Special Issue "Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Improving Effects of Natural Compounds on Immune Cell Functions"
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2022.
Interests: natural compound; exercise; macrophage; phagocytosis; inflammatory response; cell signaling; M1 and M2 polarization; infectious disease; chronic inflammatory disease; obesity
Macrophages play essential roles in the first line of innate immune responses, by phagocytosing pathogens using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as scavenger receptors and mannose receptors. Macrophages also produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines to promote inflammation in the infectious foci, by detecting a broad range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns using PRRs, such as the toll-like receptors, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, and retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptors. These initial reactions of macrophages in the early stage of infection are essential for effective clearance of pathogens and subsequent activation of acquired immune responses. However, it is suggested that functional impairment of immune cells, including macrophages, natural killer cells, and T- and B-lymphocytes causes increased susceptibility to infectious diseases in populations with pathophysiological conditions, such as advanced aging, obesity, and diabetes. In contrast, macrophages mediate systemic chronic low-grade inflammation, by producing pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns, in obese individuals to develop metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is an important task to establish evidence-based strategies for improving reduced immune cell functions or regulating excessive macrophage pro-inflammatory responses. Among these are daily intake of functional foods or supplementation of their ingredients, which are expected to modulate immune cell functions without influencing serious side-effects. This special issue aims to provide the evidence worldwide, by calling for original and review articles that address molecular mechanisms supporting biological effects of natural compounds on immune cell functions. In vivo and in vitro experiments are acceptable to examine the effects of a single compound. Using cell lines is useful to reveal detailed mechanisms, but it is also encouraged to confirm whether similar biological activities or mechanisms are observed in primary cultured cells.
Dr. Ken Shirato
Manuscript Submission Information
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- natural compounds
- immune cells
- inflammatory responses
- cell signaling
- pattern recognition receptors
- pathogen-associated and danger-associated molecular patterns
- danger-associated molecular patterns
- infectious diseases
- chronic inflammatory diseases