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Special Issue "Intercellular and Intracellular Communication in Human Health and Disease"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Henrique Girao
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, iCBR, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: gap junctions; extracellular vesicles; TNTs; autophagy; endocytosis; intercellular communication
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A fine-tuned flow of information is essential to maintain the homeostasis and function of living organisms. This communication can occur between adjacent cells, through intercellular junctions or structures such as tunneling nanotubes (TNT), or physically separated cells via extracellular vesicles or soluble factors, including hormones, growth factors, cytokines and second messengers. These strategies are used by both unicellular and multicellular organisms to mount an integrative response that allows rapid and efficient adaptation to environmental stressors or external changes. For example, single-celled organisms, such as bacteria and yeasts, use both chemical molecules and physical structures to exchange information, allowing cell colonies to behave in a synchronized manner, like a multicellular entity. In multicellular organisms, an intricate meshwork of communication processes is essential to not only maintain the functions of tissues and organs but also to ensure an orchestrated interorgan crosstalk, required for a coordinated systemic response of the organism. Very often, intercellular communication mediated by extracellular signals elicits a stepwise intracellular cascade of reactions that imply highly regulated communication mechanisms, including interorganelle interplay.

This Special Issue intends to bring together, in a comprehensive and holistic overview, new advances concerning intercellular and intracellular communication strategies, used by either unicellular or multicellular organisms.

Dr. Henrique Girao
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Value of EphB2 Receptor and Cognate Ephrin Ligands in Prognostic and Predictive Assessments of Human Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 8098; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22158098 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Cell–cell communication proteins Eph and ephrin constitute the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). They are distinguished by the fact that both receptors and ligands are membrane-bound, and both can drive intracellular signaling in their respective cells. Ever since these RTKs have [...] Read more.
Cell–cell communication proteins Eph and ephrin constitute the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). They are distinguished by the fact that both receptors and ligands are membrane-bound, and both can drive intracellular signaling in their respective cells. Ever since these RTKs have been found to be involved in cancer development, strategies to target them therapeutically have been actively pursued. However, before this goal can be rationally achieved, the contributions of either Eph receptors or their ephrin ligands to cancer development and progression should be scrutinized in depth. To assess the clinical pertinence of this concern, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prognostic/predictive value of EphB2 and its multiple cognate ephrin ligands in breast cancer. We found that EphB2 has prognostic value, as indicated by the association of higher EphB2 expression levels with lower distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and the association of lower EphB2 expression levels with poorer relapse-free survival (RFS). We also found that higher EphB2 expression could be a prognostic factor for distant metastasis, specifically in the luminal subtypes of breast cancer. EFNB2 showed a marked correlation between higher expression levels and shorter DMFS. EFNA5 or EFNB1 overexpression is correlated with longer RFS. Increased EFNB1 expression is correlated with longer OS in lymph node (LN)-negative patients and the luminal B subtype. Higher levels of EFNB2 or EFNA5 are significantly correlated with shorter RFS, regardless of LN status. However, while this correlation with shorter RFS is true for EFNB2 in all subtypes except basal, it is also true for EFNA5 in all subtypes except HER2+. The analysis also points to possible predictive value for EphB2. In systemically treated patients who have undergone either endocrine therapy or chemotherapy, we found that higher expression of EphB2 is correlated with better rates of RFS. Bearing in mind the limitations inherent to any mRNA-based profiling method, we complemented our analysis with an immunohistochemical assessment of expression levels of both the EphB2 receptor and cognate ephrin ligands. We found that the latter are significantly more expressed in cancers than in normal tissues, and even more so in invasive and metastatic samples than in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Finally, in an in vitro cellular model of breast cancer progression, based on H-Ras-transformation of the MCF10A benign mammary cell line, we observed dramatic increases in the mRNA expression of EphB2 receptor and EFNB1 and EFNB2 ligands in transformed and invasive cells in comparison with their benign counterparts. Taken together, these data show the clinical validity of a model whereby EphB2, along with its cognate ephrin ligands, have dual anti- and pro-tumor progression effects. In so doing, they reinforce the necessity of further biological investigations into Ephs and ephrins, prior to using them in targeted therapies. Full article
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Article
Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor Type 4 (S1P4) Is Differentially Regulated in Peritoneal B1 B Cells upon TLR4 Stimulation and Facilitates the Egress of Peritoneal B1a B Cells and Subsequent Accumulation of Splenic IRA B Cells under Inflammatory Conditions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3465; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22073465 - 27 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 611
Abstract
Background: Gram-negative infections of the peritoneal cavity result in profound modifications of peritoneal B cell populations and induce the migration of peritoneal B cells to distant secondary lymphoid organs. However, mechanisms controlling the egress of peritoneal B cells from the peritoneal cavity and [...] Read more.
