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Special Issue "Role of NF-kappaB Pathway in Inflammation and Infection"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2022.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Ralf Kircheis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Syntacoll GmbH, Saal a.d.Donau, Bayern, Germany
Interests: immunotherapy, gene therapy, gene delivery, non-viral vectors, innate immunity, cancer vaccines, COVID-19, NF-kappaB, cytokines, TNFalpha, collagen, drug

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) pathway comprises a family of inducible transcription factors that serve as central regulators in essential physiological processes, such as cell growth, apoptosis, innate and adaptive immune response by modulating the expression of hundreds of genes encoding multiple cytokines and chemokines, their receptors, molecules involved in immune recognition, antigen presentation, cell adhesion and migration.

Recent studies indicate that NF-kB may be central to the immune hyperactivation and cytokine/chemokine storm observed during acute stage COVID-19. There is growing evidence that severity of clinical manifestations during COVID-19 is higher preferably in elderly persons and in connection with various comorbidities, such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases where NF-kB is known to play a central role. Chronical activation of NF-kB pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, also aging is associated with increased NF-kB activation. In addition, NF-kB plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of various acute situations, such as sepsis, acute respiratory syndrome, and reactivity to CAR-T cell therapy triggering pro-inflammatory cytokine release and procoagulation activation.

Altogether, these data indicate that the NF-kB pathway may be highly relevant in the immune pathological mechanisms of COVID-19 and an interesting target for pharmacological intervention and re-purposing of drugs for treatment.

The scope of this special issue is to summarize and enlarge the knowledge in NF-kB pathway and its involvement in immunological and pathological processes of COVID-19.

Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • New aspects of NF-kB signalling pathways and their correlation to immunology and pathophysiology of COVID-19
  • Epidemiological aspects of NF-kB associated to COVID-19 and other infectious and/or non-communicable diseases
  • Translational research, pharmacological and medical interventions with NF-kB pathway as a therapeutic target for COVID-19 treatment

Ralf Kircheis, MD PhD
Guest Editor


Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Inflammation
  • Innate and adaptive immune response
  • Cytokine and chemokine
  • Complement and coagulation
  • Obesity and diabetes
  • Aging
  • Sepsis
  • Viral disease
  • Influenza
  • COVID-19

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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Article
Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide in the Management of Sepsis-Induced Coagulopathy and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11388; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms222111388 - 21 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a severe condition characterized by the systemic formation of microthrombi complicated with bleeding tendency and organ dysfunction. In the last years, it represents one of the most frequent consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The pathogenesis of DIC [...] Read more.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a severe condition characterized by the systemic formation of microthrombi complicated with bleeding tendency and organ dysfunction. In the last years, it represents one of the most frequent consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The pathogenesis of DIC is complex, with cross-talk between the coagulant and inflammatory pathways. The objective of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory action of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced DIC model in rats. Experimental DIC was induced by continual infusion of LPS (30 mg/kg) for 4 h through the tail vein. Um-PEA (30 mg/kg) was given orally 30 min before and 1 h after the start of intravenous infusion of LPS. Results showed that um-PEA reduced alteration of coagulation markers, as well as proinflammatory cytokine release in plasma and lung samples, induced by LPS infusion. Furthermore, um-PEA also has the effect of preventing the formation of fibrin deposition and lung damage. Moreover, um-PEA was able to reduce the number of mast cells (MCs) and the release of its serine proteases, which are also necessary for SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results suggest that um-PEA could be considered as a potential therapeutic approach in the management of DIC and in clinical implications associated to coagulopathy and lung dysfunction, such as COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of NF-kappaB Pathway in Inflammation and Infection)
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Review

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Review
Coagulopathies after Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 May Be Derived from a Combined Effect of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein and Adenovirus Vector-Triggered Signaling Pathways
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10791; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms221910791 - 06 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in a global pandemic with worldwide 6-digit infection rates and thousands of death tolls daily. Enormous efforts are undertaken to achieve high coverage of immunization to reach herd immunity in order to stop the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection. [...] Read more.
Novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in a global pandemic with worldwide 6-digit infection rates and thousands of death tolls daily. Enormous efforts are undertaken to achieve high coverage of immunization to reach herd immunity in order to stop the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Several SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on mRNA, viral vectors, or inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus have been approved and are being applied worldwide. However, the recent increased numbers of normally very rare types of thromboses associated with thrombocytopenia have been reported, particularly in the context of the adenoviral vector vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 from Astra Zeneca. The statistical prevalence of these side effects seems to correlate with this particular vaccine type, i.e., adenoviral vector-based vaccines, but the exact molecular mechanisms are still not clear. The present review summarizes current data and hypotheses for molecular and cellular mechanisms into one integrated hypothesis indicating that coagulopathies, including thromboses, thrombocytopenia, and other related side effects, are correlated to an interplay of the two components in the vaccine, i.e., the spike antigen and the adenoviral vector, with the innate and immune systems, which under certain circumstances can imitate the picture of a limited COVID-19 pathological picture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of NF-kappaB Pathway in Inflammation and Infection)
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