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Topical Collection "Feature Papers in Molecular Neurobiology"

Editor

Dr. Antonio Pisani
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
IRCCS Mondino Foundation, via Mondino 2, Pavia, Italy
Interests: basal ganglia; striatum; dopamine; acetylcholine; Parkinson's disease; dystonia; synaptic plasticity; neurotransmitters

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Topical Collection “Feature Papers in Molecular Neurobiology” aims to collect both high-quality original research articles and reviews in the field of molecular neurobiology. This Topical Collection is also open to articles describing novel technologies aimed at identifying disease biomarkers. Editorial Board Members of this IJMS Section are highly encouraged to contribute by submitting their reports on relevant advances in their field. Board members are also encouraged to invite colleagues and experts to consider submitting their work to this Topical Collection.

Dr. Antonio Pisani
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

2021

Jump to: 2020

Open AccessArticle
Involvement of Huntingtin in Development and Ciliary Beating Regulation of Larvae of the Sea Urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(10), 5116; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22105116 - 12 May 2021
Viewed by 173
Abstract
The multiple functions of the wild type Huntington’s disease protein of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus (Hp-Htt) have been examined using the anti-Hp-Htt antibody (Ab) raised against synthetic oligopeptides. According to immunoblotting, Hp-Htt was detected as a single band at around the 350 [...] Read more.
The multiple functions of the wild type Huntington’s disease protein of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus (Hp-Htt) have been examined using the anti-Hp-Htt antibody (Ab) raised against synthetic oligopeptides. According to immunoblotting, Hp-Htt was detected as a single band at around the 350 kDa region at the swimming blastula stage to the prism larva stage. From the 2-arm pluteus stage (2aPL), however, an additional smaller band at the 165 kDa region appeared. Immunohistochemically, Hp-Htt was detected in the nuclei and the nearby cytoplasm of the ectodermal cells from the swimming blastula stage, and the blastocoelar cells from the mid-gastrula stage. The Ab-positive signal was converged to the ciliary band-associated strand (CBAS). There, it was accompanied by several CBAS-marker proteins in the cytoplasm, such as glutamate decarboxylase. Application of Hp-Htt morpholino (Hp-Htt-MO) has resulted in shortened larval arms, accompanied by decreased 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridin (BrdU) incorporation by the ectodermal cells of the larval arms. Hp-Htt-MO also resulted in lowered ciliary beating activity, accompanied by a disordered swirling pattern formation around the body. These Hp-Htt-MO-induced deficiencies took place after the onset of CBAS system formation at the larval arms. Thus, Hp-Htt is involved in cell proliferation and the ciliary beating pattern regulation signaling system in pluteus larvae. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Antidepressants Differentially Regulate Intracellular Signaling from α1-Adrenergic Receptor Subtypes In Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4817; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22094817 - 01 May 2021
Viewed by 252
Abstract
Currently utilized antidepressants have limited effectiveness and frequently incur undesired effects. Most antidepressants are thought to act via the inhibition of monoamine reuptake; however, direct binding to monoaminergic receptors has been proposed to contribute to both their clinical effectiveness and their side effects, [...] Read more.
Currently utilized antidepressants have limited effectiveness and frequently incur undesired effects. Most antidepressants are thought to act via the inhibition of monoamine reuptake; however, direct binding to monoaminergic receptors has been proposed to contribute to both their clinical effectiveness and their side effects, or lack thereof. Among the target receptors of antidepressants, α1‑adrenergic receptors (ARs) have been implicated in depression etiology, antidepressant action, and side effects. However, differences in the direct effects of antidepressants on signaling from the three subtypes of α1-ARs, namely, α1A-, α1B- and α1D‑ARs, have been little explored. We utilized cell lines overexpressing α1A-, α1B- or α1D-ARs to investigate the effects of the antidepressants imipramine (IMI), desipramine (DMI), mianserin (MIA), reboxetine (REB), citalopram (CIT) and fluoxetine (FLU) on noradrenaline-induced second messenger