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Special Issue "Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Different Pathophysiological Conditions"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Anna Atlante
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Institute of Biomembranes, Bioenergetics and Molecular Biotechnologies, National Council of Research, Bari, Italy
Interests: Mitochondrial bioenergetics; oxidative phosphorylation; mitochondrial dysfunction; metabolic regulation; oxidative stress; apoptosis; Alzheimer’s disease; cystic fibrosis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Daniela Valenti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Biomembranes, Bioenergetics and Molecular Biotechnologies, National Council of Research, Bari, Italy
Interests: Mitochondrial bioenergetics; mitochondrial metabolism; mitochondrial transport; mitochondrial signaling pathways; mitochondrial dysfunction; neurodevelopmental diseases; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; programmed cell death
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Mitochondria are central actors in the bioenergetics of cellular life. They are maternally inherited, multifunctional organelles widely known for generating energy in the form of ATP through the inner membrane mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes that form the functional respirasome. Besides the oxidative phosphorylation process, mitochondrial transport, inter-organelle crosstalk, mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis and degradation all play a critical role in the efficiency and homeostasis of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Damage to these highly energetic and redox-sensitive organelles can result in an increase in the autophagic removal of the mitochondria (mitophagy) and disruption to the mitochondrial network. Mitochondrial dysfunction is now emerging as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of a broad range of human diseases, directly or indirectly, through a wide spectrum of signaling pathways.

Contributions to this Special Issue will provide new insights into mitochondrial bioenergetics to deepen our understanding of its role in health and disease and reveal novel mitochondria-targeting therapeutic opportunities. Original research articles and topical reviews on these and related topics are welcome in this Special Issue.

Dr. Anna Atlante
Dr. Daniela Valenti
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mitochondrial ATP generation
  • oxidative phosphorylation machinery
  • mitochondrial quality control
  • mitochondrial dynamic network
  • mitogenesis/mitophagy
  • mitochondrial signaling
  • inter-organelle crosstalk
  • mitochondrial dysfunction
  • mitochondria-targeting therapeutic strategies

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Different Pathophysiological Conditions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7562; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22147562 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Mitochondria are complex intracellular organelles involved in many aspects of cellular life, with a primary role in bioenergy production via oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) [...] Full article

