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Special Issue "Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2020"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 April 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Hikmet Budak
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University - Bozeman, Bozeman, MT, USA
Interests: biotic and abiotic stress response
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The world is threatened by two major dilemmas: plants that suffer from a/biotic stress (i.e., drought, heat, salt stressors, climate change, insects and diseases); humans that suffer from malnutrition (i.e., vitamin A, zinc and iron deficiencies). These stresses and dilemmas are also a major threat for international food security as the demand for food will increase by 70% by 2050. In order to tackle these two major dilemmas and to have climate resilient plants, it is scientists’ obligation to develop and to use innovative technologies and opportunities. OMICS (Genomics, Transcriptomics Metabolomics, and Ionomics) and genome editing (CRISPR/Cas) are two of the technologies that can readily be used to tackle both major problems.

Abiotic stress leads to abnormalities in cellular homeostasis which have detrimental effects on growth and development. Being sessile organisms, plant abiotic stress signaling is a key element to better understanding plant acclimation and adaptation to environmental fluctuations. Autophagy; non coding small RNAs, such as microRNAs; and Long non coding RNAs (LncRNAs), considered as the mechanism in plants, have been associated with plant abiotic stress responses and are known to have novel roles in stress signaling and gene networks. Hence, in this Special Issue, these major elements of abiotic stress signaling will also be covered and addressed along with the pathway and, in the light of recent discoveries, a putative, state-of-art role.

"Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants" will address the underlying molecular mechanisms of a wide range of abiotic stress, including micronutrient deficiencies, using tools and technologies available.

Prof. Dr. Hikmet Budak
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Article
Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Two Aegilops tauschii with Contrasting Drought Tolerance by RNA-Seq
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3595; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21103595 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1218
Abstract
As the diploid progenitor of common wheat, Aegilops tauschii is considered to be a valuable resistance source to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little has been reported concerning the molecular mechanism of drought tolerance in Ae. tauschii. In this work, the [...] Read more.
As the diploid progenitor of common wheat, Aegilops tauschii is considered to be a valuable resistance source to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, little has been reported concerning the molecular mechanism of drought tolerance in Ae. tauschii. In this work, the drought tolerance of 155 Ae. tauschii accessions was firstly screened on the basis of their coleoptile lengths under simulated drought stress. Subsequently, two accessions (XJ002 and XJ098) with contrasting coleoptile lengths were selected and intensively analyzed on rate of water loss (RWL) as well as physiological characters, confirming the difference in drought tolerance at the seedling stage. Further, RNA-seq was utilized for global transcriptome profiling of the two accessions seedling leaves under drought stress conditions. A total of 6969 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with drought tolerance were identified, and their functional annotations demonstrated that the stress response was mediated by pathways involving alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, peroxisome, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. In addition, DEGs with obvious differences between the two accessions were intensively analyzed, indicating that the expression level of DEGs was basically in alignment with the physiological changes of Ae. tauschii under drought stress. The results not only shed fundamental light on the regulatory process of drought tolerance in Ae. tauschii, but also provide a new gene resource for improving the drought tolerance of common wheat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2020)
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Article
Wheat Heat Shock Factor TaHsfA6f Increases ABA Levels and Enhances Tolerance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses in Transgenic Plants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21093121 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1177
Abstract
Abiotic stresses are major constraints limiting crop growth and production. Heat shock factors (Hsfs) play significant roles in mediating plant resistance to various environmental stresses, including heat, drought and salinity. In this study, we explored the biological functions and underlying mechanisms of wheat [...] Read more.
