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Special Issue "Infectious Ocular Disorders and Molecular Analysis"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Sunao Sugita
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory for Retinal Regeneration, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR), Kobe, Japan
Interests: ocular immunology; ocular infection; herpesvirus, uveitis, T cells; retinal degeneration; iPS cells; transplantation; immune rejection
Dr. Yoko Futatsugi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory for Retinal Regeneration, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR), Kobe, Japan
Interests: ocular immunology; uveitis; ES/iPS cells; transplantation; immune rejection; T cells; human leukocyte antigen; autoimmune disease

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pathogen detection is important in the diagnosis and diagnosis-based treatment of infectious ocular disorders. However, it is difficult to detect pathogens because of the small amounts of samples obtained from the ocular region. Therefore, a method to detect such pathogens with high sensitivity/specifity and rapidity from a small amount of specimen is required for the diagnosis of ocular infections. In addition, the pathogens include bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. Recently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosis using local ocular specimens has become indispensable in the treatment of infectious uveitis, kerititis, and retinitis. Other molecular analyses such as genome sequence analysis, metagenome analysis, and so on have also been performed on those specimens in basic reseach.

Our reserch group developed the first PCR examination system in the ophthalmology field. We showed clinical applications of multiplex PCR (for the detection of, e.g., herpesvirus DNA) and broad-range PCR (for the detection of, e.g., bacteria 16S rDNA) to the specimens from eye infection. These advancements in PCR-based examination are still making a great contribution to our field. Our fellows also established a novel multiplex PCR, termed strip PCR prototype, for detecting 24 pathogens responsible for ocular infections. We further enhanced the technique by developing direct strip PCR that skips DNA extraction in the procedure. This PCR is anticipated to provide easier etiological evaluation even for general ophthalmologists, through the detection of more pathogens from ocular samples of infectious uveitis patients.

Therefore, this Special Issue of IJMS will focus on advances in the field of infectious ocular disorders by molecular analyses, including general PCR, real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, genome analysis, and so on. The target disorders are broad ocular infections such as keratitis, ocular surface infectious diseases (e.g., conjunctivitis), corneal endothelitis, uveitis, retinitis, and endophthalmitis. We are seeking novel research in the field of such molecular analyses on infectious ocular disorders. Our aim is for this Special Issue to shed light on multidisciplinary researchs that examine infection in the eye using new molecular analyses.

Dr. Sunao Sugita
Dr. Yoko Futatsugi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ocular infections
  • keratitis
  • ocular surface infectious diseases
  • corneal endotheliitis
  • uveitis
  • retinitis
  • endophthalmitis
  • herpesvirus
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • genome analysis

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Role Played by Receptors for Advanced Glycosylation End Products in Corneal Endothelial Cells after HSV-1 Infection
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 5833; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22115833 - 29 May 2021
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Abstract
Senescence, sterile inflammation, and infection cause dysfunction of corneal endothelial cells, leading to visual morbidity that may require corneal transplantation. With increasing age, the extracellular matrix is modified by non-enzymatic glycation forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The modifications are primarily sensed by [...] Read more.
Senescence, sterile inflammation, and infection cause dysfunction of corneal endothelial cells, leading to visual morbidity that may require corneal transplantation. With increasing age, the extracellular matrix is modified by non-enzymatic glycation forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The modifications are primarily sensed by the receptors for the AGEs (RAGE) and are manifested as a type I interferon response. Interestingly, in our study, human corneal endothelial cells (HCEn) cells did not respond to the typical RAGE ligands, including the AGEs, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and serum amyloid-A (SAA). Instead, HCEn cells responded exclusively to the CpG DNA, which is possessed by typical corneal pathogen, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). Upon HSV-1 infection, the surface expression of RAGE was increased, and endocytosed HSV-1 was associated with RAGE and CpG DNA receptor, TLR9. RAGE DNA transfection markedly increased interferon-β secretion by CpG DNA or HSV-1 infection. HSV-1 infection-induced interferon-β secretion was abolished by TLR9 inhibition and partially by RAGE inhibition. Global transcriptional response analysis confirmed that RAGE and TLR9 were both significantly involved in type I interferon responses. We conclude that RAGE is a sensor of HSV-1 infection and provokes a type I interferon response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Ocular Disorders and Molecular Analysis)
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Article
Molecular Signatures of Natural Killer Cells in CMV-Associated Anterior Uveitis, A New Type of CMV-Induced Disease in Immunocompetent Individuals
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3623; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22073623 - 31 Mar 2021
Viewed by 598
Abstract
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes clinical issues primarily in immune-suppressed conditions. CMV-associated anterior uveitis (CMV-AU) is a notable new disease entity manifesting recurrent ocular inflammation in immunocompetent individuals. As patient demographics indicated contributions from genetic background and immunosenescence as possible underlying pathological mechanisms, we analyzed [...] Read more.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes clinical issues primarily in immune-suppressed conditions. CMV-associated anterior uveitis (CMV-AU) is a notable new disease entity manifesting recurrent ocular inflammation in immunocompetent individuals. As patient demographics indicated contributions from genetic background and immunosenescence as possible underlying pathological mechanisms, we analyzed the immunogenetics of the cohort in conjunction with cell phenotypes to identify molecular signatures of CMV-AU. Among the immune cell types, natural killer (NK) cells are main responders against CMV. Therefore, we first characterized variants of polymorphic genes that encode differences in CMV-related human NK cell responses (Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) and HLA class I) in 122 CMV-AU patients. The cases were then stratified according to their genetic features and NK cells were analyzed for human CMV-related markers (CD57, KLRG1, NKG2C) by flow cytometry. KIR3DL1 and HLA class I combinations encoding strong receptor–ligand interactions were present at substantially higher frequencies in CMV-AU. In these cases, NK cell profiling revealed expansion of the subset co-expressing CD57 and KLRG1, and together with KIR3DL1 and the CMV-recognizing NKG2C receptor. The findings imply that a mechanism of CMV-AU pathogenesis likely involves CMV-responding NK cells co-expressing CD57/KLRG1/NKG2C that develop on a genetic background of KIR3DL1/HLA-B allotypes encoding strong receptor–ligand interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Ocular Disorders and Molecular Analysis)
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