ijms-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neuroscience"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Neurobiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Coco Silvia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cadore, 48 20900 Monza, Italy & NeuroMI-Milan Center for Neuroscience Italy
Interests: Mesenchymal stem cells; extracellular vesicles; microvesicles; exosomes, Alzheimer’s disease; microglial cells; inflammation
Dr. Malosio Maria Luisa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Neuroscience, CNR (Italian National Research Council), Via Vanvitelli 32, 2019 Milano (IT) & Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Via Manzoni 113 - 20089 Rozzano, Milan, Italy
Interests: Neuroimmunological disorders; mesenchymal stem cells; extracellular vesicles; Alzheimer's disease; diabetes; stroke; inflammation; aptamers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Multipotent Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) have recently become very popular in cell therapy applications due to their multifaceted properties. Initially exploited for non-neurological pathologies, they are now also being applied in neurosciences. It has emerged, in fact, that most neurological conditions would benefit from a treatment able to provide tissue repair (neuro-protection and neuro-restoration) and immunomodulatory effects (immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions) delivered exactly at the site where it is needed. Therefore, new strategies are being studied to target inflammation and possibly to promote the intrinsic regeneration potential. Along these directions, MSC are emerging as an extremely attractive tool due to their ability to release a proactive secretome composed of soluble factors and/or extracellular vesicles. MSC offer practical advantages for clinical applications because they can be isolated from adults with minimally invasive procedures. Applications of MSC or their by-products are now studied for the treatment of many neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative and traumatic conditions for which there is no ideal cure to date.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide an overview of the current status of MSC application in neurological conditions and to delineate the current foundations for possible future applications in this field.

Dr. Coco Silvia
Dr. Malosio Maria Luisa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mesenchymal stem cells
  • extracellular vesicles
  • microvesicles
  • exosomes, neurodegenerative diseases
  • neurological conditions
  • inflammation
  • cell therapy

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
The Benefits and Hazards of Intravitreal Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) Based-Therapies in the Experimental Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2117; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22042117 - 20 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 505
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has been investigated intensively for many years. However, there is a potential risk related to MSC applications in various cell niches. Methods: The safety of intravitreal MSC application and the efficacy of MSC-derived conditioned medium (MDCM) were evaluated [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has been investigated intensively for many years. However, there is a potential risk related to MSC applications in various cell niches. Methods: The safety of intravitreal MSC application and the efficacy of MSC-derived conditioned medium (MDCM) were evaluated in the normal eye and the diseased eye, respectively. For safety evaluation, the fundus morphology, visual function, retinal function, and histological changes of the retina were examined. For efficacy evaluation, the MDCM was intravitreally administrated in a rodent model of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION). The visual function, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) density, and neuroinflammation were evaluated at day 28 post-optic nerve (ON) infarct. Results: The fundus imaging showed that MSC transplantation induced retinal distortion and venous congestion. The visual function, retinal function, and RGC density were significantly decreased in MSC-treated eyes. MSC transplantation induced astrogliosis, microgliosis, and macrophage infiltration in the retina due to an increase in the HLA-DR-positive MSC proportion in vitreous. Treatment with the MDCM preserved the visual function and RGC density in rAION via inhibition of macrophage infiltration and RGC apoptosis. Conclusions: The vitreous induced the HLA-DR expression in the MSCs to cause retinal inflammation and retina injury. However, the MDCM provided the neuroprotective effects in rAION. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neuroscience)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Therapeutic Potential of Repeated Intravenous Transplantation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Subchronic MPTP-Induced Parkinson’s Disease Mouse Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8129; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21218129 - 30 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 562
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, which is clinically and pathologically characterized by motor dysfunction and the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, respectively. PD treatment with stem cells has long been studied by researchers; however, no [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, which is clinically and pathologically characterized by motor dysfunction and the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, respectively. PD treatment with stem cells has long been studied by researchers; however, no adequate treatment strategy has been established. The results of studies so far have suggested that stem cell transplantation can be an effective treatment for PD. However, PD is a progressively deteriorating neurodegenerative disease that requires long-term treatment, and this has been insufficiently studied. Thus, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC) for repeated vein transplantation over long-term in an animal model of PD. In 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD model mice, hASCs were administered on the tail vein six times at two-week intervals. After the last injection of hASCs, motor function significantly improved. The number of dopaminergic neurons present in the nigrostriatal pathway was recovered using hASC transplantation. Moreover, the administration of hASC restored altered dopamine transporter expression and increased neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), in the striatum. Overall, this study suggests that repeated intravenous transplantation of hASC may exert therapeutic effects on PD by restoring BDNF and GDNF expressions, protecting dopaminergic neurons, and maintaining the nigrostriatal pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neuroscience)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Human Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Sciatic Nerve Recovery Is Associated with the Upregulation of Regulatory T Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6310; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21176310 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 602
Abstract
The acceleration of peripheral nerve regeneration is crucial for functional nerve recovery. Our previous study demonstrated that human Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hWJ-MSC) promote sciatic nerve recovery and regeneration via the direct upregulation and release of neurotrophic factors. However, the immunomodulatory role [...] Read more.