Abiotic stresses are major constraints limiting crop growth and production. Heat shock factors (Hsfs) play significant roles in mediating plant resistance to various environmental stresses, including heat, drought and salinity. In this study, we explored the biological functions and underlying mechanisms of wheat TaHsfA6f in plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses. Gene expression profiles showed that TaHsfA6f has relatively high expression levels in wheat leaves at the reproductive stage. Transcript levels of TaHsfA6f were substantially up-regulated by heat, dehydration, salinity, low temperature, and multiple phytohormones, but was not induced by brassinosteroids (BR). Subcellular localization analyses revealed that TaHsfA6f is localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of the TaHsfA6f gene in Arabidopsis results in improved tolerance to heat, drought and salt stresses, enhanced sensitivity to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), and increased accumulation of ABA. Furthermore, RNA-sequencing data demonstrated that TaHsfA6f functions through up-regulation of a number of genes involved in ABA metabolism and signaling, and other stress-associated genes. Collectively, these results provide evidence that TaHsfA6f participates in the regulation of multiple abiotic stresses, and that TaHsfA6f could serve as a valuable gene for genetic modification of crop abiotic stress tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2020)
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Article
Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Alligator Weed Leaves Reveals That Cationic Peroxidase 1 Plays Vital Roles in the Potassium Deficiency Stress Response
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2537; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21072537 - 06 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 902
Abstract
Alligator weed is reported to have a strong ability to adapt to potassium deficiency (LK) stress. Leaves are the primary organs responsible for photosynthesis of plants. However, quantitative proteomic changes in alligator weed leaves in response to LK stress are largely unknown. In [...] Read more.
Alligator weed is reported to have a strong ability to adapt to potassium deficiency (LK) stress. Leaves are the primary organs responsible for photosynthesis of plants. However, quantitative proteomic changes in alligator weed leaves in response to LK stress are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the physiological and proteomic changes in leaves of alligator weed under LK stress. We found that chloroplast and mesophyll cell contents in palisade tissue increased, and that the total chlorophyll content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and net photosynthetic rate (PN) increased after 15 day of LK treatment, but the soluble protein content decreased. Quantitative proteomic analysis suggested that a total of 119 proteins were differentially abundant proteins (DAPs). KEGG analysis suggested that most represented DAPs were associated with secondary metabolism, the stress response, photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and degradation pathway. The proteomic results were verified using parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (PRM–MS) analysis and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)assays. Additional research suggested that overexpression of cationic peroxidase 1 of alligator weed (ApCPX1) in tobacco increased LK tolerance. The seed germination rate, peroxidase (POD) activity, and K+ content increased, and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content decreased in the three transgenic tobacco lines after LK stress. The number of root hairs of the transgenic line was significantly higher than that of WT, and net K efflux rates were severely decreased in the transgenic line under LK stress. These results confirmed that ApCPX1 played positive roles in low-K+ signal sensing. These results provide valuable information on the adaptive mechanisms in leaves of alligator weed under LK stress and will help identify vital functional genes to apply to the molecular breeding of LK-tolerant plants in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2020)
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Article
Expression Analyses of Soybean VOZ Transcription Factors and the Role of GmVOZ1G in Drought and Salt Stress Tolerance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2177; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21062177 - 21 Mar 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Vascular plant one-zinc-finger (VOZ) transcription factor, a plant specific one-zinc-finger-type transcriptional activator, is involved in regulating numerous biological processes such as floral induction and development, defense against pathogens, and response to multiple types of abiotic stress. Six VOZ transcription factor-encoding genes (GmVOZs [...] Read more.
Vascular plant one-zinc-finger (VOZ) transcription factor, a plant specific one-zinc-finger-type transcriptional activator, is involved in regulating numerous biological processes such as floral induction and development, defense against pathogens, and response to multiple types of abiotic stress. Six VOZ transcription factor-encoding genes (GmVOZs) have been reported to exist in the soybean (Glycine max) genome. In spite of this, little information is currently available regarding GmVOZs. In this study, GmVOZs were cloned and characterized. GmVOZ genes encode proteins possessing transcriptional activation activity in yeast cells. GmVOZ1E, GmVOZ2B, and GmVOZ2D gene products were widely dispersed in the cytosol, while GmVOZ1G was primarily located in the nucleus. GmVOZs displayed a differential expression profile under dehydration, salt, and salicylic acid (SA) stress conditions. Among them, GmVOZ1G showed a significantly induced expression in response to all stress treatments. Overexpression of GmVOZ1G in soybean hairy roots resulted in a greater tolerance to drought and salt stress. In contrast, RNA interference (RNAi) soybean hairy roots suppressing GmVOZ1G were more sensitive to both of these stresses. Under drought treatment, soybean composite plants with an overexpression of hairy roots had higher relative water content (RWC). In response to drought and salt stress, lower malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and higher peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were observed in soybean composite seedlings with an overexpression of hairy roots. The opposite results for each physiological parameter were obtained in RNAi lines. In conclusion, GmVOZ1G positively regulates drought and salt stress tolerance in soybean hairy roots. Our results will be valuable for the functional characterization of soybean VOZ transcription factors under abiotic stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2020)
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Article
Identification and Characterization of NPR1 and PR1 Homologs in Cymbidium orchids in Response to Multiple Hormones, Salinity and Viral Stresses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 1977; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21061977 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1247
Abstract
The plant nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related 1 (NPR1) and pathogenesis-associated 1 (PR1) genes play fundamental roles in plant immunity response, as well as abiotic-stress tolerance. Nevertheless, comprehensive identification and characterization of NPR1 and PR1 homologs has not been conducted to [...] Read more.
