ijms-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Iolanda Francolini
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, University “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
Interests: antimicrobial polymers; polyurethanes; drug delivery systems; functionalization of polymers; microbial biofilms; nanocomposites
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Antonella Piozzi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chitosan, a rather abundant naturally occurring polysaccharide, is a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer widely applied in bio-medicine, cosmetics, the chemical industry, the food industry, and the environmental field. The extensive application of such a polymer is due to the presence of functional groups that are easily editable with different molecules in order to obtain materials with new or improved properties. Chitosan is also one of the most used excipients in pharmaceutical formulations thanks to its mucoadhesive and enhanced penetration properties as well as to its ability to make the drug more available. However, compared to plastics, chitosan possesses poor mechanical and water/gas vapor barrier properties, which limit its industrial use. The physicochemical and biological properties of chitosan as well as its processability can be improved via the preparation of composites obtained by physical blending or chemical modifications. Frequently used components include natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and inorganic micro- or nano-particles. Nanofillers, particularly, seem to be a promising option for the development of nanocomposites to be employed in specific applications.

We particularly take an interest in original papers and reviews that report the relevance of chitosan-based formulations and composites in the design and fabrication of medical devices, drug delivery systems, food packaging, and water purification systems.

Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Chitosan-based systems for medical devices;
  • Chitosan-based systems for food packaging;
  • Chitosan-based systems for drug delivery;
  • Chitosan-based micro- and nano-composites;
  • Structure–property relationships in composites based on chitosan;
  • Biomedical applications of chitosan-based composites;
  • Chitosan-based antimicrobial and/or antioxidant systems;
  • Chitosan-based systems for environmental applications.

Dr. Iolanda Francolini
Dr. Antonella Piozzi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (24 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Article
Biotechnological Strategies for Chitosan Production by Mucoralean Strains and Dimorphism Using Renewable Substrates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4286; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21124286 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 606
Abstract
We investigated the influence of corn steep liquor (CSL) and cassava waste water (CWW) as carbon and nitrogen sources on the morphology and production of biomass and chitosan by Mucor subtilissimus UCP 1262 and Lichtheimia hyalospora UCP 1266. The highest biomass yields of [...] Read more.
We investigated the influence of corn steep liquor (CSL) and cassava waste water (CWW) as carbon and nitrogen sources on the morphology and production of biomass and chitosan by Mucor subtilissimus UCP 1262 and Lichtheimia hyalospora UCP 1266. The highest biomass yields of 4.832 g/L (M. subtilissimus UCP 1262) and 6.345 g/L (L. hyalospora UCP 1266) were produced in assay 2 (6% CSL and 4% CWW), factorial design 22, and also favored higher chitosan production (32.471 mg/g) for M. subtilissimus. The highest chitosan production (44.91 mg/g) by L. hyalospora (UCP 1266) was obtained at the central point (4% of CWW and 6% of CSL). The statistical analysis, the higher concentration of CSL, and lower concentration of CWW significantly contributed to the growth of the strains. The FTIR bands confirmed the deacetylation degree of 80.29% and 83.61% of the chitosan produced by M. subtilissimus (UCP 1262) and L. hyalospora (UCP 1266), respectively. M. subtilissimus (UCP 1262) showed dimorphism in assay 4–6% CSL and 8% CWW and central point. L. hyalospora (UCP 1266) was optimized using a central composite rotational design, and the highest yield of chitosan (63.18 mg/g) was obtained in medium containing 8.82% CSL and 7% CWW. The experimental data suggest that the use of CSL and CWW is a promising association to chitosan production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Electrophoretic Deposition of Copper(II)–Chitosan Complexes for Antibacterial Coatings
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2637; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21072637 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Bacterial infection associated with medical implants is a major threat to healthcare. This work reports the fabrication of Copper(II)–Chitosan (Cu(II)–CS) complex coatings deposited by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) as potential antibacterial candidate to combat microorganisms to reduce implant related infections. The successful deposition of [...] Read more.
Bacterial infection associated with medical implants is a major threat to healthcare. This work reports the fabrication of Copper(II)–Chitosan (Cu(II)–CS) complex coatings deposited by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) as potential antibacterial candidate to combat microorganisms to reduce implant related infections. The successful deposition of Cu(II)–CS complex coatings on stainless steel was confirmed by physicochemical characterizations. Morphological and elemental analyses by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy verified the uniform distribution of copper in the Chitosan (CS) matrix. Moreover, homogeneous coatings without precipitation of metallic copper were confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy and SEM micrographs. Controlled swelling behavior depicted the chelation of copper with polysaccharide chains that is key to the stability of Cu(II)–CS coatings. All investigated systems exhibited stable degradation rate in phosphate buffered saline (PBS)–lysozyme solution within seven days of incubation. The coatings presented higher mechanical properties with the increase in Cu(II) concentration. The crack-free coatings showed mildly hydrophobic behavior. Antibacterial assays were performed using both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Outstanding antibacterial properties of the coatings were confirmed. After 24 h of incubation, cell studies of coatings confirms that up to a certain threshold concentration of Cu(II) were not cytotoxic to human osteoblast-like cells. Overall, our results show that uniform and homogeneous Cu(II)–CS coatings with good antibacterial and enhanced mechanical stability could be successfully deposited by EPD. Such antibiotic-free antibacterial coatings are potential candidates for biomedical implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Characteristics and Antimicrobial Properties of Active Edible Films Based on Pectin and Nanochitosan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2224; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21062224 - 23 Mar 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
This study was aimed at creating new films and determine some functional packaging properties of pectin:nanochitosan films with ratios of pectin:nanochitosan (P:NSC) of 100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 (%w/w). The effects of the proportions of pectin:nanochitosan incorporation on [...] Read more.
