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Special Issue "Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites 2.0"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Iolanda Francolini
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, University “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
Interests: antimicrobial polymers; polyurethanes; drug delivery systems; functionalization of polymers; microbial biofilms; nanocomposites
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Antonella Piozzi
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemistry, Sapienza, University of Rome, Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy
Interests: antimicrobial polymers; polyurethanes; drug delivery systems; functionalization of polymers; microbial biofilms; nanocomposites
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Chitosan, a rather abundant naturally occurring polysaccharide, is a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer widely applied in bio-medicine, cosmetics, the chemical industry, the food industry, and the environmental field. The extensive application of such a polymer is due to the presence of functional groups that are easily editable with different molecules in order to obtain materials with new or improved properties. Chitosan is also one of the most used excipients in pharmaceutical formulations thanks to its mucoadhesive and enhanced penetration properties as well as to its ability to make the drug more available. However, compared to plastics, chitosan possesses poor mechanical and water/gas vapor barrier properties, which limit its industrial use. The physicochemical and biological properties of chitosan as well as its processability can be improved via the preparation of composites obtained by physical blending or chemical modifications. Frequently used components include natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and inorganic micro- or nano-particles. Nanofillers, particularly, seem to be a promising option for the development of nanocomposites to be employed in specific applications.

We particularly take an interest in original papers and reviews that report the relevance of chitosan-based formulations and composites in the design and fabrication of medical devices, drug delivery systems, food packaging, and water purification systems.

Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Chitosan-based systems for medical devices;
  • Chitosan-based systems for food packaging;
  • Chitosan-based systems for drug delivery;
  • Chitosan-based micro- and nano-composites;
  • Structure–property relationships in composites based on chitosan;
  • Biomedical applications of chitosan-based composites;
  • Chitosan-based antimicrobial and/or antioxidant systems;
  • Chitosan-based systems for environmental applications.

Dr. Iolanda Francolini
Dr. Antonella Piozzi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effect of Aminated Chitosan-Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles with Applicational Potential in Nanomedicine on DPPG, DSPC, and POPC Langmuir Monolayers as Cell Membrane Models
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(5), 2467; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22052467 - 28 Feb 2021
Abstract
An adsorption process of magnetite nanoparticles functionalized with aminated chitosan (Fe3O4-AChit) showing application potential in nanomedicine into cell membrane models was studied. The cell membrane models were formed using a Langmuir technique from three selected phospholipids with different polar [...] Read more.
An adsorption process of magnetite nanoparticles functionalized with aminated chitosan (Fe3O4-AChit) showing application potential in nanomedicine into cell membrane models was studied. The cell membrane models were formed using a Langmuir technique from three selected phospholipids with different polar head-groups as well as length and carbon saturation of alkyl chains. The research presented in this work reveals the existence of membrane model composition-dependent regulation of phospholipid-nanoparticle interactions. The influence of the positively charged Fe3O4-AChit nanoparticles on a Langmuir film stability, phase state, and textures is much greater in the case of these formed by negatively charged 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-(1-glycerol) (DPPG) than those created by zwitterionic 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and 2-oleoyl-1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC). The adsorption kinetics recorded during penetration experiments show that this effect is caused by the strongest adsorption of the investigated nanoparticles into the DPPG monolayer driven very likely by the electrostatic attraction. The differences in the adsorption strength of the Fe3O4-AChit nanoparticles into the Langmuir films formed by the phosphatidylcholines were also observed. The nanoparticles adsorbed more easily into more loosely packed POPC monolayer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis, Characterization, and Encapsulation of Novel Plant Growth Regulators (PGRs) in Biopolymer Matrices
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1847; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22041847 - 12 Feb 2021
Abstract
Novel plant growth regulators (PGRs) based on the derivatives of dehydroamino acids 2,3-dehydroaspartic acid dimethyl ester (PGR1), Z-isomer of the potassium salt of 2-amino-3-methoxycarbonylacrylic acid (PGR2) and 1-methyl-3-methylamino-maleimide (PGR3) have been synthesized and their growth-regulating properties investigated. Laboratory testing revealed their plant growth-regulating [...] Read more.