The acceleration of peripheral nerve regeneration is crucial for functional nerve recovery. Our previous study demonstrated that human Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hWJ-MSC) promote sciatic nerve recovery and regeneration via the direct upregulation and release of neurotrophic factors. However, the immunomodulatory role of hWJ-MSC in sciatic nerve recovery remains unclear. The effects of hWJ-MSC on innate immunity, represented by macrophages, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells, as well as on adaptive immunity, represented by CD4+ T, CD8+ T, B, and regulatory T cells (Tregs), were examined using flow cytometry. Interestingly, a significantly increased level of Tregs was detected in blood, lymph nodes (LNs), and nerve-infiltrating cells on POD7, 15, 21, and 35. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-10, were significantly upregulated in the LNs and nerves of hWJ-MSC-treated mice. Treg depletion neutralized the improved effects of hWJ-MSC on sciatic nerve recovery. In contrast, Treg administration promoted the functional recovery of five-toe spread and gait stance. hWJ-MSC also expressed high levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines TGF-β and IL-35. This study indicated that hWJ-MSC induce Treg development to modulate the balance between pro- and anti-inflammation at the injured sciatic nerve by secreting higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neuroscience)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
ASC-Exosomes Ameliorate the Disease Progression in SOD1(G93A) Murine Model Underlining Their Potential Therapeutic Use in Human ALS
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3651; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21103651 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motoneurons. To date, there is no effective treatment available. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that play important roles in intercellular communication, recapitulating the effect of origin cells. In this study, [...] Read more.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motoneurons. To date, there is no effective treatment available. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that play important roles in intercellular communication, recapitulating the effect of origin cells. In this study, we tested the potential neuroprotective effect of exosomes isolated from adipose-derived stem cells (ASC-exosomes) on the in vivo model most widely used to study ALS, the human SOD1 gene with a G93A mutation (SOD1(G93A)) mouse. Moreover, we compared the effect of two different routes of exosomes administration, intravenous and intranasal. The effect of exosomes administration on disease progression was monitored by motor tests and analysis of lumbar motoneurons and glial cells, neuromuscular junction, and muscle. Our results demonstrated that repeated administration of ASC-exosomes improved the motor performance; protected lumbar motoneurons, the neuromuscular junction, and muscle; and decreased the glial cells activation in treated SOD1(G93A) mice. Moreover, exosomes have the ability to home to lesioned ALS regions of the animal brain. These data contribute by providing additional knowledge for the promising use of ASC-exosomes as a therapy in human ALS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neuroscience)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Therapeutic Effects of Human Amniotic Epithelial Stem Cells in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2658; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21072658 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1300
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized clinically by cognitive decline and pathologically by the development of amyloid plaques. AD is the most common cause of dementia among older people. However, there is currently no cure for AD. In this study, [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized clinically by cognitive decline and pathologically by the development of amyloid plaques. AD is the most common cause of dementia among older people. However, there is currently no cure for AD. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the therapeutic effects of human amniotic epithelial stem cells (hAESCs) in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Tg2576 transgenic (Tg) mice underwent behavioral tests, namely the Morris water maze and Y-maze tests, to assess their cognitive function. In the Morris water maze test, hAESC-treated Tg mice exhibited significantly shorter escape latencies than vehicle-treated Tg mice. In the Y-maze test, hAESC-treated Tg mice exhibited significantly higher rate of spontaneous alteration than vehicle-treated Tg mice, while the total number of arm entries did not differ between the groups. Furthermore, Congo red staining revealed that hAESCs injection reduced the number of amyloid plaques present in the brains of Tg mice. Finally, beta-secretase (BACE) activity was significantly decreased in Tg mice at 60 min after hAESCs injection. In this study, we found that intracerebral injection of hAESCs alleviated cognitive impairment in a Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Our results indicate that hAESCs injection reduced amyloid plaques caused by reduced BACE activity. These results indicate that hAESCs may be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD-related memory impairment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neuroscience)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Intrathecal Injection in a Rat Model: A Potential Route to Deliver Human Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into the Brain