This study was aimed at creating new films and determine some functional packaging properties of pectin:nanochitosan films with ratios of pectin:nanochitosan (P:NSC) of 100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 (%w/w). The effects of the proportions of pectin:nanochitosan incorporation on the thickness, mechanical properties, water vapor permeability, water-solubility, and oxygen permeability were investigated. The microstructural studies were done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The interactions between pectin and nanochitosan were elucidated by Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR). The results showed that the blending of pectin with nanochitosan at proportions of 50:50 increased the tensile strength to 8.96 MPa, reduced the water solubility to 37.5%, water vapor permeability to 0.2052 g·mm/m2·day·kPa, and the oxygen permeability to 47.67 cc·mm/m2·day. The results of the contact angle test indicated that P:NCS films were hydrophobic, especially, pectin:nanochitosan films inhibited the growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus niger, and Escherichia coli. So, P:NCS films with a proportion of 50:50 can be used as active films to extend the shelf life of food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Hyaluronic Acid Reduces Bacterial Fouling and Promotes Fibroblasts’ Adhesion onto Chitosan 2D-Wound Dressings
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2070; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21062070 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 946
Abstract
Wound healing is a dynamic process that can be seriously delayed by many factors including infectious complications. The development of dressings with intrinsic wound healing activity and/or releasing bioactive compounds may help with addressing such an issue. In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) [...] Read more.
Wound healing is a dynamic process that can be seriously delayed by many factors including infectious complications. The development of dressings with intrinsic wound healing activity and/or releasing bioactive compounds may help with addressing such an issue. In this study, hyaluronic acid (HA) at different percentages (1–35%) was used to modify chitosan (CS) biological and physico-chemical properties in order to obtain 2D-matrices able to promote healing and protect from infection. HA incorporation in the CS matrix decreased film transparency and homogeneity, but improved film water uptake and surface wettability. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) increased up to a 5% HA content, where it reached the highest value (672 g/m2 day), and decreased for higher HA contents. At all of the tested HA concentrations, HA affected mechanical properties providing matrices more flexible than pure CS with benefit for wound care. Pure CS films permitted S. epidermidis adhesion and biofilm formation. That was not true for CS/HA matrices, where HA at concentrations equal to or greater than 5% was able to avoid S. epidermidis adhesion. Fibroblasts adhesion also took benefit from the HA presence in the film, especially at 5% content, where the best adhesion and proliferation was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Enhancing the Thermo-Stability and Anti-Bacterium Activity of Lysozyme by Immobilization on Chitosan Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1635; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21051635 - 27 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
The recent emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria requires the development of new antibiotics or new agents capable of enhancing antibiotic activity. Lysozyme degrades bacterial cell wall without involving antibiotic resistance and has become a new antibacterial strategy. However, direct use of native, active proteins [...] Read more.
The recent emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria requires the development of new antibiotics or new agents capable of enhancing antibiotic activity. Lysozyme degrades bacterial cell wall without involving antibiotic resistance and has become a new antibacterial strategy. However, direct use of native, active proteins in clinical settings is not practical as it is fragile under various conditions. In this study, lysozyme was integrated into chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) by the ionic gelation technique to obtain lysozyme immobilized chitosan nanoparticles (Lys-CS-NPs) and then characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which showed a small particle size (243.1 ± 2.1 nm) and positive zeta potential (22.8 ± 0.2 mV). The immobilization significantly enhanced the thermal stability and reusability of lysozyme. In addition, compared with free lysozyme, Lys-CS-NPs exhibited superb antibacterial properties according to the results of killing kinetics in vitro and measurement of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CS-NPs and Lys-CS-NPs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). These results suggest that the integration of lysozyme into CS-NPs will create opportunities for the further potential applications of lysozyme as an anti-bacterium agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Noncovalent Sericin-Chitosan Scaffold: Physical Properties and Low Cytotoxicity Effect
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 775; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21030775 - 24 Jan 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1004
Abstract
This research aims to utilize sericin, which is the waste from boiling silk cocoon, for the supramolecular scaffold preparation with chitosan. A suitable method for the self-assembled scaffold formation of sericin and chitosan at 1:1 stoichiometry is presented and the morphological and physical [...] Read more.
This research aims to utilize sericin, which is the waste from boiling silk cocoon, for the supramolecular scaffold preparation with chitosan. A suitable method for the self-assembled scaffold formation of sericin and chitosan at 1:1 stoichiometry is presented and the morphological and physical properties of the scaffold are studied. The effect of an alcohol/NaOH solution on the secondary structure of sericin protein within the sericin-chitosan scaffold, with adjusted pH, was investigated. Additionally, the scaffold was tested in a native phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The results show that sericin increases the porosity of scaffold while chitosan increases the rigidity. The self-assembled sericin and chitosan material is nontoxic to human cells and which can adhere and spread well on such support. For the effect of the molecular weight of chitosan (15,000 and 100,000 g/mol), the scaffold made from lower molecular weight (MW) chitosan provides a somewhat smaller porosity, but a similar swelling ratio and water uptake. On the basis of this research, sericin, which is a silk waste from the textile industry, can be utilized to produce a self-assembled scaffold with chitosan in order to increase the porosity of the scaffold. This type of scaffold is not toxic and can be used for the adhesion of fibroblast cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Innovation Comes from the Sea: Chitosan and Alginate Hybrid Gels and Films as Sustainable Materials for Wastewater Remediation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 550; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21020550 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1108
Abstract
The growing utilization of renewable and residual biomasses for environmental preservation and remediation are important goals to be pursued to minimize the environmental impact of human activities. In this paper, sodium alginate (derived from brown algae) was crosslinked using chitosan (mainly derived from [...] Read more.
The growing utilization of renewable and residual biomasses for environmental preservation and remediation are important goals to be pursued to minimize the environmental impact of human activities. In this paper, sodium alginate (derived from brown algae) was crosslinked using chitosan (mainly derived from the exoskeleton of crustaceans) in the presence of biowaste-derived substances isolated from green compost (BBS-GC), to produce hydrogels and dried films. The obtained materials were tested as adsorbents for wastewater remediation. To this purpose, gels were characterized using a multi-analytical approach and used as active substrates for the removal of three differently-charged molecules, chosen as model pollutants: crystal violet, rhodamine B, and orange II. The effectiveness of the gel formulations was demonstrated and attributed to the variety of active functionalities introduced by the different precursors, the structural factors and the peculiar physicochemical properties of the resulting materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Proteomic Analyses Reveal New Insights on the Antimicrobial Mechanisms of Chitosan Biopolymers and Their Nanosized Particles against Escherichia coli
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 225; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21010225 - 28 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
The well-known antimicrobial effects of chitosan (CS) polymers make them a promising adjuvant in enhancing antibiotic effectiveness against human pathogens. However, molecular CS antimicrobial mechanisms remain unclear, despite the insights presented in the literature. Thus, the aim of the present study was to [...] Read more.
The well-known antimicrobial effects of chitosan (CS) polymers make them a promising adjuvant in enhancing antibiotic effectiveness against human pathogens. However, molecular CS antimicrobial mechanisms remain unclear, despite the insights presented in the literature. Thus, the aim of the present study was to depict the molecular effects implicated in the interaction of low or medium molecular mass CS polymers and their nanoparticle-counterparts against Escherichia coli. The differential E. coli proteomes sensitized to either CS polymers or nanoparticles were investigated by nano liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (micro-LC-MS/MS). A total of 127 proteins differentially expressed in CS-sensitized bacteria were predominantly involved in (i) structural functions associated to the stability of outer membrane, (ii) increment of protein biosynthesis due to high abundance of ribosomal proteins and (iii) activation of biosynthesis of amino acid and purine metabolism pathways. Antibacterial activity of CS polymers/nanoparticles seems to be triggered by the outer bacterial membrane disassembly, leading to increased protein biosynthesis by diverting the metabolic flux to amino acid and purine nucleotides supply. Understanding CS-antibacterial molecular effects can be valuable to optimize the use of CS-based nanomaterials in food decontamination, and may represent a breakthrough on CS nanocapsules-drug delivery devices for novel antibiotics, as the chitosan-disassembly of bacteria cell membranes can potentialize antibiotic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Silver Nanoparticles on Chitosan/Silica Nanofibers: Characterization and Antibacterial Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 166; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21010166 - 25 Dec 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
A simple, low-cost, and reproducible method for creating materials with even silver nanoparticles (AgNP) dispersion was established. Chitosan nanofibers with silica phase (CS/silica) were synthesized by an electrospinning technique to obtain highly porous 3D nanofiber scaffolds. Silver nanoparticles in the form of a [...] Read more.