Background: Gram-negative infections of the peritoneal cavity result in profound modifications of peritoneal B cell populations and induce the migration of peritoneal B cells to distant secondary lymphoid organs. However, mechanisms controlling the egress of peritoneal B cells from the peritoneal cavity and their subsequent trafficking remain incompletely understood. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated signaling controls migratory processes in numerous immune cells. The present work investigates the role of S1P-mediated signaling in peritoneal B cell trafficking under inflammatory conditions. Methods: Differential S1P receptor expression after peritoneal B cell activation was assessed semi‑quantitatively using RT-PCR in vitro. The functional implications of differential S1P1 and S1P4 expression were assessed by transwell migration in vitro, by adoptive peritoneal B cell transfer in a model of sterile lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced peritonitis and in the polymicrobial colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) model. Results: The two sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) expressed in peritoneal B cell subsets S1P1 and S1P4 are differentially regulated upon stimulation with the TLR4 agonist LPS, but not upon PMA/ionomycin or B cell receptor (BCR) crosslinking. S1P4 deficiency affects both the trafficking of activated peritoneal B cells to secondary lymphoid organs and the positioning of these cells within the functional compartments of the targeted organ. S1P4 deficiency in LPS-activated peritoneal B cells results in significantly reduced numbers of splenic innate response activator B cells. Conclusions: The S1P-S1PR system is implicated in the trafficking of LPS-activated peritoneal B cells. Given the protective role of peritoneal B1a B cells in peritoneal sepsis, further experiments to investigate the impact of S1P4-mediated signaling on the severity and mortality of peritoneal sepsis are warranted. Full article
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Article
Gap Junctions between Endothelial Cells Are Disrupted by Circulating Extracellular Vesicles from Sickle Cell Patients with Acute Chest Syndrome
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 8884; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21238884 - 24 Nov 2020
Viewed by 754
Abstract
Intercellular junctions maintain the integrity of the endothelium. We previously found that the adherens and tight junctions between endothelial cells are disrupted by plasma extracellular vesicles from patients with sickle cell disease (especially those with Acute Chest Syndrome). In the current study, we [...] Read more.
Intercellular junctions maintain the integrity of the endothelium. We previously found that the adherens and tight junctions between endothelial cells are disrupted by plasma extracellular vesicles from patients with sickle cell disease (especially those with Acute Chest Syndrome). In the current study, we evaluated the effects of these vesicles on endothelial gap junctions. The vesicles from sickle cell patients (isolated during episodes of Acute Chest Syndrome) disrupted gap junction structures earlier and more severely than the other classes of intercellular junctions (as detected by immunofluorescence). These vesicles were much more potent than those isolated at baseline from the same subject. The treatment of endothelial cells with these vesicles led to reduced levels of connexin43 mRNA and protein. These vesicles severely reduced intercellular communication (transfer of microinjected Neurobiotin). Our data suggest a hierarchy of progressive disruption of different intercellular connections between endothelial cells by circulating extracellular vesicles that may contribute to the pathophysiology of the endothelial disturbances in sickle cell disease. Full article
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Article
Connexin43 Region 266–283, via Src Inhibition, Reduces Neural Progenitor Cell Proliferation Promoted by EGF and FGF-2 and Increases Astrocytic Differentiation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(22), 8852; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21228852 - 23 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 928
Abstract
Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are self-renewing cells that give rise to the major cells in the nervous system and are considered to be the possible cell of origin of glioblastoma. The gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) is expressed by NPCs, exerting channel-dependent and [...] Read more.
Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are self-renewing cells that give rise to the major cells in the nervous system and are considered to be the possible cell of origin of glioblastoma. The gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) is expressed by NPCs, exerting channel-dependent and -independent roles. We focused on one property of Cx43—its ability to inhibit Src, a key protein in brain development and oncogenesis. Because Src inhibition is carried out by the sequence 266–283 of the intracellular C terminus in Cx43, we used a cell-penetrating peptide containing this sequence, TAT-Cx43266–283, to explore its effects on postnatal subventricular zone NPCs. Our results show that TAT-Cx43266–283 inhibited Src activity and reduced NPC proliferation and survival promoted by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). In differentiation conditions, TAT-Cx43266–283 increased astrocyte differentiation at the expense of neuronal differentiation, which coincided with a reduction in Src activity and β-catenin expression. We propose that Cx43, through the region 266–283, reduces Src activity, leading to disruption of EGF and FGF-2 signaling and to down-regulation of β-catenin with effects on proliferation and differentiation. Our data indicate that the inhibition of Src might contribute to the complex role of Cx43 in NPCs and open new opportunities for further research in gliomagenesis. Full article
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Article
Hypoxic Melanoma Cells Deliver microRNAs to Dendritic Cells and Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes through Connexin-43 Channels
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(20), 7567; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21207567 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
Alterations in microRNA (miRNA) profiles, induced by tumor microenvironment stressors, like hypoxia, allow cancer cells to acquire immune-resistance phenotypes. Indeed, hypoxia-induced miRNAs have been implicated in cancer progression through numerous cancer cell non-autonomous mechanisms, including the direct transfer of hypoxia-responsive miRNA from cancer [...] Read more.
Alterations in microRNA (miRNA) profiles, induced by tumor microenvironment stressors, like hypoxia, allow cancer cells to acquire immune-resistance phenotypes. Indeed, hypoxia-induced miRNAs have been implicated in cancer progression through numerous cancer cell non-autonomous mechanisms, including the direct transfer of hypoxia-responsive miRNA from cancer to immune cells via extracellular vesicles. Connexin-43 (Cx43)-constituted gap junctions (GJs) have also been involved in miRNA intercellular mobilization, in other biological processes. In this report, we aimed to evaluate the involvement of Cx43-GJs in the shift of miRNAs induced by hypoxia, from hypoxic melanoma cells to dendritic cells and melanoma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Using qRT-PCR arrays, we identified that miR-192-5p was strongly induced in hypoxic melanoma cells. Immune cells acquired this miRNA after co-culture with hypoxic melanoma cells. The transfer of miR-192-5p was inhibited when hypoxic melanoma cells expressed a dominant negative Cx43 mutant or when Cx43 expression was silenced using specific short-hairpin RNAs. Interestingly, miR-192-5p levels on CTLs after co-culture with hypoxic melanoma cells were inversely correlated with the cytotoxic activity of T cells and with ZEB2 mRNA expression, a validated immune-related target of miR-192-5p, which is also observed in vivo. Altogether, our data suggest that hypoxic melanoma cells may suppress CTLs cytotoxic activity by transferring hypoxia-induced miR-192-5p through a Cx43-GJs driven mechanism, constituting a resistance strategy for immunological tumor escape. Full article
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Article
Antimicrobial Effects of Thymosin Beta-4 and Ciprofloxacin Adjunctive Therapy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Induced Keratitis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6840; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186840 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 731
Abstract
Prior work has indicated that thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) administered with ciprofloxacin markedly improves disease outcome for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA)-induced keratitis. As a result, the goal of the current study was to elucidate mechanisms by which Tβ4 mitigates the corneal response; specifically, regarding [...] Read more.
Prior work has indicated that thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) administered with ciprofloxacin markedly improves disease outcome for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA)-induced keratitis. As a result, the goal of the current study was to elucidate mechanisms by which Tβ4 mitigates the corneal response; specifically, regarding its bactericidal influence and potential synergy with ciprofloxacin. An in vitro approach was carried out using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays to assess bactericidal activity against PA. In addition, antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production was evaluated at the mRNA levels using human corneal epithelial cells in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. The results of the MIC assays did not show direct bactericidal activity with Tβ4 alone, although ciprofloxacin exhibited significant killing at concentrations far lower than clinically dosed. Tβ4, however, displayed an indirect effect on bacterial killing, as shown by an upregulation of AMPs and related molecules. The cumulative data from this study indicate an indirect bactericidal role of Tβ4, as well as a synergistic relationship with ciprofloxacin. Furthermore, ciprofloxacin alone was found to influence cellular functions that otherwise have yet to be reported. These results highlight a mechanism of intracellular communication for Tβ4 and further strengthen its development as an adjunct therapy with antibiotics for corneal infections. Full article
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Review

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Review
Endoplasmic Reticulum‐Plasma Membrane Contact Sites as an Organizing Principle for Compartmentalized Calcium and cAMP Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4703; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22094703 - 29 Apr 2021
Viewed by 729
Abstract
In eukaryotic cells, ultimate specificity in activation and action—for example, by means of second messengers—of the myriad of signaling cascades is primordial. In fact, versatile and ubiquitous second messengers, such as calcium (Ca2+) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), regulate multiple—sometimes opposite—cellular [...] Read more.
