Immunomodulation is on the cusp of being an important therapy for treating many diseases, due to the significant role of the immune system in defending the human body. Although the immune system is an essential defense system, overactivity can result in diverse sicknesses such as inflammation and autoimmune disease. Exosomes are emerging as a state-of-the-art therapeutic strategy for treating an overactive immune system. Thus, in this review, we will thoroughly review therapeutic applications of exosomes in various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Finally, issues for an outlook to the future of exosomal therapy will be introduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Allergy, Autoimmunity and Immune Regulation)
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Open AccessReview
Membrane Microvesicles as Potential Vaccine Candidates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1142; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031142 - 24 Jan 2021
Abstract
The prevention and control of infectious diseases is crucial to the maintenance and protection of social and public healthcare. The global impact of SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated how outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infections can lead to pandemics of significant public health and socio-economic [...] Read more.
The prevention and control of infectious diseases is crucial to the maintenance and protection of social and public healthcare. The global impact of SARS-CoV-2 has demonstrated how outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infections can lead to pandemics of significant public health and socio-economic burden. Vaccination is one of the most effective approaches to protect against infectious diseases, and to date, multiple vaccines have been successfully used to protect against and eradicate both viral and bacterial pathogens. The main criterion of vaccine efficacy is the induction of specific humoral and cellular immune responses, and it is well established that immunogenicity depends on the type of vaccine as well as the route of delivery. In addition, antigen delivery to immune organs and the site of injection can potentiate efficacy of the vaccine. In light of this, microvesicles have been suggested as potential vehicles for antigen delivery as they can carry various immunogenic molecules including proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides directly to target cells. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms of microvesicle biogenesis and the role of microvesicles in infectious diseases. Further, we discuss the application of microvesicles as a novel and effective vaccine delivery system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Allergy, Autoimmunity and Immune Regulation)
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