The plant nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related 1 (NPR1) and pathogenesis-associated 1 (PR1) genes play fundamental roles in plant immunity response, as well as abiotic-stress tolerance. Nevertheless, comprehensive identification and characterization of NPR1 and PR1 homologs has not been conducted to date in Cymbidium orchids, a valuable industrial crop cultivated as ornamental and medicinal plants worldwide. Herein, three NPR1-like (referred to as CsNPR1-1, CsNPR1-2, and CsNPR1-3) and two PR1-like (CsPR1-1 and CsPR1-2) genes were genome-widely identified from Cymbidium orchids. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed that CsNPR1-1 and CsNPR1-2 were grouped closest to NPR1 homologs in Zea mays (sharing 81.98% identity) and Phalaenopsis (64.14%), while CsNPR1-3 was classified into a distinct group with Oryza sativa NPR 3 (57.72%). CsPR1-1 and CsPR1-2 were both grouped closest to Phalaenopsis PR1 and other monocot plants. Expression profiling showed that CsNPR1 and CsPR1 were highly expressed in stem/pseudobulb and/or flower. Salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) significantly up-regulated expressions of CsNPR1-2, CsPR1-1 and CsPR1-2, while CsNPR1-3, CsPR1-1 and CsPR1-2 were significantly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) or salinity (NaCl) stress. In vitro transcripts of entire Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) genomic RNA were successfully transfected into Cymbidium protoplasts, and the CymMV infection up-regulated the expression of CsNPR1-2, CsPR1-1 and CsPR1-2. Additionally, these genes were transiently expressed in Cymbidium protoplasts for subcellular localization analysis, and the presence of SA led to the nuclear translocation of the CsNPR1-2 protein, and the transient expression of CsNPR1-2 greatly enhanced the expression of CsPR1-1 and CsPR1-2. Collectively, the CsNPR1-2-mediated signaling pathway is SA-dependent, and confers to the defense against CymMV infection in Cymbidium orchids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2020)
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Article
Different MicroRNA Families Involved in Regulating High Temperature Stress Response during Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Anther Development
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1280; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21041280 - 14 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small molecule RNAs widely involved in responses to plant abiotic stresses. We performed small RNA sequencing of cotton anthers at four developmental stages under normal and high temperature (NT and HT, respectively) conditions to investigate the stress response characteristics of [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small molecule RNAs widely involved in responses to plant abiotic stresses. We performed small RNA sequencing of cotton anthers at four developmental stages under normal and high temperature (NT and HT, respectively) conditions to investigate the stress response characteristics of miRNA to HT. A total of 77 miRNAs, including 33 known miRNAs and 44 novel miRNAs, were identified, and 41 and 28 miRNAs were differentially expressed under NT and HT stress conditions, respectively. The sporogenous cell proliferation (SCP), meiotic phase (MP), microspore release period (MRP), and pollen maturity (PM) stages had 10 (including 12 miRNAs), four (including six miRNAs), four (including five miRNAs), and seven (including 11 miRNAs) HT stress-responsive miRNA families, respectively, which were identified after removing the changes in genotype-specific miRNAs under NT condition. Seven miRNA families (miR2949, miR167, and miR160 at the SCP stage; miR156 and miR172 at the MP stage; miR156 at the MRP stage; and miR393 and miR3476 at the PM stage), which had expression abundance of more than 10% of the total expression abundance, served as the main regulators responding to HT stress with positive or negative regulation patterns. These miRNAs orchestrated the expression of the corresponding target genes and led to different responses in the HT-tolerant and the HT-sensitive lines. The results revealed that the HT stress response of miRNAs in cotton anthers were stage-specific and differed with the development of anthers. Our study may enhance the understanding of the response of miRNAs to HT stress in cotton anthers and may clarify the mechanism of plant tolerance to HT stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2020)
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Article
Overexpression of a Malus baccata NAC Transcription Factor Gene MbNAC25 Increases Cold and Salinity Tolerance in Arabidopsis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1198; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21041198 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1210
Abstract
NAC (no apical meristem (NAM), Arabidopsis thaliana transcription activation factor (ATAF1/2) and cup shaped cotyledon (CUC2)) transcription factors play crucial roles in plant development and stress responses. Nevertheless, to date, only a few reports regarding stress-related NAC genes are available in Malus baccata [...] Read more.
NAC (no apical meristem (NAM), Arabidopsis thaliana transcription activation factor (ATAF1/2) and cup shaped cotyledon (CUC2)) transcription factors play crucial roles in plant development and stress responses. Nevertheless, to date, only a few reports regarding stress-related NAC genes are available in Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. In this study, the transcription factor MbNAC25 in M. baccata was isolated as a member of the plant-specific NAC family that regulates stress responses. Expression of MbNAC25 was induced by abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, high salinity and heat. The ORF of MbNAC25 is 1122 bp, encodes 373 amino acids and subcellular localization showed that MbNAC25 protein was localized in the nucleus. In addition, MbNAC25 was highly expressed in new leaves and stems using real-time PCR. To analyze the function of MbNAC25 in plants, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpressed MbNAC25. Under low-temperature stress (4 °C) and high-salt stress (200 mM NaCl), plants overexpressing MbNAC25 enhanced tolerance against cold and drought salinity conferring a higher survival rate than that of wild-type (WT). Correspondingly, the chlorophyll content, proline content, the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased, while malondialdehyde (MDA) content was lower. These results indicated that the overexpression of MbNAC25 in Arabidopsis plants improved the tolerance to cold and salinity stress via enhanced scavenging capability of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2020)
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Article
Maize ZmBES1/BZR1-5 Decreases ABA Sensitivity and Confers Tolerance to Osmotic Stress in Transgenic Arabidopsis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 996; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21030996 - 03 Feb 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1397
Abstract
The BRI1-EMS suppressor 1 (BES1)/brassinazole-resistant 1 (BZR1) transcription factors, key components in the brassinosteroid signaling pathway, play pivotal roles in plant growth and development. However, the function of BES1/BZR1 in crops during stress response remains poorly understood. In the present study, we characterized [...] Read more.
The BRI1-EMS suppressor 1 (BES1)/brassinazole-resistant 1 (BZR1) transcription factors, key components in the brassinosteroid signaling pathway, play pivotal roles in plant growth and development. However, the function of BES1/BZR1 in crops during stress response remains poorly understood. In the present study, we characterized ZmBES1/BZR1-5 from maize, which was localized to the nucleus and was responsive to abscisic acid (ABA), salt and drought stresses. Heterologous expression of ZmBES1/BZR1-5 in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in decreased ABA sensitivity, facilitated shoot growth and root development, and enhanced salt and drought tolerance with lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative electrolyte leakage (REL) under osmotic stress. The RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis revealed that 84 common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were regulated by ZmBES1/BZR1-5 in transgenic Arabidopsis. Subsequently, gene ontology and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses showed that the DEGs were enriched in response to stress, secondary metabolism and metabolic pathways. Furthermore, 30 DEGs were assigned to stress response and possessed 2–15 E-box elements in their promoters, which could be potentially recognized and bound by ZmBES1/BZR1-5. Taken together, our results reveal that the ZmBES1/BZR1-5 transcription factor positively regulates salt and drought tolerance by binding to E-box to induce the expression of downstream stress-related genes. Therefore, our study contributes to the better understanding of BES1/BZR1 function in the stress response of plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2020)
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Article
Analysis of Aldo–Keto Reductase Gene Family and Their Responses to Salt, Drought, and Abscisic Acid Stresses in Medicago truncatula
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 754; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21030754 - 23 Jan 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1172
Abstract
Salt and drought stresses are two primary abiotic stresses that inhibit growth and reduce the activity of photosynthetic apparatus in plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in abiotic stress regulation in plants. Some aldo–keto reductases (AKRs) can enhance various abiotic stresses [...] Read more.
