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Special Issue "T-Regulatory Cells in Autoimmunity and Transplantation"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Loredana Frasca
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Istituto Superiore di Sanita’, National Centre for Pre-Clinical and Clinical Drug Research and Evaluation, Pharmacological Research and Experimental Therapy Unit, 00166 Rome, Italy
Interests: Immunology; chronic inflammatory diseases; autoimmunity; adaptive immunity; antigen presentation; antimicrobial peptides; antimicrobial chemokines; B Cells; antibodies
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Autoimmune diseases are non-communicable diseases characterized by self-tolerance breakdown. Some of these diseases are mainly classified as autoantibody-driven diseases (for instance systemic lupus erythematosus), however, others such as psoriasis, are T-cell mediated. Alloreactivity is a phenomenon induced by organ and tissue transplantation, in which the host’s adaptive immune response is activated by alloantigens present on the transplant. In both situations, autoimmunity and alloreactivity, it is necessary to block excessive immune responses by immune suppressant treatments. Regulatory T-cells are pivotal to maintain immune homeostasis and prevent autoreactive responses activation by suppressing T and/or B-cell responses directed towards self-antigens. However, the same cells also regulate allotransplant tolerance. T-regulatory cell-based adoptive therapies have been tried in both autoimmunity and transplantation fields. In both situations, sterile inflammation is present.

This Special Issue calls for original research articles and reviews on the importance of T-regulatory cells, and the molecular mechanisms underlying their actions, in autoreactivity and transplantation. Appropriate animal studies on autoimmune disease and transplantation models are also of interest. This Special Issue points to bring together the knowledge in two scientific settings that tend to be sectoral but address exactly the same issue: suppress deleterious immune responses and consequent tissue/organ damage. We strongly believe that knowledge, experience accumulated in in vivo models and clinical achievements should be shared between these two fields of medicine and research to improve patients’ lives.

Dr. Loredana Frasca
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • T-regulatory cells
  • Autoimmunity
  • Alloreactivity
  • Adaptive immunity
  • Antigen presentation
  • Biomarkers
  • Therapy targets
  • Inflammation
  • Immune regulation
  • T-regs based immune-therapy

Published Papers (1 paper)

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The Mandible Ameliorates Facial Allograft Rejection and Is Associated with the Development of Regulatory T Cells and Mixed Chimerism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(20), 11104; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms222011104 - 14 Oct 2021
Viewed by 283
Vascularized composite allografts contain various tissue components and possess relative antigenicity, eliciting different degrees of alloimmune responses. To investigate the strategies for achieving facial allograft tolerance, we established a mouse hemiface transplant model, including the skin, muscle, mandible, mucosa, and vessels. However, the [...] Read more.
Vascularized composite allografts contain various tissue components and possess relative antigenicity, eliciting different degrees of alloimmune responses. To investigate the strategies for achieving facial allograft tolerance, we established a mouse hemiface transplant model, including the skin, muscle, mandible, mucosa, and vessels. However, the immunomodulatory effects of the mandible on facial allografts remain unclear. To understand the effects of the mandible on facial allograft survival, we compared the diversities of different facial allograft-elicited alloimmunity between a facial osteomyocutaneous allograft (OMC), including skin, muscle, oral mucosa, and vessels, and especially the mandible, and a myocutaneous allograft (MC) including the skin, muscle, oral mucosa, and vessels, but not the mandible. The different facial allografts of a BALB/c donor were transplanted into a heterotopic neck defect on fully major histocompatibility complex-mismatched C57BL/6 mice. The allogeneic OMC (Allo-OMC) group exhibited significant prolongation of facial allograft survival compared to the allogeneic MC group, both in the presence and absence of FK506 immunosuppressive drugs. With the use of FK506 monotherapy (2 mg/kg) for 21 days, the allo-OMC group, including the mandible, showed prolongation of facial allograft survival of up to 65 days, whereas the myocutaneous allograft, without the mandible, only survived for 34 days. The Allo-OMC group also displayed decreased lymphocyte infiltration into the facial allograft. Both groups showed similar percentages of B cells, T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells in the blood, spleen, and lymph nodes. However, a decrease in pro-inflammatory T helper 1 cells and an increase in anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells were observed in the blood and lymph nodes of the Allo-OMC group. Significantly increased percentages of donor immune cells were also observed in three lymphoid organs of the Allo-OMC group, suggesting mixed chimerism induction. These results indicated that the mandible has the potential to induce anti-inflammatory effects and mixed chimerism for prolonging facial allograft survival. The immunomodulatory understanding of the mandible could contribute to reducing the use of immunosuppressive regimens in clinical face allotransplantation including the mandible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T-Regulatory Cells in Autoimmunity and Transplantation)
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