In eukaryotic cells, ultimate specificity in activation and action—for example, by means of second messengers—of the myriad of signaling cascades is primordial. In fact, versatile and ubiquitous second messengers, such as calcium (Ca2+) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), regulate multiple—sometimes opposite—cellular functions in a specific spatiotemporal manner. Cells achieve this through segregation of the initiators and modulators to specific plasma membrane (PM) subdomains, such as lipid rafts and caveolae, as well as by dynamic close contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and other intracellular organelles, including the PM. Especially, these membrane contact sites (MCSs) are currently receiving a lot of attention as their large influence on cell signaling regulation and cell physiology is increasingly appreciated. Depletion of ER Ca2+ stores activates ER membrane STIM proteins, which activate PM-residing Orai and TRPC Ca2+ channels at ER–PM contact sites. Within the MCS, Ca2+ fluxes relay to cAMP signaling through highly interconnected networks. However, the precise mechanisms of MCS formation and the influence of their dynamic lipid environment on their functional maintenance are not completely understood. The current review aims to provide an overview of our current understanding and to identify open questions of the field. Full article
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Review
Opportunities and Challenges in Tunneling Nanotubes Research: How Far from Clinical Application?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2306; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22052306 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 715
Abstract
Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are recognized long membrane nanotubes connecting distance cells. In the last decade, growing evidence has shown that these subcellular structures mediate the specific transfer of cellular materials, pathogens, and electrical signals between cells. As intercellular bridges, they play a unique [...] Read more.
Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are recognized long membrane nanotubes connecting distance cells. In the last decade, growing evidence has shown that these subcellular structures mediate the specific transfer of cellular materials, pathogens, and electrical signals between cells. As intercellular bridges, they play a unique role in embryonic development, collective cell migration, injured cell recovery, cancer treatment resistance, and pathogen propagation. Although TNTs have been considered as potential drug targets for treatment, there is still a long way to go to translate the research findings into clinical practice. Herein, we emphasize the heterogeneous nature of TNTs by systemically summarizing the current knowledge on their morphology, structure, and biogenesis in different types of cells. Furthermore, we address the communication efficiency and biological outcomes of TNT-dependent transport related to diseases. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of TNTs as an exciting therapeutic approach by focusing on the development of efficient and safe drugs targeting TNTs. Full article
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Review
Trogocytosis between Non-Immune Cells for Cell Clearance, and among Immune-Related Cells for Modulating Immune Responses and Autoimmunity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2236; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22052236 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
The term trogocytosis refers to a rapid bidirectional and active transfer of surface membrane fragment and associated proteins between cells. The trogocytosis requires cell-cell contact, and exhibits fast kinetics and the limited lifetime of the transferred molecules on the surface of the acceptor [...] Read more.
The term trogocytosis refers to a rapid bidirectional and active transfer of surface membrane fragment and associated proteins between cells. The trogocytosis requires cell-cell contact, and exhibits fast kinetics and the limited lifetime of the transferred molecules on the surface of the acceptor cells. The biological actions of trogocytosis include information exchange, cell clearance of unwanted tissues in embryonic development, immunoregulation, cancer surveillance/evasion, allogeneic cell survival and infectious pathogen killing or intercellular transmission. In the present review, we will extensively review all these aspects. In addition to its biological significance, aberrant trogocytosis in the immune system leading to autoimmunity and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases will also be discussed. Finally, the prospective investigations for further understanding the molecular basis of trogocytosis and its clinical applications will also be proposed. Full article
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Review
Cell-to-Cell Communication by Host-Released Extracellular Vesicles in the Gut: Implications in Health and Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2213; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22042213 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
Communication between cells is crucial to preserve body homeostasis and health. Tightly controlled intercellular dialog is particularly relevant in the gut, where cells of the intestinal mucosa are constantly exposed to millions of microbes that have great impact on intestinal homeostasis by controlling [...] Read more.