Review

Jump to: Editorial

Review
The Mystery of Extramitochondrial Proteins Lysine Succinylation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(11), 6085; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22116085 - 04 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 715
Abstract
Lysine succinylation is a post-translational modification which alters protein function in both physiological and pathological processes. Mindful that it requires succinyl-CoA, a metabolite formed within the mitochondrial matrix that cannot permeate the inner mitochondrial membrane, the question arises as to how there can [...] Read more.
Lysine succinylation is a post-translational modification which alters protein function in both physiological and pathological processes. Mindful that it requires succinyl-CoA, a metabolite formed within the mitochondrial matrix that cannot permeate the inner mitochondrial membrane, the question arises as to how there can be succinylation of proteins outside mitochondria. The present mini-review examines pathways participating in peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation that lead to succinyl-CoA production, potentially supporting succinylation of extramitochondrial proteins. Furthermore, the influence of the mitochondrial status on cytosolic NAD+ availability affecting the activity of cytosolic SIRT5 iso1 and iso4—in turn regulating cytosolic protein lysine succinylations—is presented. Finally, the discovery that glia in the adult human brain lack subunits of both alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and succinate-CoA ligase—thus being unable to produce succinyl-CoA in the matrix—and yet exhibit robust pancellular lysine succinylation, is highlighted. Full article
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Review
Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Turnover during Chronic Muscle Disuse
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(10), 5179; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22105179 - 13 May 2021
Viewed by 1420
Abstract
Periods of muscle disuse promote marked mitochondrial alterations that contribute to the impaired metabolic health and degree of atrophy in the muscle. Thus, understanding the molecular underpinnings of muscle mitochondrial decline with prolonged inactivity is of considerable interest. There are translational applications to [...] Read more.
Periods of muscle disuse promote marked mitochondrial alterations that contribute to the impaired metabolic health and degree of atrophy in the muscle. Thus, understanding the molecular underpinnings of muscle mitochondrial decline with prolonged inactivity is of considerable interest. There are translational applications to patients subjected to limb immobilization following injury, illness-induced bed rest, neuropathies, and even microgravity. Studies in these patients, as well as on various pre-clinical rodent models have elucidated the pathways involved in mitochondrial quality control, such as mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, fission and fusion, and the corresponding mitochondrial derangements that underlie the muscle atrophy that ensues from inactivity. Defective organelles display altered respiratory function concurrent with increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which exacerbate myofiber atrophy via degradative pathways. The preservation of muscle quality and function is critical for maintaining mobility throughout the lifespan, and for the prevention of inactivity-related diseases. Exercise training is effective in preserving muscle mass by promoting favourable mitochondrial adaptations that offset the mitochondrial dysfunction, which contributes to the declines in muscle and whole-body metabolic health. This highlights the need for further investigation of the mechanisms in which mitochondria contribute to disuse-induced atrophy, as well as the specific molecular targets that can be exploited therapeutically. Full article
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Review
When the Balance Tips: Dysregulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics as a Culprit in Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4617; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22094617 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 461
Abstract
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, the morphology of which is tightly linked to their functions. The interplay between the coordinated events of fusion and fission that are collectively described as mitochondrial dynamics regulates mitochondrial morphology and adjusts mitochondrial function. Over the last few years, [...] Read more.
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, the morphology of which is tightly linked to their functions. The interplay between the coordinated events of fusion and fission that are collectively described as mitochondrial dynamics regulates mitochondrial morphology and adjusts mitochondrial function. Over the last few years, accruing evidence established a connection between dysregulated mitochondrial dynamics and disease development and progression. Defects in key components of the machinery mediating mitochondrial fusion and fission have been linked to a wide range of pathological conditions, such as insulin resistance and obesity, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Here, we provide an update on the molecular mechanisms promoting mitochondrial fusion and fission in mammals and discuss the emerging association of disturbed mitochondrial dynamics with human disease. Full article
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Review
Mitochondrial DNA Methylation and Human Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4594; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22094594 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 801
Abstract
Epigenetic modifications of the nuclear genome, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA post-transcriptional regulation, are increasingly being involved in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. Recent evidence suggests that also epigenetic modifications of the mitochondrial genome could contribute to the etiology [...] Read more.
Epigenetic modifications of the nuclear genome, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA post-transcriptional regulation, are increasingly being involved in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. Recent evidence suggests that also epigenetic modifications of the mitochondrial genome could contribute to the etiology of human diseases. In particular, altered methylation and hydroxymethylation levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been found in animal models and in human tissues from patients affected by cancer, obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, environmental factors, as well as nuclear DNA genetic variants, have been found to impair mtDNA methylation patterns. Some authors failed to find DNA methylation marks in the mitochondrial genome, suggesting that it is unlikely that this epigenetic modification plays any role in the control of the mitochondrial function. On the other hand, several other studies successfully identified the presence of mtDNA methylation, particularly in the mitochondrial displacement loop (D-loop) region, relating it to changes in both mtDNA gene transcription and mitochondrial replication. Overall, investigations performed until now suggest that methylation and hydroxymethylation marks are present in the mtDNA genome, albeit at lower levels compared to those detectable in nuclear DNA, potentially contributing to the mitochondria impairment underlying several human diseases. Full article
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Review
Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines as Models to Study Mitochondrial Function in Neurological Disorders
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4536; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22094536 - 26 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 619
Abstract
Neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, are collectively a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Whilst the underlying disease mechanisms remain elusive, altered mitochondrial function has been clearly implicated and is a key area of study in these disorders. Studying mitochondrial function in [...] Read more.
Neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, are collectively a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Whilst the underlying disease mechanisms remain elusive, altered mitochondrial function has been clearly implicated and is a key area of study in these disorders. Studying mitochondrial function in these disorders is difficult due to the inaccessibility of brain tissue, which is the key tissue affected in these diseases. To overcome this issue, numerous cell models have been used, each providing unique benefits and limitations. Here, we focussed on the use of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) to study mitochondrial function in neurological disorders. LCLs have long been used as tools for genomic analyses, but here we described their use in functional studies specifically in regard to mitochondrial function. These models have enabled characterisation of the underlying mitochondrial defect, identification of altered signalling pathways and proteins, differences in mitochondrial function between subsets of particular disorders and identification of biomarkers of the disease. The examples provided here suggest that these cells will be useful for development of diagnostic tests (which in most cases do not exist), identification of drug targets and testing of pharmacological agents, and are a worthwhile model for studying mitochondrial function in neurological disorders. Full article
Review
Mitochondrial Bioenergetic, Photobiomodulation and Trigeminal Branches Nerve Damage, What’s the Connection? A Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4347; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22094347 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 728
Abstract
Background: Injury of the trigeminal nerve in oral and maxillofacial surgery can occur. Schwann cell mitochondria are regulators in the development, maintenance and regeneration of peripheral nerve axons. Evidence shows that after the nerve injury, mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction occurs and is associated with [...] Read more.
Background: Injury of the trigeminal nerve in oral and maxillofacial surgery can occur. Schwann cell mitochondria are regulators in the development, maintenance and regeneration of peripheral nerve axons. Evidence shows that after the nerve injury, mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction occurs and is associated with pain, neuropathy and nerve regeneration deficit. A challenge for research is to individuate new therapies able to normalise mitochondrial and energetic metabolism to aid nerve recovery after damage. Photobiomodulation therapy can be an interesting candidate, because it is a technique involving cell manipulation through the photonic energy of a non-ionising light source (visible and NIR light), which produces a nonthermal therapeutic effect on the stressed tissue. Methods: The review was based on the following questions: (1) Can photo-biomodulation by red and NIR light affect mitochondrial bioenergetics? (2) Can photobiomodulation support damage to the trigeminal nerve branches? (preclinical and clinical studies), and, if yes, (3) What is the best photobiomodulatory therapy for the recovery of the trigeminal nerve branches? The papers were searched using the PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane databases. This review followed the ARRIVE-2.0, PRISMA and Cochrane RoB-2 guidelines. Results and conclusions: The reliability of photobiomodulatory event strongly bases on biological and physical-chemical evidence. Its principal player is the mitochondrion, whether its cytochromes are directly involved as a photoacceptor or indirectly through a vibrational and energetic variation of bound water: water as the photoacceptor. The 808-nm and 100 J/cm2 (0.07 W; 2.5 W/cm2; pulsed 50 Hz; 27 J per point; 80 s) on rats and 800-nm and 0.2 W/cm2 (0.2 W; 12 J/cm2; 12 J per point; 60 s, CW) on humans resulted as trustworthy therapies, which could be supported by extensive studies. Full article
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Review
A Walk in the Memory, from the First Functional Approach up to Its Regulatory Role of Mitochondrial Bioenergetic Flow in Health and Disease: Focus on the Adenine Nucleotide Translocator
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(8), 4164; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22084164 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 403
Abstract
The mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) plays the fundamental role of gatekeeper of cellular energy flow, carrying out the reversible exchange of ADP for ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane. ADP enters the mitochondria where, through the oxidative phosphorylation process, it is the [...] Read more.
The mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) plays the fundamental role of gatekeeper of cellular energy flow, carrying out the reversible exchange of ADP for ATP across the inner mitochondrial membrane. ADP enters the mitochondria where, through the oxidative phosphorylation process, it is the substrate of Fo-F1 ATP synthase, producing ATP that is dispatched from the mitochondrion to the cytoplasm of the host cell, where it can be used as energy currency for the metabolic needs of the cell that require energy. Long ago, we performed a method that allowed us to monitor the activity of ANT by continuously detecting the ATP gradually produced inside the mitochondria and exported in the extramitochondrial phase in exchange with externally added ADP, under conditions quite close to a physiological state, i.e., when oxidative phosphorylation takes place. More than 30 years after the development of the method, here we aim to put the spotlight on it and to emphasize its versatile applicability in the most varied pathophysiological conditions, reviewing all the studies, in which we were able to observe what really happened in the cell thanks to the use of the “ATP detecting system” allowing the functional activity of the ANT-mediated ADP/ATP exchange to be measured. Full article
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Review
Mitochondrial Structure and Bioenergetics in Normal and Disease Conditions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 586; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020586 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1206
Abstract
Mitochondria are ubiquitous intracellular organelles found in almost all eukaryotes and involved in various aspects of cellular life, with a primary role in energy production. The interest in this organelle has grown stronger with the discovery of their link to various pathologies, including [...] Read more.
Mitochondria are ubiquitous intracellular organelles found in almost all eukaryotes and involved in various aspects of cellular life, with a primary role in energy production. The interest in this organelle has grown stronger with the discovery of their link to various pathologies, including cancer, aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, dysfunctional mitochondria cannot provide the required energy to tissues with a high-energy demand, such as heart, brain and muscles, leading to a large spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Mitochondrial defects are at the origin of a group of clinically heterogeneous pathologies, called mitochondrial diseases, with an incidence of 1 in 5000 live births. Primary mitochondrial diseases are associated with genetic mutations both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), affecting genes involved in every aspect of the organelle function. As a consequence, it is difficult to find a common cause for mitochondrial diseases and, subsequently, to offer a precise clinical definition of the pathology. Moreover, the complexity of this condition makes it challenging to identify possible therapies or drug targets. Full article
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Review
Mitochondrial Mechanisms of Necroptosis in Liver Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22010066 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1121
Abstract
Cell death represents a basic biological paradigm that governs outcomes and long-term sequelae in almost every hepatic disease. Necroptosis is a common form of programmed cell death in the liver. Necroptosis can be activated by ligands of death receptors, which then interact with [...] Read more.
Cell death represents a basic biological paradigm that governs outcomes and long-term sequelae in almost every hepatic disease. Necroptosis is a common form of programmed cell death in the liver. Necroptosis can be activated by ligands of death receptors, which then interact with receptor-interactive protein kinases 1 (RIPK1). RIPK1 mediates receptor interacting receptor-interactive protein kinases 3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) and necrosome formation. Regarding the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial-mediated necroptosis, the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL necrosome complex can enhance oxidative respiration and generate reactive oxygen species, which can be a crucial factor in the susceptibility of cells to necroptosis. The necrosome complex is also linked to mitochondrial components such as phosphoglycerate mutase family member 5 (PGAM5), metabolic enzymes in the mitochondrial matrix, mitochondrial permeability protein, and cyclophilin D. In this review, we focus on the role of mitochondria-mediated cell necroptosis in acute liver injury, chronic liver diseases, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and its possible translation into clinical applications. Full article
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