A simple, low-cost, and reproducible method for creating materials with even silver nanoparticles (AgNP) dispersion was established. Chitosan nanofibers with silica phase (CS/silica) were synthesized by an electrospinning technique to obtain highly porous 3D nanofiber scaffolds. Silver nanoparticles in the form of a well-dispersed metallic phase were synthesized in an external preparation step and embedded in the CS/silica nanofibers by deposition for obtaining chitosan nanofibers with silica phase decorated by silver nanoparticles (Ag/CS/silica). The antibacterial activity of investigated materials was tested using Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results were compared with the properties of the nanocomposite without silver nanoparticles and a colloidal solution of AgNP. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of obtained AgNP against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) ATCC25923 and Escherichia coli (E. coli) ATCC25922 was determined. The physicochemical characterization of Ag/CS/silica nanofibers using various analytical techniques, as well as the applicability of these techniques in the characterization of this type of nanocomposite, is presented. The resulting Ag/CS/silica nanocomposites (Ag/CS/silica nanofibers) were characterized by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The morphology of the AgNP in solution, both initial and extracted from composite, the properties of composites, the size, and crystallinity of the nanoparticles, and the characteristics of the chitosan fibers were determined by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Comparative Effects and Mechanisms of Chitosan and Its Derivatives on Hypercholesterolemia in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21010092 - 21 Dec 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 846
Abstract
The present study investigated and compared the effects of different molecular weights of chitosan (high molecular weight chitosan (HC) and low molecular weight chitosan (LC)) and its derivatives (chitosan oligosaccharide (CO)) on cholesterol regulation in high-fat (HF) diet-fed rats. A diet supplementation of [...] Read more.
The present study investigated and compared the effects of different molecular weights of chitosan (high molecular weight chitosan (HC) and low molecular weight chitosan (LC)) and its derivatives (chitosan oligosaccharide (CO)) on cholesterol regulation in high-fat (HF) diet-fed rats. A diet supplementation of 5% HC, 5% LC, or 5% CO for 8 weeks showed hypocholesterolemic potential in HF diet-fed rats. Unexpectedly, a 5% CO-supplemented diet exerted hepatic damage, producing increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The supplementation of HC and LC, unlike CO, significantly decreased the hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels and increased the fecal TC levels in HF diet-fed rats. The hepatic protein expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) in the HF diet-fed rats was markedly decreased, which could be significantly reversed by both HC and LC, but not CO, supplementation. Unlike the supplementation of CO, both HC and LC supplementation could effectively reverse the HF-inhibited/induced gene expressions of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), respectively. The upregulated intestinal acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) protein expression in HF diet-fed rats could be reversed by HC and LC, but not CO, supplementation. Taken together, a supplementation of 5% CO in HF diet-fed rats may exert liver damage via a higher hepatic cholesterol accumulation and a higher intestinal cholesterol uptake. Both HC and LC effectively ameliorated the hypercholesterolemia and regulated cholesterol homeostasis via the activation and inhibition of hepatic (AMPKα and PPARα) and intestinal (ACAT2) cholesterol-modulators, respectively, as well as the modulation of downstream signals (LDLR and CYP7A1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Staggered Herringbone Microfluid Device for the Manufacturing of Chitosan/TPP Nanoparticles: Systematic Optimization and Preliminary Biological Evaluation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6212; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20246212 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1046
Abstract
Chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs) showed promising results in drug, vaccine and gene delivery for the treatment of various diseases. The considerable attention towards CS was owning to its outstanding biological properties, however, the main challenge in the application of CS NPs was faced [...] Read more.
Chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs) showed promising results in drug, vaccine and gene delivery for the treatment of various diseases. The considerable attention towards CS was owning to its outstanding biological properties, however, the main challenge in the application of CS NPs was faced during their size-controlled synthesis. Herein, ionic gelation reaction between CS and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP), a widely used and safe CS cross-linker for biomedical application, was exploited by a microfluidic approach based on a staggered herringbone micromixer (SHM) for the synthesis of TPP cross-linked CS NPs (CS/TPP NPs). Screening design of experiments was applied to systematically evaluate the main process and formulative factors affecting CS/TPP NPs physical properties (mean size and size distribution). Effectiveness of the SHM-assisted manufacturing process was confirmed by the preliminary evaluation of the biological performance of the optimized CS/TPP NPs that were internalized in the cytosol of human mesenchymal stem cells through clathrin-mediated mechanism. Curcumin, selected as a challenging model drug, was successfully loaded into CS/TPP NPs (EE% > 70%) and slowly released up to 48 h via the diffusion mechanism. Finally, the comparison with the conventional bulk mixing method corroborated the efficacy of the microfluidics-assisted method due to the precise control of mixing at microscales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Study on the Preparation of Ionic Liquid Doped Chitosan/Cellulose-Based Electroactive Composites
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6198; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20246198 - 09 Dec 2019
Viewed by 841
Abstract
Electro-actuated polymer (EAP) can change its shape or volume under the action of an external electric field and shows similar behavioral characteristics with those of biological muscles, and so it has good application prospects in aerospace, bionic robots, and other fields. The properties [...] Read more.