Communication between cells is crucial to preserve body homeostasis and health. Tightly controlled intercellular dialog is particularly relevant in the gut, where cells of the intestinal mucosa are constantly exposed to millions of microbes that have great impact on intestinal homeostasis by controlling barrier and immune functions. Recent knowledge involves extracellular vesicles (EVs) as mediators of such communication by transferring messenger bioactive molecules including proteins, lipids, and miRNAs between cells and tissues. The specific functions of EVs principally depend on the internal cargo, which upon delivery to target cells trigger signal events that modulate cellular functions. The vesicular cargo is greatly influenced by genetic, pathological, and environmental factors. This finding provides the basis for investigating potential clinical applications of EVs as therapeutic targets or diagnostic biomarkers. Here, we review current knowledge on the biogenesis and cargo composition of EVs in general terms. We then focus the attention to EVs released by cells of the intestinal mucosa and their impact on intestinal homeostasis in health and disease. We specifically highlight their role on epithelial barrier integrity, wound healing of epithelial cells, immunity, and microbiota shaping. Microbiota-derived EVs are not reviewed here. Full article
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Review
Integrin Regulation in Immunological and Cancerous Cells and Exosomes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2193; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22042193 - 23 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Integrins represent the biologically and medically significant family of cell adhesion molecules that govern a wide range of normal physiology. The activities of integrins in cells are dynamically controlled via activation-dependent conformational changes regulated by the balance of intracellular activators, such as talin [...] Read more.
Integrins represent the biologically and medically significant family of cell adhesion molecules that govern a wide range of normal physiology. The activities of integrins in cells are dynamically controlled via activation-dependent conformational changes regulated by the balance of intracellular activators, such as talin and kindlin, and inactivators, such as Shank-associated RH domain interactor (SHARPIN) and integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein 1 (ICAP-1). The activities of integrins are alternatively controlled by homotypic lateral association with themselves to induce integrin clustering and/or by heterotypic lateral engagement with tetraspanin and syndecan in the same cells to modulate integrin adhesiveness. It has recently emerged that integrins are expressed not only in cells but also in exosomes, important entities of extracellular vesicles secreted from cells. Exosomal integrins have received considerable attention in recent years, and they are clearly involved in determining the tissue distribution of exosomes, forming premetastatic niches, supporting internalization of exosomes by target cells and mediating exosome-mediated transfer of the membrane proteins and associated kinases to target cells. A growing body of evidence shows that tumor and immune cell exosomes have the ability to alter endothelial characteristics (proliferation, migration) and gene expression, some of these effects being facilitated by vesicle-bound integrins. As endothelial metabolism is now thought to play a key role in tumor angiogenesis, we also discuss how tumor cells and their exosomes pleiotropically modulate endothelial functions in the tumor microenvironment. Full article
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Review
Circulating Extracellular Vesicles: The Missing Link between Physical Exercise and Depression Management?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 542; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020542 - 07 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1247
Abstract
Depression is associated with an increased risk of aging-related diseases. It is also seemingly a common psychological reaction to pandemic outbreaks with forced quarantines and lockdowns. Thus, depression represents, now more than ever, a major global health burden with therapeutic management challenges. Clinical [...] Read more.
Depression is associated with an increased risk of aging-related diseases. It is also seemingly a common psychological reaction to pandemic outbreaks with forced quarantines and lockdowns. Thus, depression represents, now more than ever, a major global health burden with therapeutic management challenges. Clinical data highlights that physical exercise is gaining momentum as a non-pharmacological intervention in depressive disorders. Although it may contribute to the reduction of systemic inflammation associated with depression, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial physical exercise effects in emotional behavior remain to be elucidated. Current investigations indicate that a rapid release of extracellular vesicles into the circulation might be the signaling mediators of systemic adaptations to physical exercise. These biological entities are now well-established intercellular communicators, playing a major role in relevant physiological and pathophysiological functions, including brain cell–cell communication. We also reviewed emerging evidence correlating depression with modified circulating extracellular vesicle surfaces and cargo signatures (e.g., microRNAs and proteins), envisioned as potential biomarkers for diagnosis, efficient disease stratification and appropriate therapeutic management. Accordingly, the clinical data summarized in the present review prompted us to hypothesize that physical exercise-related circulating extracellular vesicles contribute to its antidepressant effects, particularly through the modulation of inflammation. This review sheds light on the triad “physical exercise–extracellular vesicles–depression” and suggests new avenues in this novel emerging field. Full article
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