Salt and drought stresses are two primary abiotic stresses that inhibit growth and reduce the activity of photosynthetic apparatus in plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in abiotic stress regulation in plants. Some aldo–keto reductases (AKRs) can enhance various abiotic stresses resistance by scavenging cytotoxic aldehydes in some plants. However, there are few comprehensive reports of plant AKR genes and their expression patterns in response to abiotic stresses. In this study, we identified 30 putative AKR genes from Medicago truncatula. The gene characteristics, coding protein motifs, and expression patterns of these MtAKRs were analyzed to explore and identify candidate genes in regulation of salt, drought, and ABA stresses. The phylogenetic analysis result indicated that the 52 AKRs in Medicago truncatula and Arabidopsis thaliana can be divided into three groups and six subgroups. Fifteen AKR genes in M. truncatula were randomly selected from each group or subgroup, to investigate their response to salt (200 mM of NaCl), drought (50 g·L−1 of PEG 6000), and ABA (100 µM) stresses in both leaves and roots. The results suggest that MtAKR1, MtAKR5, MtAKR11, MtAKR14, MtAKR20, and MtAKR29 may play important roles in response to these stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2020)
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Article
Glycerol-Induced Powdery Mildew Resistance in Wheat by Regulating Plant Fatty Acid Metabolism, Plant Hormones Cross-Talk, and Pathogenesis-Related Genes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 673; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21020673 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1388
Abstract
Our previous study indicated that glycerol application induced resistance to powdery mildew (Bgt) in wheat by regulating two important signal molecules, glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and oleic acid (OA18:1). Transcriptome analysis of wheat leaves treated by glycerol and inoculated with Bgt was performed [...] Read more.
Our previous study indicated that glycerol application induced resistance to powdery mildew (Bgt) in wheat by regulating two important signal molecules, glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and oleic acid (OA18:1). Transcriptome analysis of wheat leaves treated by glycerol and inoculated with Bgt was performed to identify the activated immune response pathways. We identified a set of differentially expressed transcripts (e.g., TaGLI1, TaACT1, and TaSSI2) involved in glycerol and fatty acid metabolism that were upregulated in response to Bgt infection and might contribute to G3P and OA18:1 accumulation. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed GO terms induced by glycerol, such as response to jasmonic acid (JA), defense response to bacterium, lipid oxidation, and growth. In addition, glycerol application induced genes (e.g., LOX, AOS, and OPRs) involved in the metabolism pathway of linolenic and alpha-linolenic acid, which are precursor molecules of JA biosynthesis. Glycerol induced JA and salicylic acid (SA) levels, while glycerol reduced the auxin (IAA) level in wheat. Glycerol treatment also induced pathogenesis related (PR) genes, including PR-1, PR-3, PR-10, callose synthase, PRMS, RPM1, peroxidase, HSP70, HSP90, etc. These results indicate that glycerol treatment regulates fatty acid metabolism and hormones cross-talk and induces the expression of PR genes that together contribute to Bgt resistance in wheat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2020)
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Article
Characterization of the Soybean GmIREG Family Genes and the Function of GmIREG3 in Conferring Tolerance to Aluminum Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 497; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21020497 - 13 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 994
Abstract
The IREG (IRON REGULATED/ferroportin) family of genes plays vital roles in regulating the homeostasis of iron and conferring metal stress. This study aims to identify soybean IREG family genes and characterize the function of GmIREG3 in conferring tolerance to aluminum stress. Bioinformatics and [...] Read more.