Electro-actuated polymer (EAP) can change its shape or volume under the action of an external electric field and shows similar behavioral characteristics with those of biological muscles, and so it has good application prospects in aerospace, bionic robots, and other fields. The properties of cellulose-based electroactive materials are similar to ionic EAP materials, although they have higher Young’s modulus and lower energy consumption. However, cellulose-based electroactive materials have a more obvious deficiency—their actuation performance is often more significantly affected by ambient humidity due to the hygroscopicity caused by the strong hydrophilic structure of cellulose itself. Compared with cellulose, chitosan has good film-forming and water retention properties, and its compatibility with cellulose is very excellent. In this study, a chitosan/cellulose composite film doped with ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM]Ac), was prepared by co-dissolution and regeneration process using [EMIM]Ac as the solvent. After that, a conductive polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS), was deposited on the surface of the resulted composite, and then a kind of cellulose-based electroactive composites were obtained. The results showed that the end bending deformation amplitude of the resulted material was increased by 2.3 times higher than that of the pure cellulose film under the same conditions, and the maximum deformation amplitude reached 7.3 mm. The tensile strength of the chitosan/cellulose composite film was 53.68% higher than that of the cellulose film, and the Young’s modulus was increased by 72.52%. Furthermore, in comparison with the pure cellulose film, the water retention of the composite film increased and the water absorption rate decreased obviously, which meant that the resistance of the material to changes in environmental humidity was greatly improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Low Molecular Seleno-Aminopolysaccharides Protect the Intestinal Mucosal Barrier of Rats under Weaning Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5727; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20225727 - 15 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
Low molecular seleno-aminopolysaccharide (LSA) was synthesized with sodium selenite and low molecular aminopolysaccharide (LA), which is an organic selenium compound. This study is aimed to investigate the protective effect of LSA on the intestinal mucosal barrier in weaning stress rats by detecting the [...] Read more.
Low molecular seleno-aminopolysaccharide (LSA) was synthesized with sodium selenite and low molecular aminopolysaccharide (LA), which is an organic selenium compound. This study is aimed to investigate the protective effect of LSA on the intestinal mucosal barrier in weaning stress rats by detecting the intestinal tissue morphology and function, mucosal thickness and permeability, the structure of MUC2, antioxidant index, the expression level of intracellular transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and its related factors. The results showed that LSA significantly increased the height of intestinal villi (p < 0.05) and increased the thickness of intestinal mucosa and the number of goblet cells, which indicated that LSA has a protective effect on the intestinal mucosal barrier that is damaged by weaning. Moreover, LSA significantly reduced the level of DAO, D-LA, and LPS compared with the weaning group (p < 0.05), which indicated that LSA reduced the intestinal damage and permeability of weaning rats. In addition, LSA could increase the number and length of glycans chains and the abundance of acid glycans structures in the MUC2 structure, which indicated that LSA alleviated the changes of intestinal mucus protein structure. LSA significantly increased the levels of GSH-Px, SOD, LDH, and CAT, while it decreased the level of MDA in serum and intestinal tissue, which suggested that LSA significantly enhanced the antioxidant capacity and reduced oxidative stress of weaning rats. RT-PCR results showed that LSA significantly increased the expression level of antioxidant genes (GSH-Px, SOD, Nrf2, HO-1), glycosyltransferase genes (GalNT1, GalNT3, GalNT7) and mucin gene (MUC2) in intestinal mucosa (p < 0.05). The results of western blot showed that the LSA activated the Nrf2 signaling pathway by down-regulating the expression of Keap1and up-regulating the expression of Nrf2, and protected the intestinal mucosa from oxidative stress. Overall, LSA could play a protective role in intestinal mucosal barrier of weaning rats by activating the Nrf2 pathway and alleviating the alnormal change of mucin MUC2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Increased ROS Scavenging and Antioxidant Efficiency of Chlorogenic Acid Compound Delivered via a Chitosan Nanoparticulate System for Efficient In Vitro Visualization and Accumulation in Human Renal Adenocarcinoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4667; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20194667 - 20 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
Naturally existing Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is an antioxidant-rich compound reported to act a chemopreventive agent by scavenging free radicals and suppressing cancer-causing mechanisms. Conversely, the compound’s poor thermal and pH (neutral and basic) stability, poor solubility, and low cellular permeability have been a [...] Read more.