generation by those receptors. We found similar orders of inhibition at α1A-AR (IMI < DMI < CIT < MIA < REB) and α1D‑AR (IMI = DMI < CIT < MIA), while the α1B-AR subtype was the least engaged subtype and was inhibited with low potency by three drugs (MIA < IMI = DMI). In contrast to their direct antagonistic effects, prolonged incubation with IMI and DMI increased the maximal response of the α1B-AR subtype, and the CIT of both the α1A- and the α1B-ARs. Our data demonstrate a complex, subtype-specific modulation of α1-ARs by antidepressants of different groups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Deficiency of Tristetraprolin Triggers Hyperthermia through Enhancing Hypothalamic Inflammation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3328; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22073328 - 24 Mar 2021
Viewed by 348
Abstract
Tristetraprolin (TTP), an RNA-binding protein, controls the stability of RNA by capturing AU-rich elements on their target genes. It has recently been identified that TTP serves as an anti-inflammatory protein by guiding the unstable mRNAs of pro-inflammatory proteins in multiple cells. However, it [...] Read more.
Tristetraprolin (TTP), an RNA-binding protein, controls the stability of RNA by capturing AU-rich elements on their target genes. It has recently been identified that TTP serves as an anti-inflammatory protein by guiding the unstable mRNAs of pro-inflammatory proteins in multiple cells. However, it has not yet been investigated whether TTP affects the inflammatory responses in the hypothalamus. Since hypothalamic inflammation is tightly coupled to the disturbance of energy homeostasis, we designed the current study to investigate whether TTP regulates hypothalamic inflammation and thereby affects energy metabolism by utilizing TTP-deficient mice. We observed that deficiency of TTP led to enhanced hypothalamic inflammation via stimulation of a variety of pro-inflammatory genes. In addition, microglial activation occurred in the hypothalamus, which was accompanied by an enhanced inflammatory response. In line with these molecular and cellular observations, we finally confirmed that deficiency of TTP results in elevated core body temperature and energy expenditure. Taken together, our findings unmask novel roles of hypothalamic TTP on energy metabolism, which is linked to inflammatory responses in hypothalamic microglial cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Generation of High-Yield, Functional Oligodendrocytes from a c-myc Immortalized Neural Cell Line, Endowed with Staminal Properties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1124; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031124 - 23 Jan 2021
Viewed by 528
Abstract
Neural stem cells represent a powerful tool to study molecules involved in pathophysiology of Nervous System and to discover new drugs. Although they can be cultured and expanded in vitro as a primary culture, their use is hampered by their heterogeneity and by [...] Read more.
Neural stem cells represent a powerful tool to study molecules involved in pathophysiology of Nervous System and to discover new drugs. Although they can be cultured and expanded in vitro as a primary culture, their use is hampered by their heterogeneity and by the cost and time needed for their preparation. Here we report that mes-c-myc A1 cells (A1), a neural cell line, is endowed with staminal properties. Undifferentiated/proliferating and differentiated/non-proliferating A1 cells are able to generate neurospheres (Ns) in which gene expression parallels the original differentiation status. In fact, Ns derived from undifferentiated A1 cells express higher levels of Nestin, Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) and glial fibrillary protein (GFAP), markers of stemness, while those obtained from differentiated A1 cells show higher levels of the neuronal marker beta III tubulin. Interestingly, Ns differentiation, by Epidermal Growth Factors (EGF) and Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (bFGF) withdrawal, generates oligodendrocytes at high-yield as shown by the expression of markers, Galactosylceramidase (Gal-C) Neuron-Glial antigen 2 (NG2), Receptor-Interacting Protein (RIP) and Myelin Basic Protein (MBP). Finally, upon co-culture, Ns-A1-derived oligodendrocytes cause a redistribution of contactin-associated protein (Caspr/paranodin) protein on neuronal cells, as primary oligodendrocytes cultures, suggesting that they are able to form compact myelin. Thus, Ns-A1-derived oligodendrocytes may represent a time-saving and low-cost tool to study the pathophysiology of oligodendrocytes and to test new drugs. Full article
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2020

