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Special Issue "Cytoprotective Effects of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) and Related Peptides"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Dora Reglodi
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Anatomy, University of Pecs Medical School, Pecs, Hungary
Interests: PACAP; apoptosis; inflammation; cellular protection; vip; secretin; glucagon

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide discovered more than thirty years ago from hypothalamic extracts. It belongs to a big peptide family, the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), secretin, glucagon peptide family, acting through G protein-coupled receptors. Early studies already pointed out the robust neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of PACAP in vitro and in vivo through a combination of antiapototic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Although originally isolated from the central nervous system, and although early studies showed highest concentration in the brain, PACAP also has a very widespread occurrence in peripheral organs. Numerous studies have provided proof that PACAP exerts trophic and protective effects not only in the nervous system but also in several peripheral cell types and organs. The general cytoprotective effects of the peptide also point to the potential of PACAP as a therapeutic agent in numerous toxic, traumatic or ischemic injuries of different cells and tissues. Related peptides, especially VIP, have also been proven to act as protective factors in different cellular and animal models.

The aim of this Special Issue is to gather original and review papers on the general cytoprotective effects of PACAP and related peptides. In vitro, in vivo, and human studies with potential medical importance are all welcome.

Dr. Dora Reglodi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • PACAP
  • apoptosis
  • inflammation
  • cellular protection
  • vip
  • secretin
  • glucagon

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Age and Sex-Dependent ADNP Regulation of Muscle Gene Expression Is Correlated with Motor Behavior: Possible Feedback Mechanism with PACAP
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6715; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186715 - 14 Sep 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), a double-edged sword, sex-dependently regulates multiple genes and was previously associated with the control of early muscle development and aging. Here we aimed to decipher the involvement of ADNP in versatile muscle gene expression patterns in correlation with [...] Read more.
The activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), a double-edged sword, sex-dependently regulates multiple genes and was previously associated with the control of early muscle development and aging. Here we aimed to decipher the involvement of ADNP in versatile muscle gene expression patterns in correlation with motor function throughout life. Using quantitative RT-PCR we showed that Adnp+/− heterozygous deficiency in mice resulted in aberrant gastrocnemius (GC) muscle, tongue and bladder gene expression, which was corrected by the Adnp snippet, drug candidate, NAP (CP201). A significant sexual dichotomy was discovered, coupled to muscle and age-specific gene regulation. As such, Adnp was shown to regulate myosin light chain (Myl) in the gastrocnemius (GC) muscle, the language acquisition gene forkhead box protein P2 (Foxp2) in the tongue and the pituitary-adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor PAC1 mRNA (Adcyap1r1) in the bladder, with PACAP linked to bladder function. A tight age regulation was observed, coupled to an extensive correlation to muscle function (gait analysis), placing ADNP as a muscle-regulating gene/protein. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse as a Model of Testis Degeneration
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5726; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165726 - 10 Aug 2020
Abstract
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with protective functions in the central nervous system and various peripheral organs. PACAP has the highest expression level in the testes, among the peripheral organs, and has a positive regulative role in spermatogenesis and [...] Read more.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with protective functions in the central nervous system and various peripheral organs. PACAP has the highest expression level in the testes, among the peripheral organs, and has a positive regulative role in spermatogenesis and in sperm motility. In the present study, we explored testicular degenerative alterations in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (B6C3-Tg(APPswe,PSEN1dE9)85Dbo/J) and demonstrated changes in PACAP-regulated signaling pathways. In addition, the effects of increased physical activity of AD (trained AD (TAD)) mice on testis were also followed. Reduced cell number and decreased thickness of basement membrane were detected in AD samples. These changes were compensated by physical activity. Expression of PACAP receptors and canonical signaling elements such as PKA, P-PKA, PP2A significantly decreased in AD mice, and altered Sox transcription factor expression was also detected. Via this signaling mechanism, physical activity compensated the negative effects of AD on the expression of type IV collagen. Our findings suggest that the testes of AD mice can be a good model of testis degeneration. Moreover, it can be an appropriate organ to follow the effects of various interventions such as physical activity on tissue regeneration and signaling alterations. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Effects of PACAP on Schwann Cells: Focus on Nerve Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8233; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21218233 - 03 Nov 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Schwann cells, the most abundant glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, represent the key players able to supply extracellular microenvironment for axonal regrowth and restoration of myelin sheaths on regenerating axons. Following nerve injury, Schwann cells respond adaptively to damage by acquiring [...] Read more.
Schwann cells, the most abundant glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, represent the key players able to supply extracellular microenvironment for axonal regrowth and restoration of myelin sheaths on regenerating axons. Following nerve injury, Schwann cells respond adaptively to damage by acquiring a new phenotype. In particular, some of them localize in the distal stump to form the Bungner band, a regeneration track in the distal site of the injured nerve, whereas others produce cytokines involved in recruitment of macrophages infiltrating into the nerve damaged area for axonal and myelin debris clearance. Several neurotrophic factors, including pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), promote survival and axonal elongation of injured neurons. The present review summarizes the evidence existing in the literature demonstrating the autocrine and/or paracrine action exerted by PACAP to promote remyelination and ameliorate the peripheral nerve inflammatory response following nerve injury. Full article
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