Special Issue "GABAergic and GLUTamatergic Systems in Fronto Temporal Dementia"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.
Interests: Apoptosis; Inflammation, Hydrogen Sulfide; Motor Neuron; Astrocytes
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This Special Issue is focused on the effort to sum up current knowledge on the role of neurotransmitter systems (particularly GABAergic and Glutamatergic) in frontotemporal dementia (FTD).
Degenerative cortical dementias are the most common form of debilitating dementias, making them the largest independent contributor of any chronic disease to require care. It is estimated that the global dementia burden will double by 2021. Among dementias, FTD is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome that principally affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, characterized by progressive changes in behavior, personality, and/or language. After Alzheimer's disease, it is the most common cause of dementia, particularly in individuals younger than 65 years. FTD comprises major clinical subtypes and is often associated with movement abnormalities, including atypical parkinsonism or motor neuron disease (MND), with up to half of ALS patients found to have evidence of frontal lobe impairment. Three major genes are recognized to play an important role in the autosomal dominant form: progranulin (GRN), chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72), and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT). Clinically, FTD spectrum is categorized into three syndromes: (i) behavioral variant (bvFTD), with a progressive decline in behavior and executive function, associated to a frontal lobe-predominant atrophy, with or without motor neuron disease (MND); (ii) semantic dementia (SD), characterized by a loss of semantic knowledge, associated with an atrophy of the left greater than right anterior temporal lobe; and (iii) progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA), presenting expressive or motor speech deficits, with predominantly left peri-sylvian atrophy.
Many novel biological mechanisms leading to FTD have been identified. Nevertheless, the cause remains elusive, and many questions are still unanswered. Why are the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain so vulnerable in FTD? How does FTD spread in the brain? Changes in the neurotransmitter systems might provoke morphological and functional alterations in the cortical environment, leading to neuronal degeneration.
The Special Issue welcomes original research manuscripts, short communications, and reviews on the latest progresses uncovering mechanisms linked to an unbalanced ratio of the excitation/inhibition pathways in FTD.
Dr. Patrizia Longone
Dr. Emanuele Buratti
Manuscript Submission Information
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- Frontotemporal dementia
- Motor neuron disease
- Cortical networks