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1272; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21041272 - 13 Feb 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as promising therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative disorders because they can reduce underlying pathology and also repair damaged tissues. Regarding the delivery of MSCs into the brain, intravenous and intra-arterial routes may be less feasible than intraparenchymal and [...] Read more.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as promising therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative disorders because they can reduce underlying pathology and also repair damaged tissues. Regarding the delivery of MSCs into the brain, intravenous and intra-arterial routes may be less feasible than intraparenchymal and intracerebroventricular routes due to the blood–brain barrier. Compared to the intraparenchymal or intracerebroventricular routes, however, the intrathecal route may have advantages: this route can deliver MSCs throughout the entire neuraxis and it is less invasive since brain surgery is not required. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of human Wharton’s jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) injected via the intrathecal route in a rat model. WJ-MSCs (1 × 106) were intrathecally injected via the L2-3 intervertebral space in 6-week-old Sprague Dawley rats. These rats were then sacrificed at varying time points: 0, 6, and 12 h following injection. At 12 h, a significant number of MSCs were detected in the brain but not in other organs. Furthermore, with a 10-fold higher dose of WJ-MSCs, there was a substantial increase in the number of cells migrating to the brain. These results suggest that the intrathecal route can be a promising route for the performance of stem cell therapy for CNS diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neuroscience)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Application of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy and Inner Ear Regeneration for Hearing Loss: A Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5764; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165764 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1055
Abstract
Inner and middle ear disorders are the leading cause of hearing loss, and are said to be among the greatest risk factors of dementia. The use of regenerative medicine for the treatment of inner ear disorders may offer a potential alternative to cochlear [...] Read more.
Inner and middle ear disorders are the leading cause of hearing loss, and are said to be among the greatest risk factors of dementia. The use of regenerative medicine for the treatment of inner ear disorders may offer a potential alternative to cochlear implants for hearing recovery. In this paper, we reviewed recent research and clinical applications in middle and inner ear regeneration and cell therapy. Recently, the mechanism of inner ear regeneration has gradually been elucidated. “Inner ear stem cells,” which may be considered the precursors of various cells in the inner ear, have been discovered in the cochlea and vestibule. Research indicates that cells such as hair cells, neurons, and spiral ligaments may form promising targets for inner ear regenerative therapies by the transplantation of stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, it is necessary to develop tests for the clinical monitoring of cell transplantation. Real-time imaging techniques and hearing rehabilitation techniques are also being investigated, and cell therapy has found clinical application in cochlear implant techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neuroscience)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Counteracting Oxidative Stress—Related Neurodegeneration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3299; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21093299 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Neurodegenerative diseases include a variety of pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and so forth, which share many common characteristics such as oxidative stress, glycation, abnormal protein deposition, inflammation, and progressive neuronal loss. The last century has [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative diseases include a variety of pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and so forth, which share many common characteristics such as oxidative stress, glycation, abnormal protein deposition, inflammation, and progressive neuronal loss. The last century has witnessed significant research to identify mechanisms and risk factors contributing to the complex etiopathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as genetic, vascular/metabolic, and lifestyle-related factors, which often co-occur and interact with each other. Apart from several environmental or genetic factors, in recent years, much evidence hints that impairment in redox homeostasis is a common mechanism in different neurological diseases. However, from a pharmacological perspective, oxidative stress is a difficult target, and antioxidants, the only strategy used so far, have been ineffective or even provoked side effects. In this review, we report an analysis of the recent literature on the role of oxidative stress in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases as well as in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, retinal ganglion cells, and ataxia. Moreover, the contribution of stem cells has been widely explored, looking at their potential in neuronal differentiation and reporting findings on their application in fighting oxidative stress in different neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, the exposure to mesenchymal stem cells or their secretome can be considered as a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance antioxidant capacity and neurotrophin expression while inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, which are common aspects of neurodegenerative pathologies. Further studies are needed to identify a tailored approach for each neurodegenerative disease in order to design more effective stem cell therapeutic strategies to prevent a broad range of neurodegenerative disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Neuroscience)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop