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Special Issue "Emerging New Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 July 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Luc Rochette
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon, France
Interests: oxidative stress; free radicals; cardioprotection; mitochondria; humanin; mRNA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

A biomarker is defined as “a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention”. Biomarkers are by definition quantifiable characteristics of biological processes, but to identify biomarkers requires the determination of their relevance and validity. Among the most validated biomarkers that are currently in use, inflammation-related markers are prominent. Innovative biomarkers have emerged as relevant contributors in the energy-homeostasis field, and have appeared as valid biomarkers of various cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Among these presumed and specific biomarkers, several members of the TGF-Beta super-family, GDF15, GDF11, newly emerging cardiokines, miRNAs, and markers discovered via proteomics in relation to oxidative stress are involved in cardiovascular disease. The evaluation of their circulating levels might provide new insights into the course of the disease. Finally, innovative and specific biomarkers can also serve as new diagnostic markers for the detection of cardiovascular disorders to guide prognostication and emerging therapeutics. Authors are invited to submit original articles and review manuscripts addressing the topic of this Special Issue.

Prof. Luc Rochette
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biomarker
  • diagnostic
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • pathophysiological pathways
  • inflammation
  • growth factors
  • cardiokines
  • miRNAs
  • proteomics
  • therapeutic

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Urinary Levels of the Acrolein Conjugates of Carnosine Are Associated with Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1383; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031383 - 30 Jan 2021
Viewed by 419
Abstract
Carnosine is a naturally occurring dipeptide (β-alanine-L-histidine) which supports physiological homeostasis by buffering intracellular pH, chelating metals, and conjugating with and neutralizing toxic aldehydes such as acrolein. However, it is not clear if carnosine can support cardiovascular function or modify cardiovascular disease (CVD) [...] Read more.
Carnosine is a naturally occurring dipeptide (β-alanine-L-histidine) which supports physiological homeostasis by buffering intracellular pH, chelating metals, and conjugating with and neutralizing toxic aldehydes such as acrolein. However, it is not clear if carnosine can support cardiovascular function or modify cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To examine this, we measured urinary levels of nonconjugated carnosine and its acrolein conjugates (carnosine-propanal and carnosine-propanol) in participants of the Louisville Healthy Heart Study and examined associations with indices of CVD risk. We found that nonconjugated carnosine was significantly associated with hypertension (p = 0.011), heart failure (p = 0.015), those categorized with high CVD risk (p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI; p = 0.007), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; p = 0.026), high-density lipoprotein (HDL; p = 0.007) and certain medication uses. Levels of carnosine-propanal and carnosine-propanol demonstrated significant associations with BMI, blood glucose, HDL and diagnosis of diabetes. Carnosine-propanal was also associated with heart failure (p = 0.045) and hyperlipidemia (p = 0.002), but no associations with myocardial infarction or stroke were identified. We found that the positive associations of carnosine conjugates with diabetes and HDL remain statistically significant (p < 0.05) in an adjusted, linear regression model. These findings suggest that urinary levels of nonconjugated carnosine, carnosine-propanal and carnosine-propanol may be informative biomarkers for the assessment of CVD risk—and particularly reflective of skeletal muscle injury and carnosine depletion in diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging New Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Determinants of Increased Serum Calprotectin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8075; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21218075 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 459
Abstract
Circulating calprotectin is a potential biomarker for endovascular inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated the determinants of calprotectin and its relationship with the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 362 T2DM patients included in the Diabetes and Lifestyle Cohort Twente-1 [...] Read more.
Circulating calprotectin is a potential biomarker for endovascular inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated the determinants of calprotectin and its relationship with the presence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 362 T2DM patients included in the Diabetes and Lifestyle Cohort Twente-1 (DIALECT-1) study. Lifestyle exposures, including nutrition, were determined by validated questionnaires. CVD was defined as coronary artery diseases, strokes, and peripheral artery diseases. Median serum calprotectin levels were 1.04 mg/L [IQR: 0.73–1.46 mg/L] and were higher in women (1.11 mg/L) than men (0.96 mg/L, p = 0.007). Current smoking was a major independent determinant of circulating calprotectin, with a 51% higher calprotectin compared to never smoking (p < 0.001). Albuminuria (p = 0.011), former smoking (p = 0.023), and intake of mono- and disaccharides (p = 0.005) also contributed independently to circulating calprotectin. Each incremental increase in calprotectin level was associated with 1.36-times higher odds for CVD (95% CI 1.04–1.77, p = 0.026). In the current study, calprotectin was the only inflammatory parameter significantly associated with CVD. The strong association of circulating calprotectin with smoking, a well-known direct cause of vascular inflammation, and also with CVD, stresses the urge for further research to define its role as a biomarker in T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging New Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Traditional and Emerging Biomarkers in Asymptomatic Left Ventricular Dysfunction—Promising Non-Coding RNAs and Exosomes as Biomarkers in Early Phases of Cardiac Damage
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4937; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22094937 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Heart failure (HF) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and represents an escalating problem for healthcare systems. The identification of asymptomatic patients with underlying cardiac subclinical disease would create an opportunity for early intervention and prevention of symptomatic [...] Read more.
