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Special Issue "Dysregulation of Human Molecular and Metabolic Mechanisms Resulting in Oxidative Stress and Damage Generation in the Space Environment"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine and the Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Interests: oxidative stress; antioxidants; botanicals; radiation toxicity; lung inflammation; lung fibrosis; space radiation; radiotherapy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Thomas J. Goodwin
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Sovaris Aerospace, Research Innovation, Infectious Disease Research Center Colorado State University; The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA retired) Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058, USA
Interests: ageing; oxidative stress and damage; antioxidants; radiation toxicity; inflammation; genomics; proteomics; metabolomics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues:

The phenomenon of oxidative stress and damage (OSaD) is recognized as an important common denominator in human physiological function and disease occurrence, on Earth and in space, signifying the vital nature of the topic. Advanced and evolving “multi-omics” technologies permit the analyses of essential molecular and metabolic processes in the medical arena, facilitating planning for deep space exploration missions with the intent to discover new habitats and commercial markets for humankind. In the past, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has spearheaded this effort and research into the identification of risks to crew members associated with such lengthy missions. Now, commercial and defense efforts are pioneering promising applications of the space environment in low Earth orbit (LEO). Investigators across the US, Europe, and Asia have identified oxidative damage as a significant risk to organ systems that could pose a threat to the health of astronauts and the success of a variety of missions. This Special Issue of IJMS is dedicated to providing a comprehensive overview of the identified elemental risks and pivotal theme of OSaD impact in major organ systems when exposed to space-relevant conditions, such as cosmic/galactic radiation, solar particle events, hypogravity, hyperoxia, and hypoxia or a combination of these stressors.

Prof. Dr. Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou
Dr. Thomas J. Goodwin
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • OSaD
  • Galactic cosmic radiation (GCR)
  • Deep space exploration
  • Low earth orbit commercialization
  • Health risk mitigation
  • Tissue toxicity

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Chronic Low Dose Neutron Exposure Results in Altered Neurotransmission Properties of the Hippocampus-Prefrontal Cortex Axis in Both Mice and Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(7), 3668; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22073668 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 371
Abstract
The proposed deep space exploration to the moon and later to Mars will result in astronauts receiving significant chronic exposures to space radiation (SR). SR exposure results in multiple neurocognitive impairments. Recently, our cross-species (mouse/rat) studies reported impaired associative memory formation in both [...] Read more.
The proposed deep space exploration to the moon and later to Mars will result in astronauts receiving significant chronic exposures to space radiation (SR). SR exposure results in multiple neurocognitive impairments. Recently, our cross-species (mouse/rat) studies reported impaired associative memory formation in both species following a chronic 6-month low dose exposure to a mixed field of neutrons (1 mGy/day for a total dose pf 18 cGy). In the present study, we report neutron exposure induced synaptic plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex, accompanied by microglial activation and significant synaptic loss in the hippocampus. In a parallel study, neutron exposure was also found to alter fluorescence assisted single synaptosome LTP (FASS-LTP) in the hippocampus of rats, that may be related to a reduced ability to insert AMPAR into the post-synaptic membrane, which may arise from increased phosphorylation of the serine 845 residue of the GluA1 subunit. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time, that low dose chronic neutron irradiation impacts homeostatic synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal-cortical circuit in two rodent species, and that the ability to successfully encode associative recognition memory is a dynamic, multicircuit process, possibly involving compensatory changes in AMPAR density on the synaptic surface. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Low Dose Space Radiation Exposures on the Splenic Metabolome
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 3070; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22063070 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Future space missions will include a return to the Moon and long duration deep space roundtrip missions to Mars. Leaving the protection that Low Earth Orbit provides will unavoidably expose astronauts to higher cumulative doses of space radiation, in addition to other stressors, [...] Read more.
Future space missions will include a return to the Moon and long duration deep space roundtrip missions to Mars. Leaving the protection that Low Earth Orbit provides will unavoidably expose astronauts to higher cumulative doses of space radiation, in addition to other stressors, e.g., microgravity. Immune regulation is known to be impacted by both radiation and spaceflight and it remains to be seen whether prolonged effects that will be encountered in deep space can have an adverse impact on health. In this study, we investigated the effects in the overall metabolism of three different low dose radiation exposures (γ-rays, 16O, and 56Fe) in spleens from male C57BL/6 mice at 1, 2, and 4 months after exposure. Forty metabolites were identified with significant enrichment in purine metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, fatty acids, acylcarnitines, and amino acids. Early perturbations were more prominent in the γ irradiated samples, while later responses shifted towards more prominent responses in groups with high energy particle irradiations. Regression analysis showed a positive correlation of the abundance of identified fatty acids with time and a negative association with γ-rays, while the degradation pathway of purines was positively associated with time. Taken together, there is a strong suggestion of mitochondrial implication and the possibility of long-term effects on DNA repair and nucleotide pools following radiation exposure. Full article
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