The IREG (IRON REGULATED/ferroportin) family of genes plays vital roles in regulating the homeostasis of iron and conferring metal stress. This study aims to identify soybean IREG family genes and characterize the function of GmIREG3 in conferring tolerance to aluminum stress. Bioinformatics and expression analyses were conducted to identify six soybean IREG family genes. One GmIREG, whose expression was significantly enhanced by aluminum stress, GmIREG3, was studied in more detail to determine its possible role in conferring tolerance to such stress. In total, six potential IREG-encoding genes with the domain of Ferroportin1 (PF06963) were characterized in the soybean genome. Analysis of the GmIREG3 root tissue expression patterns, subcellular localizations, and root relative elongation and aluminum content of transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing GmIREG3 demonstrated that GmIREG3 is a tonoplast localization protein that increases transgenic Arabidopsis aluminum resistance but does not alter tolerance to Co and Ni. The systematic analysis of the GmIREG gene family reported herein provides valuable information for further studies on the biological roles of GmIREGs in conferring tolerance to metal stress. GmIREG3 contributes to aluminum resistance and plays a role similar to that of FeIREG3. The functions of other GmIREG genes need to be further clarified in terms of whether they confer tolerance to metal stress or other biological functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2020)
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Article
Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Gene Family in Allotetraploid Cotton and Its Diploid Progenitors: In Silico Identification, Molecular Characterization, and Gene Expression Analysis under Multiple Abiotic Stresses, DNA Damage and Phytohormone Treatments
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 321; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21010321 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a significant role in a plant’s development and response to various environmental stimuli by regulating the gene transcription. However, HDACs remain unidentified in cotton. In this study, a total of 29 HDACs were identified in allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum, [...] Read more.
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a significant role in a plant’s development and response to various environmental stimuli by regulating the gene transcription. However, HDACs remain unidentified in cotton. In this study, a total of 29 HDACs were identified in allotetraploid Gossypium hirsutum, while 15 and 13 HDACs were identified in Gossypium arboretum and Gossypium raimondii, respectively. Gossypium HDACs were classified into three groups (reduced potassium dependency 3 (RPD3)/HDA1, HD2-like, and Sir2-like (SRT) based on their sequences, and Gossypium HDACs within each subgroup shared a similar gene structure, conserved catalytic domains and motifs. Further analysis revealed that Gossypium HDACs were under a strong purifying selection and were unevenly distributed on their chromosomes. Gene expression data revealed that G. hirsutum HDACs were differentially expressed in various vegetative and reproductive tissues, as well as at different developmental stages of cotton fiber. Furthermore, some G. hirsutum HDACs were co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) of fiber-related traits, indicating their function in fiber-related traits. We also showed that G. hirsutum HDACs were differentially regulated in response to plant hormones (abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin), DNA damage agent (methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)), and abiotic stresses (cold, salt, heavy metals and drought), indicating the functional diversity and specification of HDACs in response to developmental and environmental cues. In brief, our results provide fundamental information regarding G. hirsutum HDACs and highlight their potential functions in cotton growth, fiber development and stress adaptations, which will be helpful for devising innovative strategies for the improvement of cotton fiber and stress tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2020)
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Review

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Review
Salt Stress Signals on Demand: Cellular Events in the Right Context
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 3918; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21113918 - 30 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
Plant stress is a real dilemma; it puzzles plant biologists and is a global problem that negatively affects people’s daily lives. Of particular interest is salinity, because it represents one of the major water-related stress types. We aimed to determine the signals that [...] Read more.
Plant stress is a real dilemma; it puzzles plant biologists and is a global problem that negatively affects people’s daily lives. Of particular interest is salinity, because it represents one of the major water-related stress types. We aimed to determine the signals that guide the cellular-related events where various adaptation mechanisms cross-talk to cope with salinity-related water stress in plants. In an attempt to unravel these mechanisms and introduce cellular events in the right context, we expansively discussed how salt-related signals are sensed, with particular emphasis on aquaporins, nonselective cation channels (NSCCs), and glycosyl inositol phosphorylceramide (GIPC). We also elaborated on the critical role Ca2+, H+, and ROS in mediating signal transduction pathways associated with the response and tolerance to salt stress. In addition, the fragmentary results from the literature were compiled to develop a harmonized, informational, and contemplative model that is intended to improve our perception of these adaptative mechanisms and set a common platform for plant biologists to identify intriguing research questions in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Abiotic Stress and Gene Networks in Plants 2020)
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