Novel plant growth regulators (PGRs) based on the derivatives of dehydroamino acids 2,3-dehydroaspartic acid dimethyl ester (PGR1), Z-isomer of the potassium salt of 2-amino-3-methoxycarbonylacrylic acid (PGR2) and 1-methyl-3-methylamino-maleimide (PGR3) have been synthesized and their growth-regulating properties investigated. Laboratory testing revealed their plant growth-regulating activity. PGR1 showing the most stimulating activity on all laboratory tested cultures were used in field experiments. Results showed that PGR1 is a highly effective environmentally friendly plant growth regulator with effects on different crops. Biopolymeric microcapsule formulations (chitosan/alginate microcapsule loaded with PGR) suitable for application in agriculture were prepared and characterized. Physicochemical properties and release profiles of PGRs from microcapsule formulations depend on the molecular interactions between microcapsule constituents including mainly electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds. The differences in the microcapsule formulations structure did not affect the mechanism of PGRs release which was identified as diffusion through microcapsules. The obtained results opened a perspective for the future use of microcapsule formulations as new promising agroformulations with a sustained and target release for plant growth regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Chitosan/Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Membranes for Direct Alkaline Ethanol Fuel Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1740; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22041740 - 09 Feb 2021
Abstract
Herein, we prepared a series of nanocomposite membranes based on chitosan (CS) and three compositionally and structurally different N-doped graphene derivatives. Two-dimensional (2D) and quasi 1D N-doped reduced graphene oxides (N-rGO) and nanoribbons (N-rGONRs), as well as 3D porous N-doped graphitic polyenaminone particles [...] Read more.
Herein, we prepared a series of nanocomposite membranes based on chitosan (CS) and three compositionally and structurally different N-doped graphene derivatives. Two-dimensional (2D) and quasi 1D N-doped reduced graphene oxides (N-rGO) and nanoribbons (N-rGONRs), as well as 3D porous N-doped graphitic polyenaminone particles (N-pEAO), were synthesized and characterized fully to confirm their graphitic structure, morphology, and nitrogen (pyridinic, pyrrolic, and quaternary or graphitic) group contents. The largest (0.07%) loading of N-doped graphene derivatives impacted the morphology of the CS membrane significantly, reducing the crystallinity, tensile properties, and the KOH uptake, and increasing (by almost 10-fold) the ethanol permeability. Within direct alkaline ethanol test cells, it was found that CS/N rGONRs (0.07 %) membrane (Pmax. = 3.7 mWcm−2) outperformed the pristine CS membrane significantly (Pmax. = 2.2 mWcm−2), suggesting the potential of the newly proposed membranes for application in direct ethanol fuel cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Lithography Processable Ta2O5 Barrier-Layered Chitosan Electric Double Layer Synaptic Transistors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1344; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031344 - 29 Jan 2021
Abstract
We proposed a synaptic transistor gated using a Ta2O5 barrier-layered organic chitosan electric double layer (EDL) applicable to a micro-neural architecture system. In most of the previous studies, a single layer of chitosan electrolyte was unable to perform lithography processes [...] Read more.
We proposed a synaptic transistor gated using a Ta2O5 barrier-layered organic chitosan electric double layer (EDL) applicable to a micro-neural architecture system. In most of the previous studies, a single layer of chitosan electrolyte was unable to perform lithography processes due to poor mechanical/chemical resistance. To overcome this limitation, we laminated a high-k Ta2O5 thin film on chitosan electrolyte to ensure high mechanical/chemical stability to perform a lithographic process for micropattern formation. Artificial synaptic behaviors were realized by protonic mobile ion polarization in chitosan electrolytes. In addition, neuroplasticity modulation in the amorphous In–Ga–Zn-oxide (a-IGZO) channel was implemented by presynaptic stimulation. We also demonstrated synaptic weight changes through proton polarization, excitatory postsynaptic current modulations, and paired-pulse facilitation. According to the presynaptic stimulations, the magnitude of mobile proton polarization and the amount of weight change were quantified. Subsequently, the stable conductance modulation through repetitive potential and depression pulse was confirmed. Finally, we consider that proposed synaptic transistor is suitable for advanced micro-neural architecture because it overcomes the instability caused when using a single organic chitosan layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects and Mechanisms of Chitosan and ChitosanOligosaccharide on Hepatic Lipogenesis and Lipid Peroxidation, Adipose Lipolysis, and Intestinal Lipid Absorption in Rats with High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(3), 1139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22031139 - 24 Jan 2021
Abstract
Chitosan and its derivative, chitosan oligosaccharide (CO), possess hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects. However, it is still unclear if the mechanisms are different or similar between chitosan and CO. This study was designed to investigate and compare the effects of CO and high-molecular-weight chitosan [...] Read more.