Naturally existing Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is an antioxidant-rich compound reported to act a chemopreventive agent by scavenging free radicals and suppressing cancer-causing mechanisms. Conversely, the compound’s poor thermal and pH (neutral and basic) stability, poor solubility, and low cellular permeability have been a huge hindrance for it to exhibit its efficacy as a nutraceutical compound. Supposedly, encapsulation of CGA in chitosan nanoparticles (CNP), nano-sized colloidal delivery vector, could possibly assist in enhancing its antioxidant properties, in vitro cellular accumulation, and increase chemopreventive efficacy at a lower concentration. Hence, in this study, a stable, monodispersed, non-toxic CNP synthesized via ionic gelation method at an optimum parameter (600 µL of 0.5 mg/mL of chitosan and 200 µL of 0.7 mg/mL of tripolyphosphate), denoted as CNP°, was used to encapsulate CGA. Sequence of physicochemical analyses and morphological studies were performed to discern the successful formation of the CNP°-CGA hybrid. Antioxidant property (studied via DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) assay), in vitro antiproliferative activity of CNP°-CGA, and in vitro accumulation of fluorescently labeled (FITC) CNP°-CGA in cancer cells were evaluated. Findings revealed that successful formation of CNP°-CGA hybrid was reveled through an increase in particle size 134.44 ± 18.29 nm (polydispersity index (PDI) 0.29 ± 0.03) as compared to empty CNP°, 80.89 ± 5.16 nm (PDI 0.26 ± 0.01) with a maximal of 12.04 μM CGA loaded per unit weight of CNP° using 20 µM of CGA. This result correlated with Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning (FESEM) electron microscopy, and ImageJ evaluation. The scavenging activity of CNP°-CGA (IC50 5.2 ± 0.10 µM) were conserved and slightly higher than CNP° (IC50 6.4±0.78 µM). An enhanced cellular accumulation of fluorescently labeled CNP°-CGA in the human renal cancer cells (786-O) as early as 30 min and increased time-dependently were observed through fluorescent microscopic visualization and flow cytometric assessment. A significant concentration-dependent antiproliferation activity of encapsulated CGA was achieved at IC50 of 16.20 µM as compared to CGA itself (unable to determine from the cell proliferative assay), implying that the competent delivery vector, chitosan nanoparticle, is able to enhance the intracellular accumulation, antiproliferative activity, and antioxidant properties of CGA at lower concentration as compared to CGA alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Electrospun Chitosan/Poly (Vinyl Alcohol)/Graphene Oxide Nanofibrous Membrane with Ciprofloxacin Antibiotic Drug for Potential Wound Dressing Application
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4395; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20184395 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1120
Abstract
In this paper, nanofibrous membranes based on chitosan (CS), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and graphene oxide (GO) composites, loaded with antibiotic drugs, such as Ciprofloxacin (Cip) and Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CipHcl) were prepared via the electrospinning technique. The uniform and defect-free CS/PVA nanofibers were [...] Read more.
In this paper, nanofibrous membranes based on chitosan (CS), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and graphene oxide (GO) composites, loaded with antibiotic drugs, such as Ciprofloxacin (Cip) and Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CipHcl) were prepared via the electrospinning technique. The uniform and defect-free CS/PVA nanofibers were obtained and GO nanosheets, shaping spindle and spherical, were partially embedded into nanofibers. Besides, the antibiotic drugs were effectively loaded into the nanofibers and part of which were absorbed into GO nanosheets. Intriguingly, the release of the drug absorbed in GO nanosheets regulated the drug release profile trend, avoiding the “burst” release of drug at the release initial stage, and the addition of GO slightly improved the drug release ratio. Nanofibrous membranes showed the significantly enhanced antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis after the addition of antibiotic drug. Moreover, the drug-loaded nanofibrous membranes exhibited excellent cytocompatibility with Melanoma cells, indicative to the great potential potential for applications in wound dressing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Biopolymeric Films of Amphiphilic Derivatives of Chitosan: A Physicochemical Characterization and Antifungal Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4173; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20174173 - 26 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
The chemical modification of chitosan has been an active subject of research in order to improve the physicochemical and antifungal properties of chitosan-based films. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiochemical and antifungal properties of films prepared with chitosan and [...] Read more.
The chemical modification of chitosan has been an active subject of research in order to improve the physicochemical and antifungal properties of chitosan-based films. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiochemical and antifungal properties of films prepared with chitosan and its derivatives containing diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) and dodecyl groups (Dod). Chitosans and selected derivatives were synthesized and characterized, and their films blended with glycerol and sorbitol (5%, 10%, and 20%). They were studied by means of the evaluation of their mechanical, thermal, barrier, and antifungal properties. The collected data showed that molecular weight (Mw), degree of acetylation, and grafting with DEAE and Dod groups greatly affected the mechanical, thickness, color, and barrier properties, all of which could be tailored by the plasticizer percentage. The antifungal study against Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata, Alternaria solani, and Penicillium expansum showed that the films containing DEAE and Dod groups exhibited higher antifungal activity than the non-modified chitosans. The mechanical properties of highly soluble films were improved by the plasticizers at percentages of 5% and 10%, indicating these derivatives as potential candidates for the coating of seeds, nuts and fruits of various crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Immobilization of Lipase A from Candida antarctica onto Chitosan-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 4018; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20164018 - 17 Aug 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
In this communication, lipase A from Candida antarctica (CALA) was immobilized by covalent bonding on magnetic nanoparticles coated with chitosan and activated with glutaraldehyde, labelled CALA-MNP, (immobilization parameters: 84.1% ± 1.0 for immobilization yield and 208.0 ± 3.0 U/g ± 1.1 for derivative [...] Read more.
