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Special Issue "Peripheral Artery Disease: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Approaches"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Ayotunde O. Dokun
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, 200 Hawkins Drive, E400-DD GH, Iowa City, IA 52242-1182, USA
Interests: Peripheral Artery Disease; Angiogenesis; Ischemia; Ischemic limb; Diabetes and MicroRNAs
Dr. Mitsuharu Okutsu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Graduate School of Science Division of Biological Science, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
Interests: muscle physiology and biology; oxidative stress; mitochondria biogenesis; angiogenesis; muscle fiber type switching; muscle contractile activity
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to atherosclerosis causing impaired blood flow in vessels outside the heart, most commonly affecting arteries of the lower extremities. PAD affects millions of people around the world. There are two classic clinical presentations of PAD: intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia. Individuals with intermittent claudication typically present with pain with ambulation that is relieved by rest, while those with critical limb ischemia (CLI) present with pain at rest and often have associated ulceration or gangrene. This form of PAD is associated with a high risk of limb amputation and death. The prevalence of PAD is now estimated to be higher than that of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease combined. Unlike ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, less is known about the molecular mechanisms driving the development of PAD. Moreover, diabetes, smoking and aging are critical drivers of PAD but how these factors contribute to PAD development and poorer outcomes in PAD is not well known. Currently, there are no effective medical treatments addressing the key issues in PAD, which are impaired blood flow and limb ischemic injury.

This Special Issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences aims to bring together the state-of-the-art views and original research on molecular mechanisms in diabetes, smoking or aging contributing to the development of PAD and PAD severity. Intervention to improve blood flow and or limb ischemic injury will also be explored.

Dr. Ayotunde O. Dokun
Dr. Mitsuharu Okutsu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

Review
The Role of Mitochondrial Function in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Insights from Translational Studies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8478; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22168478 - 06 Aug 2021
Viewed by 606
Abstract
Recent evidence demonstrates an involvement of impaired mitochondrial function in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) development. Specific impairments have been assessed by different methodological in-vivo (near-infrared spectroscopy, 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy), as well as in-vitro approaches (Western blotting of mitochondrial proteins and enzymes, [...] Read more.
Recent evidence demonstrates an involvement of impaired mitochondrial function in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) development. Specific impairments have been assessed by different methodological in-vivo (near-infrared spectroscopy, 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy), as well as in-vitro approaches (Western blotting of mitochondrial proteins and enzymes, assays of mitochondrial function and content). While effects differ with regard to disease severity, chronic malperfusion impacts subcellular energy homeostasis, and repeating cycles of ischemia and reperfusion contribute to PAD disease progression by increasing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and impairing mitochondrial function. With the leading clinical symptom of decreased walking capacity due to intermittent claudication, PAD patients suffer from a subsequent reduction of quality of life. Different treatment modalities, such as physical activity and revascularization procedures, can aid mitochondrial recovery. While the relevance of these modalities for mitochondrial functional recovery is still a matter of debate, recent research indicates the importance of revascularization procedures, with increased physical activity levels being a subordinate contributor, at least during mild stages of PAD. With an additional focus on the role of revascularization procedures on mitochondria and the identification of suitable mitochondrial markers in PAD, this review aims to critically evaluate the relevance of mitochondrial function in PAD development and progression. Full article
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Review
Outcomes of Lower Extremity Endovascular Revascularization: Potential Predictors and Prevention Strategies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 2002; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22042002 - 18 Feb 2021
Viewed by 655
Abstract
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a manifestation of atherosclerosis, which may affect arteries of the lower extremities. The most dangerous PAD complication is chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). Without revascularization, CLTI often causes limb loss. However, neither open surgical revascularization nor endovascular treatment (EVT) [...] Read more.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a manifestation of atherosclerosis, which may affect arteries of the lower extremities. The most dangerous PAD complication is chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). Without revascularization, CLTI often causes limb loss. However, neither open surgical revascularization nor endovascular treatment (EVT) ensure long-term success and freedom from restenosis and revascularization failure. In recent years, EVT has gained growing acceptance among all vascular specialties, becoming the primary approach of revascularization in patients with CLTI. In clinical practice, different clinical outcomes after EVT in patients with similar comorbidities undergoing the same procedure (in terms of revascularization technique and localization of the disease) cause unsolved issues that need to be addressed. Nowadays, risk management of revascularization failure is one of the major challenges in the vascular field. The aim of this literature review is to identify potential predictors for lower extremity endovascular revascularization outcomes and possible prevention strategies. Full article
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