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Special Issue "Changes Produced by Viruses and Bacteria on the Nervous System"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Soraya L. Valles
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
Interests: inflammation; oxidative stress; neurodegeneration; neurodevelopmental diseases; cell death; behaviour changes; neurons; glia
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last decade, many studies on how viruses and bacteria act on the nervous system have been published. These actions produce changes in the functionality and physiology of brain cells that increase neurodegeneration and affect neurodevelopment. The pathogenesis of viral and bacterial infections is complex and involves the activation of the mononuclear phagocytic system, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, endothelial dysfunction, alterations in the innate and adaptive immune systems, direct organ and endothelial damage from unrestrained viral and bacterial replication late in infection, and coagulopathy. We invite you to submit your latest research findings or a review article to this Special Issue, entitled “Changes Produced by Viruses and Bacteria in the Nervous System”, which we hope will bring together current research on the effects of viruses and bacteria on the nervous system. We welcome submissions concerning all aspects of changes in the nervous system produced by viruses and bacteria. We hope that this Special Issue will help highlight the most recent advances in our understanding of how viruses and bacteria act on the nervous system.

We look forward to your contribution.

Prof. Dr. Soraya L. Valles
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • virus
  • bacteria
  • nervous system
  • inflammation
  • oxidative stress
  • endothelial dysfunction
  • innate immune system
  • adaptive immune system
  • viral and bacterial replication
  • infection

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
Recurrent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Infection Modulates Neuronal Aging Marks in In Vitro and In Vivo Models
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(12), 6279; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22126279 - 11 Jun 2021
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Abstract
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a widespread neurotropic virus establishing a life-long latent infection in neurons with periodic reactivations. Recent studies linked HSV-1 to neurodegenerative processes related to age-related disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Here, we explored whether recurrent HSV-1 infection might [...] Read more.
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a widespread neurotropic virus establishing a life-long latent infection in neurons with periodic reactivations. Recent studies linked HSV-1 to neurodegenerative processes related to age-related disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Here, we explored whether recurrent HSV-1 infection might accelerate aging in neurons, focusing on peculiar marks of aged cells, such as the increase in histone H4 lysine (K) 16 acetylation (ac) (H4K16ac); the decrease of H3K56ac, and the modified expression of Sin3/HDAC1 and HIRA proteins. By exploiting both in vitro and in vivo models of recurrent HSV-1 infection, we found a significant increase in H4K16ac, Sin3, and HDAC1 levels, suggesting that the neuronal response to virus latency and reactivation includes the upregulation of these aging markers. On the contrary, we found a significant decrease in H3K56ac that was specifically linked to viral reactivation and apparently not related to aging-related markers. A complex modulation of HIRA expression and localization was found in the brain from HSV-1 infected mice suggesting a specific role of this protein in viral latency and reactivation. Overall, our results pointed out novel molecular mechanisms through which recurrent HSV-1 infection may affect neuronal aging, likely contributing to neurodegeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes Produced by Viruses and Bacteria on the Nervous System)
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Article
Human Herpesvirus-6 and -7 in the Brain Microenvironment of Persons with Neurological Pathology and Healthy People
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2364; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22052364 - 27 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 690
Abstract
During persistent human beta-herpesvirus (HHV) infection, clinical manifestations may not appear. However, the lifelong influence of HHV is often associated with pathological changes in the central nervous system. Herein, we evaluated possible associations between immunoexpression of HHV-6, -7, and cellular immune response across [...] Read more.
During persistent human beta-herpesvirus (HHV) infection, clinical manifestations may not appear. However, the lifelong influence of HHV is often associated with pathological changes in the central nervous system. Herein, we evaluated possible associations between immunoexpression of HHV-6, -7, and cellular immune response across different brain regions. The study aimed to explore HHV-6, -7 infection within the cortical lobes in cases of unspecified encephalopathy (UEP) and nonpathological conditions. We confirmed the presence of viral DNA by nPCR and viral antigens by immunohistochemistry. Overall, we have shown a significant increase (p < 0.001) of HHV antigen expression, especially HHV-7 in the temporal gray matter. Although HHV-infected neurons were found notably in the case of HHV-7, our observations suggest that higher (p < 0.001) cell tropism is associated with glial and endothelial cells in both UEP group and controls. HHV-6, predominantly detected in oligodendrocytes (p < 0.001), and HHV-7, predominantly detected in both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (p < 0.001), exhibit varying effects on neural homeostasis. This indicates a high number (p < 0.001) of activated microglia observed in the temporal lobe in the UEP group. The question remains of whether human HHV contributes to neurological diseases or are markers for some aspect of the disease process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes Produced by Viruses and Bacteria on the Nervous System)
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Review

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Review
The Nerves to Conduct a Multiple Sclerosis Crime Investigation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2498; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22052498 - 02 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1076
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory neurodegenerative autoimmune disease characterized by the aberrant infiltration of immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS) and by the loss of myelin. Sclerotic lesions and various inhibitory factors hamper the remyelination processes within the CNS. [...] Read more.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory neurodegenerative autoimmune disease characterized by the aberrant infiltration of immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS) and by the loss of myelin. Sclerotic lesions and various inhibitory factors hamper the remyelination processes within the CNS. MS patients typically experience gradual cognitive and physical disabilities as the disease progresses. The etiology of MS is still unclear and emerging evidence suggests that microbiome composition could play a much more significant role in disease pathogenesis than was initially thought. Initially believed to be isolated to the gut microenvironment, we now know that the microbiome plays a much broader role in various tissues and is essential in the development of the immune system. Here, we present some of the unexpected roles that the microbiome plays in MS and discuss approaches for the development of next-generation treatment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changes Produced by Viruses and Bacteria on the Nervous System)
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