In this communication, lipase A from Candida antarctica (CALA) was immobilized by covalent bonding on magnetic nanoparticles coated with chitosan and activated with glutaraldehyde, labelled CALA-MNP, (immobilization parameters: 84.1% ± 1.0 for immobilization yield and 208.0 ± 3.0 U/g ± 1.1 for derivative activity). CALA-MNP biocatalyst was characterized by X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Thermogravimetry (TG) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), proving the incorporation of magnetite and the immobilization of CALA in the chitosan matrix. Besides, the immobilized biocatalyst showed a half-life 8–11 times higher than that of the soluble enzyme at pH 5–9. CALA showed the highest activity at pH 7, while CALA-MNP presented the highest activity at pH 10. The immobilized enzyme was more active than the free enzyme at all studied pH values, except pH 7. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Anti-Oxidant Activity and Dust-Proof Effect of Chitosan with Different Molecular Weights
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 3085; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20123085 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 933
Abstract
High molecular weight chitosan (HMWC) was degraded to prepare chitosan with different molecular weight based on the fenton reaction, which can produce aggressive OH-radicals produced from hydrogen peroxide in the presence of catalytic metal ions. The relative molecular weight, anti-oxidant activity, and fine [...] Read more.
High molecular weight chitosan (HMWC) was degraded to prepare chitosan with different molecular weight based on the fenton reaction, which can produce aggressive OH-radicals produced from hydrogen peroxide in the presence of catalytic metal ions. The relative molecular weight, anti-oxidant activity, and fine dust removal effect of chitosan hydrolysates were elucidated to define their molecular weight and their potent biological activity. Our results demonstrate that chitosan hydrolysates derived from the hydrolysis of HMWC may possess significant free-radical scavenging activity as good anti-oxidants against the radical scavenging activity of DPPH and ABTS, respectively. Furthermore, chitosan hydrolysates can effectively eliminate fine dust, which may contain some particulate matter (PM) and unknown species of microorganisms from the air, suggesting that our data provide important information for producing air filters, dust-proof masks and skin cleaner for the purpose of human healthcare and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Potent Antifungal Agent for Basal Stem Rot Disease Treatment in Oil Palms Based on Chitosan-Dazomet Nanoparticles
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2247; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20092247 - 07 May 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
The use of nanotechnology could play a significant role in the agriculture sector, especially in the preparation of new-generation agronanochemicals. Currently, the economically important plant of Malaysia, the oil palm, faces the threat of a devastating disease which is particularly caused by a [...] Read more.
The use of nanotechnology could play a significant role in the agriculture sector, especially in the preparation of new-generation agronanochemicals. Currently, the economically important plant of Malaysia, the oil palm, faces the threat of a devastating disease which is particularly caused by a pathogenic fungus, Ganoderma boninense. For the development of an effective antifungal agent, a series of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with a fumigant, dazomet, were prepared using various concentrations of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP)—2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/mL, abbreviated as CDEN2.5, CDEN5, CDEN10, and CDEN20, respectively. The effect of TPP as a crosslinking agent on the resulting particle size of the synthesized nanoparticles was investigated using a particle size analyzer and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Both methods confirmed that increasing the TPP concentration resulted in smaller particles. In addition, in vitro fumigant release at pH 5.5 showed that the release of the fumigant from the nanoparticles was of a sustained manner, with a prolonged release time up to 24 h. Furthermore, the relationship between the chitosan-dazomet nanoparticles and the in vitro antifungal activity against G. boninense was also explored, where the nanoparticles of the smallest size, CDEN20, gave the highest antifungal efficacy with the lowest half maximum effective concentration (EC50) value of 13.7 ± 1.76 ppb. This indicates that the smaller-sized agronanoparticles were more effective as an antifungal agent. The size can be altered, which plays a crucial role in combatting the Ganoderma disease. The agronanoparticles have controlled release properties and high antifungal efficacy on G. boninense, thus making them a promising candidate to be applied in the field for Ganoderma treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Research

Review
Seafood Waste as Attractive Source of Chitin and Chitosan Production and Their Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4290; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21124290 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 1788
Abstract
Chitosan is a cationic polymer obtained by deacetylation of chitin, found abundantly in crustacean, insect, arthropod exoskeletons, and molluscs. The process of obtaining chitin by the chemical extraction method comprises the steps of deproteinization, demineralization, and discoloration. To obtain chitosan, the deacetylation of [...] Read more.
Chitosan is a cationic polymer obtained by deacetylation of chitin, found abundantly in crustacean, insect, arthropod exoskeletons, and molluscs. The process of obtaining chitin by the chemical extraction method comprises the steps of deproteinization, demineralization, and discoloration. To obtain chitosan, the deacetylation of chitin is necessary. These polymers can also be extracted through the biological extraction method involving the use of microorganisms. Chitosan has biodegradable and biocompatible properties, being applied in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food, biomedical, chemical, and textile industries. Chitosan and its derivatives may be used in the form of gels, beads, membranes, films, and sponges, depending on their application. Polymer blending can also be performed to improve the mechanical properties of the bioproduct. This review aims to provide the latest information on existing methods for chitin and chitosan recovery from marine waste as well as their applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Review of Chitosan-Based Polymers as Proton Exchange Membranes and Roles of Chitosan-Supported Ionic Liquids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 632; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21020632 - 17 Jan 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
Perfluorosulphonic acid-based membranes such as Nafion are widely used in fuel cell applications. However, these membranes have several drawbacks, including high expense, non-eco-friendliness, and low proton conductivity under anhydrous conditions. Biopolymer-based membranes, such as chitosan (CS), cellulose, and carrageenan, are popular. They have [...] Read more.