Heart failure (HF) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and represents an escalating problem for healthcare systems. The identification of asymptomatic patients with underlying cardiac subclinical disease would create an opportunity for early intervention and prevention of symptomatic HF. Traditional biomarkers are very useful as diagnostic and prognostic tools in the cardiovascular field; however, their application is usually limited to overt cardiac disease. On the other hand, a growing number of studies is investigating the diagnostic and prognostic potential of new biomarkers, such as micro-RNAs (miRNA), long non-coding RNAs, and exosome cargo, because of their involvement in the early phases of cardiac dysfunction. Unfortunately, their use in asymptomatic phases remains a distant goal. The aim of this review is to gather the current knowledge of old and novel biomarkers in the early diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction in asymptomatic individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging New Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease)
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Open AccessReview
The Time Has Come to Explore Plasma Biomarkers in Genetic Cardiomyopathies
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(6), 2955; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22062955 - 14 Mar 2021
Viewed by 755
Abstract
For patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), screening for pathogenic variants has become standard clinical practice. Genetic cascade screening also allows the identification of relatives that carry the same mutation as the proband, but disease onset and [...] Read more.
For patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) or arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), screening for pathogenic variants has become standard clinical practice. Genetic cascade screening also allows the identification of relatives that carry the same mutation as the proband, but disease onset and severity in mutation carriers often remains uncertain. Early detection of disease onset may allow timely treatment before irreversible changes are present. Although plasma biomarkers may aid in the prediction of disease onset, monitoring relies predominantly on identifying early clinical symptoms, on imaging techniques like echocardiography (Echo) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), and on (ambulatory) electrocardiography (electrocardiograms (ECGs)). In contrast to most other cardiac diseases, which are explained by a combination of risk factors and comorbidities, genetic cardiomyopathies have a clear primary genetically defined cardiac background. Cardiomyopathy cohorts could therefore have excellent value in biomarker studies and in distinguishing biomarkers related to the primary cardiac disease from those related to extracardiac, secondary organ dysfunction. Despite this advantage, biomarker investigations in cardiomyopathies are still limited, most likely due to the limited number of carriers in the past. Here, we discuss not only the potential use of established plasma biomarkers, including natriuretic peptides and troponins, but also the use of novel biomarkers, such as cardiac autoantibodies in genetic cardiomyopathy, and discuss how we can gauge biomarker studies in cardiomyopathy cohorts for heart failure at large. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging New Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Cardiac T-Tubule cBIN1-Microdomain, a Diagnostic Marker and Therapeutic Target of Heart Failure
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2299; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22052299 - 25 Feb 2021
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Abstract
Since its first identification as a cardiac transverse tubule (t-tubule) protein, followed by the cloning of the cardiac isoform responsible for t-tubule membrane microdomain formation, cardiac bridging integrator 1 (cBIN1) and its organized microdomains have emerged as a key mechanism in maintaining normal [...] Read more.
Since its first identification as a cardiac transverse tubule (t-tubule) protein, followed by the cloning of the cardiac isoform responsible for t-tubule membrane microdomain formation, cardiac bridging integrator 1 (cBIN1) and its organized microdomains have emerged as a key mechanism in maintaining normal beat-to-beat heart contraction and relaxation. The abnormal remodeling of cBIN1-microdomains occurs in stressed and diseased cardiomyocytes, contributing to the pathophysiology of heart failure. Due to the homeostatic turnover of t-tubule cBIN1-microdomains via microvesicle release into the peripheral circulation, plasma cBIN1 can be assayed as a liquid biopsy of cardiomyocyte health. A new blood test cBIN1 score (CS) has been developed as a dimensionless inverse index derived from plasma cBIN1 concentration with a diagnostic and prognostic power for clinical outcomes in stable ambulatory patients with heart failure with reduced or preserved ejection fraction (HFrEF or HFpEF). Recent evidence further indicates that exogenous cBIN1 introduced by adeno-associated virus 9-based gene therapy can rescue cardiac contraction and relaxation in failing hearts. The therapeutic potential of cBIN1 gene therapy is enormous given its ability to rescue cardiac inotropy and provide lusitropic protection in the meantime. These unprecedented capabilities of cBIN1 gene therapy are shifting the current paradigm of therapy development for heart failure, particularly HFpEF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging New Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease)
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Open AccessReview
The Emerging Role of TXNIP in Ischemic and Cardiovascular Diseases; A Novel Marker and Therapeutic Target
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1693; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22041693 - 08 Feb 2021
Viewed by 411
Abstract
Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) is a metabolism- oxidative- and inflammation-related marker induced in cardiovascular diseases and is believed to represent a possible link between metabolism and cellular redox status. TXNIP is a potential biomarker in cardiovascular and ischemic diseases but also a novel [...] Read more.
Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) is a metabolism- oxidative- and inflammation-related marker induced in cardiovascular diseases and is believed to represent a possible link between metabolism and cellular redox status. TXNIP is a potential biomarker in cardiovascular and ischemic diseases but also a novel identified target for preventive and curative medicine. The goal of this review is to focus on the novelties concerning TXNIP. After an overview in TXNIP involvement in oxidative stress, inflammation and metabolism, the remainder of this review presents the clues used to define TXNIP as a new marker at the genetic, blood, or ischemic site level in the context of cardiovascular and ischemic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging New Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease)
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