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Special Issue "Anthocyanins: Chemistry and Bioactivity 2.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Joana Oliveira
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Laboratório Associado para a Química Verde – REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal
Interests: phenolic compounds; anthocyanins; anthocyanin-derived compounds; food byproducts; food and cosmetic applications; photodynamic therapy
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Anthocyanins are a class of phenolic compounds responsible for a great diversity of colors (from red to blue) found in nature, especially flowers and fruits, and in some processed products such as juices and red wines. Over the years, numerous biologic studies have demonstrated their potential health benefits to humans, especially related to the antioxidant properties of anthocyanins. In aqueous solution, these pigments exist as different species: flavylium cation, neutral and anionic quinoidal base, hemiketal form, and cis- and trans-chalcone forms in equilibrium. Besides pH, anthocyanin stability is also affected by light, temperature, and exposure to oxygen, which has been limiting their use in food and cosmetic matrices as colorants and nutraceutics. Several strategies have been reported in the literature regarding the stabilization of these pigments towards their application into different matrices. This includes interaction with different compounds, including polymers, and chemical/enzymatic transformation into more stable pigments.

We invite researchers to contribute either with original research or review articles focusing on, but not limited to i) chemical transformation of anthocyanins towards the production of more stabilized structures with appealing chromatic features; ii) stabilization of anthocyanin using original approaches; iii) mechanism of action in improving human nutrition; iv) bioactivity (bioavailability, metabolites, enzymes inhibition, anti-proliferative and anti-bacterial activities).

7 papers have been published in volume I:
Anthocyanins: Chemistry and Bioactivity

Dr. Joana Oliveira
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • anthocyanins
  • chemical and enzymatic transformation
  • physical–chemical features
  • anthocyanins in human nutrition
  • enzyme interactions
  • anthocyanin bioavailability
  • antiproliferative activity
  • antibacterial activity

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Auxin Treatment Enhances Anthocyanin Production in the Non-Climacteric Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10760; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms221910760 - 05 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key signaling molecule promoting ripening of non-climacteric fruits such as sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). To shed light on the role of other hormones on fruit development, ripening and anthocyanin production, the synthetic auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) [...] Read more.
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key signaling molecule promoting ripening of non-climacteric fruits such as sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). To shed light on the role of other hormones on fruit development, ripening and anthocyanin production, the synthetic auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) was applied to sweet cherry trees during the straw-color stage of fruit development. NAA-treated fruits exhibited higher concentrations of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE), which are a precursor of ethylene and a primary storage form of ABA, respectively. Consistent with these observations, transcript levels of genes encoding ACC synthase and ACC oxidase, both involved in ethylene biosynthesis, were increased after 6 days of NAA treatment, and both ABA concentration and expression of the regulator gene of ABA biosynthesis (NCED1 encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase) were highest during early fruit ripening. In addition, transcript levels of key anthocyanin regulatory, biosynthetic and transport genes were significantly upregulated upon fruit exposure to NAA. This was accompanied by an increased anthocyanin concentration and fruit weight whilst fruit firmness and cracking index decreased. Altogether our data suggest that NAA treatment alters ethylene production, which in turn induces ripening in sweet cherry and enhanced anthocyanin production, possibly through ABA metabolism. The results from our study highlight the potential to use a single NAA treatment for manipulation of cherry ripening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins: Chemistry and Bioactivity 2.0)
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Article
Immunomodulatory Properties of Blackberry Anthocyanins in THP-1 Derived Macrophages
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10483; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms221910483 - 28 Sep 2021
Viewed by 360
Abstract
An anthocyanin-rich diet is considered to protect against chronic inflammatory processes although the bioavailability of anthocyanins is regarded as rather low. Moreover, the immunomodulatory role of anthocyanins is not fully understood yet. In the present study, fractions of blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) [...] Read more.
An anthocyanin-rich diet is considered to protect against chronic inflammatory processes although the bioavailability of anthocyanins is regarded as rather low. Moreover, the immunomodulatory role of anthocyanins is not fully understood yet. In the present study, fractions of blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) juice were investigated in plasma-relevant concentrations with respect to their immunomodulatory properties in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged THP-1-derived macrophages. The complex blackberry extract acted ineffective as well as potential degradation products. Cyanidin-3O-glucoside (Cy3glc), the main constituent of blackberry anthocyanins, diminished TNF-α levels at a concentration of 0.02 µg/mL, indicating protective effects as measured with quantitative RT-PCR and multiplex cytokine assays. LPS-boosted activity of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) of differentiated THP-1 reporter gene cells was marginally inhibited by Cy3glc. LPS-induced microRNA-155 was further increased, supporting the evidence of protection. Of note, fractions obtained from blackberry juice, in particular cyanidin-3O-(6″-dioxalylglucoside), were displaying potential pro-inflammatory properties as these elevated IL-6 and TNF-α levels. In conclusion, highly purified anthocyanin fractions of blackberry juice display both anti- and pro-inflammatory properties at plasma-relevant concentrations depending on their structure and substitution pattern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins: Chemistry and Bioactivity 2.0)
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Article
A SmelAAT Acyltransferase Variant Causes a Major Difference in Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Peel Anthocyanin Composition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(17), 9174; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22179174 - 25 Aug 2021
Viewed by 573
Abstract
Eggplant berries are rich in anthocyanins like delphinidin-3-rutinoside (D3R) and nasunin (NAS), which are accumulated at high amounts in the peel. NAS is derived by D3R through acylation and glycosylation steps. The presence of D3R or NAS is usually associated with black-purple or [...] Read more.
Eggplant berries are rich in anthocyanins like delphinidin-3-rutinoside (D3R) and nasunin (NAS), which are accumulated at high amounts in the peel. NAS is derived by D3R through acylation and glycosylation steps. The presence of D3R or NAS is usually associated with black-purple or lilac fruit coloration of the most cultivated varieties, respectively. Building on QTL mapping position, a candidate gene approach was used to investigate the involvement of a BAHD anthocyanin acyltransferase (SmelAAT) in determining anthocyanin type. The cDNA sequence comparison revealed the presence of a single-base deletion in D3R-type line ‘305E40’ (305E40_aat) with respect to the NAS-type reference line ‘67/3’. This is predicted to cause a frame shift mutation, leading to a loss of SmelAAT function and, thus, D3R retention. RT-qPCR analyses confirmed SmelAAT and 305E40_aat expression during berry maturation. In D3R-type lines, ‘305E40’ and ‘DR2’, overexpressing the functional SmelAAT allele from ‘67/3’, the transcript levels of the transgene correlated with the accumulation of NAS in fruit peel. Furthermore, it was also found a higher expression of the transcript for glucosyltransferase Smel5GT1, putatively involved with SmelAAT in the last steps of anthocyanin decoration. Finally, an indel marker matching with anthocyanin type in the ‘305E40’ × ’67/3’ segregating population was developed and validated in a wide number of accessions, proving its usefulness for breeding purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins: Chemistry and Bioactivity 2.0)
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