Chitosan and its derivative, chitosan oligosaccharide (CO), possess hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects. However, it is still unclear if the mechanisms are different or similar between chitosan and CO. This study was designed to investigate and compare the effects of CO and high-molecular-weight chitosan (HC) on liver lipogenesis and lipid peroxidation, adipose lipolysis, and intestinal lipid absorption in high-fat (HF) diet-fed rats for 12 weeks. Rats were divided into four groups: normal control diet (NC), HF diet, HF diet+5% HC, and HF diet+5% CO. Both HC and CO supplementation could reduce liver lipid biosynthesis, but HC had a better effect than CO on improving liver lipid accumulation in HF diet-fed rats. The increased levels of triglyceride decreased lipolysis rate, and increased lipoprotein lipase activity in the perirenal adipose tissue of HF diet-fed rats could be significantly reversed by both HC and CO supplementation. HC, but not CO, supplementation promoted liver antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities and reduced liver lipid peroxidation. In the intestines, CO, but not HC, supplementation reduced lipid absorption by reducing the expression of fabp2 and fatp4 mRNA. These results suggest that HC and CO have different mechanisms for improving lipid metabolism in HF diet-fed rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Memristive Switching Characteristics in Biomaterial Chitosan-Based Solid Polymer Electrolyte for Artificial Synapse
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 773; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020773 - 14 Jan 2021
Abstract
This study evaluated the memristive switching characteristics of a biomaterial solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) chitosan-based memristor and confirmed its artificial synaptic behavior with analog switching. Despite the potential advantages of organic memristors for high-end electronics, the unstable multilevel states and poor reliability of [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the memristive switching characteristics of a biomaterial solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) chitosan-based memristor and confirmed its artificial synaptic behavior with analog switching. Despite the potential advantages of organic memristors for high-end electronics, the unstable multilevel states and poor reliability of organic devices must be overcome. The fabricated Ti/SPE-chitosan/Pt-structured memristor has stable bipolar resistive switching (BRS) behavior due to a cation-based electrochemical reaction between a polymeric electrolyte and metal ions and exhibits excellent endurance in 5 × 102 DC cycles. In addition, we achieved multilevel per cell (MLC) BRS I-V characteristics by adjusting the set compliance current (Icc) for analog switching. The multilevel states demonstrated uniform resistance distributions and nonvolatile retention characteristics over 104 s. These stable MLC properties are explained by the laterally intensified conductive filaments in SPE-chitosan, based on the linear relationship between operating voltage margin (ΔVswitching) and Icc. In addition, the multilevel resistance dependence on Icc suggests the capability of continuous analog resistance switching. Chitosan-based SPE artificial synapses ensure the emulation of short- and long-term plasticity of biological synapses, including excitatory postsynaptic current, inhibitory postsynaptic current, paired-pulse facilitation, and paired-pulse depression. Furthermore, the gradual conductance modulations upon repeated stimulation by 104 electric pulses were evaluated in high stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Small AgNP in the Biopolymer Nanocomposite System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9388; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249388 - 09 Dec 2020
Abstract
In this work, ultra-small and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on chitosan biopolymer (BP/AgP) were prepared by in situ reduction of the diamminesilver(I) complex ([Ag(NH3)2]+) to create a biostatic membrane system. The small AgNP (3 nm) as a [...] Read more.
In this work, ultra-small and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on chitosan biopolymer (BP/AgP) were prepared by in situ reduction of the diamminesilver(I) complex ([Ag(NH3)2]+) to create a biostatic membrane system. The small AgNP (3 nm) as a stable source of silver ions, their crystal form, and homogeneous distribution in the whole solid membrane were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger analysis were applied to investigate the elemental composition, concentration, and chemical state of surface atoms. It was found that ultra-small metallic nanoparticles might form a steady source of silver ions and enhance the biostatic properties of solid membranes. Ultra-small AgNP with disturbed electronic structure and plasmonic properties may generate interaction between amine groups of the biopolymer for improving the homogeneity of the nanometallic layer. In this work, the significant differences between the typical way (deposition of ex-situ-prepared AgNP) and the proposed in-situ synthesis approach were determined. The improved thermal stability (by thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC) analysis) for BP/AgP was observed and explained by the presence of the protective layer of a low-molecular silver phase. Finally, the antibacterial activity of the BP/AgP nanocomposite was tested using selected bacteria biofilms. The grafted membrane showed clear inhibition properties by destruction and multiple damages of bacteria cells. The possible mechanisms of biocidal activity were discussed, and the investigation of the AgNP influence on the bacteria body was illustrated by AFM measurements. The results obtained concluded that the biopolymer membrane properties were significantly improved by the integration with ultra-small Ag nanoparticles, which added value to its applications as a biostatic membrane system for filtration and separation issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chitosan Functionalizations, Formulations and Composites 2.0)
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