Jump to: 2021

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Mitochondrial and Cytosolic FXN Isoform Expression on Mitochondrial Dynamics and Metabolism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8251; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21218251 - 04 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 531
Abstract
Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by recessive mutations in the frataxin gene that lead to a deficiency of the mitochondrial frataxin (FXN) protein. Alternative forms of frataxin have been described, with different cellular localization and tissue distribution, including a cerebellum-specific [...] Read more.
Friedreich’s ataxia (FRDA) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by recessive mutations in the frataxin gene that lead to a deficiency of the mitochondrial frataxin (FXN) protein. Alternative forms of frataxin have been described, with different cellular localization and tissue distribution, including a cerebellum-specific cytosolic isoform called FXN II. Here, we explored the functional roles of FXN II in comparison to the mitochondrial FXN I isoform, highlighting the existence of potential cross-talk between cellular compartments. To achieve this, we transduced two human cell lines of patient and healthy subjects with lentiviral vectors overexpressing the mitochondrial or the cytosolic FXN isoforms and studied their effect on the mitochondrial network and metabolism. We confirmed the cytosolic localization of FXN isoform II in our in vitro models. Interestingly, both cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms have an effect on mitochondrial dynamics, affecting different parameters. Accordingly, increases of mitochondrial respiration were detected after transduction with FXN I or FXN II in both cellular models. Together, these results point to the existence of a potential cross-talk mechanism between the cytosol and mitochondria, mediated by FXN isoforms. A more thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of action behind the extra-mitochondrial FXN II isoform could prove useful in unraveling FRDA physiopathology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The ALS-Related σ1R E102Q Mutant Eludes Ligand Control and Exhibits Anomalous Response to Calcium
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(19), 7339; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21197339 - 04 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 473
Abstract
Sigma receptor type 1 (σ1R) is a transmembrane protein expressed throughout the central nervous system and in certain peripheral tissues. The human σ1R E102Q mutation causes juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), likely by inducing a series of alterations in calcium efflux from the [...] Read more.
Sigma receptor type 1 (σ1R) is a transmembrane protein expressed throughout the central nervous system and in certain peripheral tissues. The human σ1R E102Q mutation causes juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), likely by inducing a series of alterations in calcium efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria that affects calcium homeostasis and cellular survival. Here, we report the influence of calcium on σ1R E102Q associations with glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), and transient receptor potential calcium channels A1, V1, and M8. The mutant protein inhibited the binding of calmodulin to these calcium channels and interacted less with BiP than wild-type σ1R, thereby contributing to calcium homeostasis dysfunction. Mutant σ1R, but not wild-type σ1R, strongly bound to histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1, which regulates neuromuscular synaptic organization and target selection through teneurin 1. While ligands regulated the association of σ1R wild-type with NMDARs and BiP, they failed to modulate the interaction between these proteins and the σ1R E102Q mutant. Thus, the σ1R E102Q mutant exhibited an anomalous response to cytosolic calcium levels, altered affinity for target proteins, and a loss of response to regulatory ligands. We believe that these modifications may contribute to the onset of juvenile ALS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Altered Secretome and ROS Production in Olfactory Mucosa Stem Cells Derived from Friedreich’s Ataxia Patients
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6662; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186662 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 662
Abstract
Friedreich’s ataxia is the most common hereditary ataxia for which there is no cure or approved treatment at present. However, therapeutic developments based on the understanding of pathological mechanisms underlying the disease have advanced considerably, with the implementation of cellular models that mimic [...] Read more.
Friedreich’s ataxia is the most common hereditary ataxia for which there is no cure or approved treatment at present. However, therapeutic developments based on the understanding of pathological mechanisms underlying the disease have advanced considerably, with the implementation of cellular models that mimic the disease playing a crucial role. Human olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells represent a novel model that could prove useful due to their accessibility and neurogenic capacity. Here, we isolated and cultured these stem cells from Friedreich´s ataxia patients and healthy donors, characterizing their phenotype and describing disease-specific features such as reduced cell viability, impaired aconitase activity, increased ROS production and the release of cytokines involved in neuroinflammation. Importantly, we observed a positive effect on patient-derived cells, when frataxin levels were restored, confirming the utility of this in vitro model to study the disease. This model will improve our understanding of Friedreich´s ataxia pathogenesis and will help in developing rationally designed therapeutic strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
MicroRNA-5572 Is a Novel MicroRNA-Regulating SLC30A3 in Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4482; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21124482 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 581
Abstract
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive degenerative disease caused by the loss of motor neurons. Although the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS (sALS) remains unclear, it has recently been suggested that disorders of microRNA (miRNA) may be involved in neurodegenerative conditions. The purpose [...] Read more.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive degenerative disease caused by the loss of motor neurons. Although the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS (sALS) remains unclear, it has recently been suggested that disorders of microRNA (miRNA) may be involved in neurodegenerative conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate miRNA levels in sALS and the target genes of miRNA. Microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed significantly-decreased levels of miR-139-5p and significantly increased levels of miR-5572 in the spinal cords of sALS patients compared with those in controls. We then focused on miR-5572, which has not been reported in ALS, and determined its target gene. By using TargetScan, we predicted SLC30A3 as the candidate target gene of miR-5572. In a previous study, we found decreased SLC30A3 levels in the spinal cords of sALS patients. We revealed that SLC30A3 was regulated by miR-5572. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the level of novel miRNA miR-5572 is increased in sALS and that SLC30A3 is one of the target genes regulated by miR-5572. Full article
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