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Special Issue "Molecular Mechanism Underlying the Endocrine Abnormalities Associated with Severe Illness"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Jose Joaquin Lado-Abeal
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Guest Editor
Professor of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, USA
Director, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Prisma Health Midlands, Columbia, SC, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The organism homeostasis and the endocrine system functions are closely related to each other. Although both are profoundly affected during a severe illness, a direct pathogenic role of changes in the endocrine system on the homeostasis of organisms during disease has not been established. The endocrine alterations observed during severe illness are considered adaptative. With the exception of glucocorticoids and insulin replacement, the prevalent idea in the clinical practice is that patients with hormonal abnormalities resulting from severe illness should not be given a hormonal replacement.  Due to the very high prevalence of endocrine abnormalities resulting from diseases, this clinical attitude implies that the most common endocrine problems occurring in the inpatient setting are neglected.

Nowadays, patients can be maintained on artificial life support for a prolonged period of time. Consequently, the hormonal abnormalities associated with the disease can be several weeks or even months. As such, the consequences of nonintervention with a hormonal replacement should be revisited and reviewed.

We will address the molecular changes and mechanisms underlying the multiple endocrine abnormalities observed in patients with severe illness in this Special Issue. We will review the mechanisms responsible for the differences in serum hormonal levels, in the action of hormones at cellular levels, and in the endocrine glands’ morphology during illnesses.  We hope that an accurate exposition of the knowledge acquired until today will lay the foundations for a rational scientific discussion about the current clinical practice regarding the endocrine system's function during illness.

Prof. Jose Joaquin Lado-Abeal
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (2 papers)

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Article
Lactobacillus plantarum ATG-K2 and ATG-K6 Ameliorates High-Fat with High-Fructose Induced Intestinal Inflammation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4444; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22094444 - 24 Apr 2021
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Abstract
Obesity has become a worldwide health problem, and many significant inflammatory markers have been associated with the risk of side effects of obesity and obesity-related diseases. After a normal diet or high-fat diet with high-fructose water (HFHF) for 8 weeks, male Wistar rats [...] Read more.
Obesity has become a worldwide health problem, and many significant inflammatory markers have been associated with the risk of side effects of obesity and obesity-related diseases. After a normal diet or high-fat diet with high-fructose water (HFHF) for 8 weeks, male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four experimental groups according to body weight. Next, for 8 weeks, a normal diet, HFHF diet, and HFHF diet with L. plantarum strains ATG-K2 or ATG-K6 were administered orally. Compared to the control group, the HFHF diet group showed significantly increased visceral fat, epididymal fat, and liver weight. The mRNA and protein expression levels of FAS and SREBP-1c were higher in the HFHF diet group than in the HFHF diet with L. plantarum strains ATG-K2 and ATG-K6. The HFHF diet with L. plantarum strain ATG-K2 showed significantly decreased inflammatory cytokine expression in the serum and small intestine compared to the HFHF diet group. Furthermore, histological morphology showed minor cell injury, less severe infiltration, and longer villi height in the small intestine ileum of the HFHF diet with L. plantarum strains groups than in the HFHF diet group. These results suggest that L. plantarum strains K2 and K6 may help reduce intestinal inflammation and could be used as treatment alternatives for intestinal inflammatory reactions and obesity. Full article
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Review
Role of Adipose Tissue in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 4226; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22084226 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 666
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), chronic inflammatory disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract, include Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. There are increasing clinical and experimental data showing that obesity, especially visceral adiposity, plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Obesity seems to be [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), chronic inflammatory disorders affecting the gastrointestinal tract, include Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. There are increasing clinical and experimental data showing that obesity, especially visceral adiposity, plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Obesity seems to be an important risk factor also for IBD disease severity and clinical outcomes. Visceral adipose tissue is an active multifunctional metabolic organ involved in lipid storage and immunological and endocrine activity. Bowel inflammation penetrates the surrounding adipose tissue along the mesentery. Mesenteric fat serves as a barrier to inflammation and controls immune responses to the translocation of gut bacteria. At the same time, mesenteric adipose tissue may be the principal source of cytokines and adipokines responsible for inflammatory processes associated with IBD. This review is particularly focusing on the potential role of adipokines in IBD pathogenesis and their possible use as promising therapeutic targets. Full article
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