Perfluorosulphonic acid-based membranes such as Nafion are widely used in fuel cell applications. However, these membranes have several drawbacks, including high expense, non-eco-friendliness, and low proton conductivity under anhydrous conditions. Biopolymer-based membranes, such as chitosan (CS), cellulose, and carrageenan, are popular. They have been introduced and are being studied as alternative materials for enhancing fuel cell performance, because they are environmentally friendly and economical. Modifications that will enhance the proton conductivity of biopolymer-based membranes have been performed. Ionic liquids, which are good electrolytes, are studied for their potential to improve the ionic conductivity and thermal stability of fuel cell applications. This review summarizes the development and evolution of CS biopolymer-based membranes and ionic liquids in fuel cell applications over the past decade. It also focuses on the improved performances of fuel cell applications using biopolymer-based membranes and ionic liquids as promising clean energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Antimicrobial Chitosan Conjugates: Current Synthetic Strategies and Potential Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 499; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21020499 - 13 Jan 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1226
Abstract
As a natural polysaccharide, chitosan possesses good biocompatibility, biodegradability and biosafety. Its hydroxyl and amino groups make it an ideal carrier material in the construction of polymer-drug conjugates. In recent years, various synthetic strategies have been used to couple chitosan with active substances [...] Read more.
As a natural polysaccharide, chitosan possesses good biocompatibility, biodegradability and biosafety. Its hydroxyl and amino groups make it an ideal carrier material in the construction of polymer-drug conjugates. In recent years, various synthetic strategies have been used to couple chitosan with active substances to obtain conjugates with diverse structures and unique functions. In particular, chitosan conjugates with antimicrobial activity have shown great application prospects in the fields of medicine, food, and agriculture in recent years. Hence, we will place substantial emphasis on the synthetic approaches for preparing chitosan conjugates and their antimicrobial applications, which are not well summarized. Meanwhile, the challenges, limitations, and prospects of antimicrobial chitosan conjugates are described and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Chitosan Derivatives and Their Application in Biomedicine
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 487; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21020487 - 12 Jan 2020
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 2867
Abstract
Chitosan is a product of the deacetylation of chitin, which is widely found in nature. Chitosan is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, which seriously limits both its application scope and applicable fields. However, chitosan contains active functional groups that are liable [...] Read more.
Chitosan is a product of the deacetylation of chitin, which is widely found in nature. Chitosan is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, which seriously limits both its application scope and applicable fields. However, chitosan contains active functional groups that are liable to chemical reactions; thus, chitosan derivatives can be obtained through the chemical modification of chitosan. The modification of chitosan has been an important aspect of chitosan research, showing a better solubility, pH-sensitive targeting, an increased number of delivery systems, etc. This review summarizes the modification of chitosan by acylation, carboxylation, alkylation, and quaternization in order to improve the water solubility, pH sensitivity, and the targeting of chitosan derivatives. The applications of chitosan derivatives in the antibacterial, sustained slowly release, targeting, and delivery system fields are also described. Chitosan derivatives will have a large impact and show potential in biomedicine for the development of drugs in future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Chitosan as a Wound Dressing Starting Material: Antimicrobial Properties and Mode of Action
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 5889; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20235889 - 24 Nov 2019
Cited by 64 | Viewed by 2635
Abstract
Fighting bacterial resistance is one of the concerns in modern days, as antibiotics remain the main resource of bacterial control. Data shows that for every antibiotic developed, there is a microorganism that becomes resistant to it. Natural polymers, as the source of antibacterial [...] Read more.
Fighting bacterial resistance is one of the concerns in modern days, as antibiotics remain the main resource of bacterial control. Data shows that for every antibiotic developed, there is a microorganism that becomes resistant to it. Natural polymers, as the source of antibacterial agents, offer a new way to fight bacterial infection. The advantage over conventional synthetic antibiotics is that natural antimicrobial agents are biocompatible, non-toxic, and inexpensive. Chitosan is one of the natural polymers that represent a very promising source for the development of antimicrobial agents. In addition, chitosan is biodegradable, non-toxic, and most importantly, promotes wound healing, features that makes it suitable as a starting material for wound dressings. This paper reviews the antimicrobial properties of chitosan and describes the mechanisms of action toward microbial cells as well as the interactions with mammalian cells in terms of wound healing process. Finally, the applications of chitosan as a wound-dressing material are discussed along with the current status of chitosan-based wound dressings existing on the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop